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Front Genet ; 12: 586569, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815459


Humanity has seen numerous pandemics during its course of evolution. The list includes several incidents from the past, such as measles, Ebola, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), etc. The latest edition to this is coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of August 18, 2020, COVID-19 has affected over 21 million people from 180 + countries with 0.7 million deaths across the globe. Genomic technologies have enabled us to understand the genomic constitution of pathogens, their virulence, evolution, and rate of mutation, etc. To date, more than 83,000 viral genomes have been deposited in public repositories, such as GISAID and NCBI. While we are writing this, India is the third most affected country by COVID-19, with 2.7 million cases and > 53,000 deaths. Gujarat is the 11th highest affected state with a 3.48% death rate compared to the national average of 1.91%. In this study, a total of 502 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Gujarat were sequenced and analyzed to understand its phylogenetic distribution and variants against global and national sequences. Further variants were analyzed from diseased and recovered patients from Gujarat and the world to understand its role in pathogenesis. Among the missense mutations present in the Gujarat SARS-CoV-2 genomes, C28854T (Ser194Leu) had an allele frequency of 47.62 and 7.25% in deceased patients from the Gujarat and global datasets, respectively. In contrast, the allele frequency of 35.16 and 3.20% was observed in recovered patients from the Gujarat and global datasets, respectively. It is a deleterious mutation present in the nucleocapsid (N) gene and is significantly associated with mortality in Gujarat patients with a p-value of 0.067 and in the global dataset with a p-value of 0.000924. The other deleterious variant identified in deceased patients from Gujarat (p-value of 0.355) and the world (p-value of 2.43E-06) is G25563T, which is located in Orf3a and plays a potential role in viral pathogenesis. SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Gujarat are forming distinct clusters under the GH clade of GISAID. This study will shed light on the viral haplotype in SARS-CoV-2 samples from Gujarat, India.

Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141326, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768790


We made the first ever successful effort in India to detect the genetic material of SARS-CoV-2 viruses to understand the capability and application of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) surveillance in India. Sampling was carried out on 8 and 27 May 2020 at the Old Pirana Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) at Ahmedabad, Gujarat that receives effluent from Civil Hospital treating COVID-19 patients. All three, i.e. ORF1ab, N and S genes of SARS-CoV-2, were found in the influent with no genes detected in effluent collected on 8 and 27 May 2020. Increase in SARS-CoV-2 genetic loading in the wastewater between 8 and 27 May 2020 samples concurred with corresponding increase in the number of active COVID-19 patients in the city. The number of gene copies was comparable to that reported in untreated wastewaters of Australia, China and Turkey and lower than that of the USA, France and Spain. However, temporal changes in SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations need to be substantiated further from the perspectives of daily and short-term changes of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater through long-term monitoring. The study results SARS-CoV-2 will assist concerned authorities and policymakers to formulate and/or upgrade COVID-19 surveillance to have a more explicit picture of the pandemic curve. While infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 through the excreted viral genetic material in the aquatic environment is still being debated, the presence and detection of genes in wastewater systems makes a strong case for the environmental surveillance of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Águas Residuárias , Austrália , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , França , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha , Turquia