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1.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an inhibitor of fibrinolysis that is associated with adiposity, has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, whether circulating PAI-1 levels are altered during preclinical AD remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To measure plasma PAI-1 levels in cognitively normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarker positive and biomarker negative participants and to examine the association of plasma PAI-1 levels with CSF AD biomarkers and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, plasma PAI-1 levels were measured in 155 cognitively normal (Clinical Dementia Rating, CDR 0) non-obese older adults. 29 men and 26 women were classified as preclinical AD by previously established CSF tau/Aß42 criteria. All analyses were sex stratified due to reported sex differences in PAI-1 expression. RESULTS: Plasma PAI-1 levels were associated with body mass index (BMI) but not age in men and women. In men, plasma PAI-1 levels and BMI were lower in preclinical AD compared to control. Plasma PAI-1 levels were positively associated with CSF amyloid-ß42 (Aß42) and CSF Aß42/Aß40 and negatively associated with CSF tau/Aß42, while BMI was positively associated with CSF Aß42 and negatively associated with CSF p-tau181 and CSF tau/Aß42. In women, plasma PAI-1 levels and BMI were similar between preclinical AD and control and were not associated with CSF AD biomarkers. For men and women, plasma PAI-1 levels and BMI were not associated with MMSE scores. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that there are significant sex differences in the systemic metabolic changes seen in the preclinical stage of AD.

2.
Sleep Med Clin ; 17(4): 647-656, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333083

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent sleep disorder that causes sleep fragmentation, frequent awakenings, and intermittent hypoxia. Both OSA and cognitive decline increase in prevalence with factors such as increasing age and body mass. Multiple areas of cognition can be affected, including attention, executive function, memory, as well as emotional functioning through direct effects on brain health. Although positive airway pressure therapy has shown to improve some aspects of cognitive functioning, it does not fully alleviate all cognitive complaints. Inclusion of complementary approaches to comorbidities associated with OSA could potentially enhance treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Humanos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Função Executiva , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Atenção
3.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 107: 106488, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166841

RESUMO

The LUCINDA Trial (Leuprolide plus Cholinesterase Inhibition to reduce Neurologic Decline in Alzheimer's) is a 52 week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of leuprolide acetate (Eligard) in women with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Leuprolide acetate is a gonadotropin analogue commonly used for hormone-sensitive conditions such as prostate cancer and endometriosis. This repurposed drug demonstrated efficacy in a previous Phase II clinical trial in those women with AD who also received a stable dose of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (Bowen et al., 2015). Basic biological, epidemiological and clinical trial data suggest leuprolide acetate mediates improvement and stabilization of neuropathology and cognitive performance via the modulation of gonadotropin and/or gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling. LUCINDA will enroll 150 women with mild-moderate AD who are receiving a stable dose of donepezil from three study sites in the United States. Cognition and function are the primary outcome measures as assessed by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale. Blood and MRI biomarkers are also measured to assess hormonal, inflammatory and AD biomarker changes. We present the protocol for LUCINDA and discuss trial innovations and challenges including changes necessitated by the covid-19 pandemic and study drug procurement issues.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Acetilcolinesterase , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19 , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Indanos , Leuprolida/uso terapêutico , Pandemias
4.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 32(4): 485-493, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antidepressants have limited efficacy in older adults with depression and cognitive impairment, and psychosocial interventions for this population have been inadequately investigated. Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) is a psychosocial intervention for older adults with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability. DESIGN: This study tests the efficacy of PATH versus Supportive Therapy for Cognitively Impaired Older Adults (ST-CI) in reducing depression (Montgamery Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS]) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessments Schedule-II [WHODAS-II]) and improving cognitive outcomes (Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE]) over 24 weeks (12 weeks of treatment and 12-week post-treatment follow-up). SETTING: Participants were recruited through collaborating community agencies of Weill Cornell Institute of Geriatric Psychiatry. Both interventions and all research assessments were conducted at home. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five older adults (age ≥ 65 years) with major depression and cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND). INTERVENTIONS: PATH aims to increase emotion regulation by incorporating a problem-solving approach, teaching compensatory strategies, and inviting caregiver participation. Supportive Therapy aims to facilitate the expression of affect, as well as promote empathy. MEASUREMENTS: Depression was measured using the MADRS, disability using the WHODAS-II, and cognition using the MMSE. RESULTS: PATH participants showed significantly greater reduction in MADRS total score (7.04 points at 24 weeks, treatment group by time interaction: F[1,24.4] = 7.61, p = 0.0108), greater improvement in MMSE total score (2.30 points at 24 weeks, treatment group by time interaction: F[1,39.8] = 13.31, p = 0.0008), and greater improvement in WHODAS-II total score (2.95 points at 24 weeks, treatment group by time interaction: F[1,89] = 4.93, p = 0.0290) than ST-CI participants over the 24-week period. CONCLUSIONS: PATH participants had better depression, cognitive, and disability outcomes than ST-CI participants over 6 months. PATH may provide relief to depressed older adults with CIND who currently have limited treatment options.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Clin Park Relat Disord ; 3: 100044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34316629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to define the extent of comorbidities in order to improve clinical care of patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) utilizing the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Associations with Parkinson's Disease Study (RAPiDS) cohort. METHODS: Consecutive adult study participants with iRBD confirmed on polysomnogram (PSG) were prospectively recruited from the Weill Cornell Center for Sleep Medicine. Evaluations comprised multiple facets of sleep, neurological, autonomic, and psychiatric function. RESULTS: Participants evaluated included 30 individuals with iRBD, with mean 1.5 ±â€¯2.3 years from PSG to neuropsychiatric evaluation. Mean age was 59.5 ±â€¯16.0 years at time of PSG, and 6/30 were women. Urinary difficulties were reported in 14/30 (47%): slight 7 (23%), mild 4 (13%), moderate 2 (7%), and severe 1 (3.0%). Ten out of 29 (34%) had abnormal Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores and the mean was 26.5 ±â€¯3.2. The distribution of MoCA scores was significantly associated with urinary problems insofar as the more severe urinary problems were, the lower the MoCA scores (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this RAPiDS cohort, we detected an unexpectedly high occurrence of non-motor dysfunction. Our results point to the need for screening patients with iRBD for complaints that are actionable, for example those affecting mood, cognition, urinary function, and bowel function. We propose the term RBD+ to be used to identify such individuals. For the quality of life in patients diagnosed with RBD, a closer look by the clinician should be enacted, with appropriate referrals and workup.

6.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 11: 646-653, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517027

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lipocalin-2 is an acute-phase protein with pleotropic functions that has been implicated in several diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unknown if circulating lipocalin-2 levels are altered in the preclinical stage of AD, where AD pathology has accumulated but cognition remains relatively intact. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used an immunoassay to measure plasma lipocalin-2 levels in cognitively normal (Clinical Dementia Rating 0) elderly individuals. 38 of 156 subjects were classified as preclinical AD by cerebrospinal fluid criteria. RESULTS: Plasma lipocalin-2 levels were higher in preclinical AD compared with control subjects and associated with cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-beta42 levels but not cerebrospinal fluid tau or phosphorylated-tau181 levels. Exploratory analyses revealed that plasma lipocalin-2 was associated with executive function but not episodic memory. DISCUSSION: Collectively, these results raise the possibility that circulating lipocalin-2 is involved early in AD pathogenesis and may represent an early blood biomarker of amyloid-beta pathology.

7.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(4): 384-392, 2018 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to determine baseline neurocognition before transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and its correlations with pre-TAVR brain imaging. BACKGROUND: TAVR studies have not shown a correlation between diffusion-weighted image changes and neurocognition. The authors wanted to determine the extent to which there was already impairment at baseline that correlated with cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: SENTINEL (Cerebral Protection in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement) trial patients had cognitive assessments of attention, processing speed, executive function, and verbal and visual memory. Z-scores were based on normative means and SDs, combined into a primary composite z-score. Brain magnetic resonance images were obtained pre-TAVR on 3-T scanners with a T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Scores ≤-1.5 SD below the normative mean (7th percentile) were considered impairment. Paired t tests compared within-subject scores, and chi-square goodness-of-fit compared the percentage of subjects below -1.5 SD. Correlation and regression analyses assessed the relationship between neurocognitive z-scores and T2 lesion volume. RESULTS: Among 234 patients tested, the mean composite z-score was -0.65 SD below the normative mean. Domain scores ranged from -0.15 SD for attention to -1.32 SD for executive function. On the basis of the ≥1.5 SD normative reference, there were significantly greater percentages of impaired scores in the composite z-score (13.2%; p = 0.019), executive function (41.9%; p < 0.001), verbal memory (p < 0.001), and visual memory (p < 0.001). The regression model between FLAIR lesion volume and baseline cognition showed statistically significant negative correlations. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant proportion of aortic stenosis patients with impaired cognition before TAVR, with a relationship between baseline cognitive function and lesion burden likely attributable to longstanding cerebrovascular disease. These findings underscore the importance of pre-interventional testing and magnetic resonance imaging in any research investigating post-surgical cognitive outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Cognição , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Atenção , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034259

RESUMO

Chronic pain is highly prevalent in older adults, contributes to activity restriction and social isolation, disrupts family and interpersonal relationships, and poses a significant economic burden to society. Negative emotions such as sadness, anxiety, helplessness, and hopelessness are associated with chronic pain and contribute to poor quality of life, impaired interpersonal and social functioning, and increased disability. Psychosocial interventions for older adults with chronic pain have been historically developed for, and are almost exclusively delivered to, cognitively intact patients. Therefore, many older adults with chronic pain and comorbid cognitive deficits have limited treatment options. Our multidisciplinary team developed Problem Adaptation Therapy for Pain in Primary Care (PATH-Pain), a psychosocial intervention for older adults with chronic pain, negative emotions, and a wide range of cognitive functioning, including mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment. In the current article, we describe the principles underlying PATH-Pain, review the steps taken to adapt the original PATH protocol, outline the treatment process, and present a case illustrating its potential value.

9.
J Neurol Sci ; 372: 85-91, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28017255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of Type 2 diabetes (DM2) on levels of brain amyloidosis and cognition in a community-dwelling cohort of nondemented elderly individuals. METHODS: 33 subjects (16 DM2, 17 nondiabetic) were prospectively recruited. Subjects underwent a PET scan using the amyloid tracer, Pittsburgh Compound B, and a neuropsychological evaluation. Associations between DM2, brain amyloidosis, and cognition were assessed using multivariate regressions, adjusting for age and APOE4 status. RESULTS: DM2 subjects had lower global cognitive function (p=0.018), as measured by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. There was no difference in brain amyloidosis between groups (p=0.25). CONCLUSIONS: Community-dwelling, nondemented individuals with DM2 had greater cognitive deficits, which do not appear to be mediated by brain amyloidosis. Further studies exploring potential mediators of these cognitive deficits should be performed.


Assuntos
Amiloidose/complicações , Amiloidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Idoso , Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tiazóis/metabolismo
10.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 22(3): 341-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26817685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is a neurological disorder presenting with gait, cognitive, and bladder symptoms in the context of ventricular enlargement. Although gait is the primary indicator for treatment candidacy and outcome, additional monitoring tools are needed. Line Tracing Test (LTT) and Serial Dotting Test (SDT), two psychomotor tasks, have been introduced as potential outcome measures but have not been widely studied. This preliminary study examined whether LTT and SDT are sensitive to motor dysfunction in INPH and determined if accuracy and time are important aspects of performance. METHODS: Eighty-four INPH subjects and 36 healthy older adults were administered LTT and SDT. Novel error scoring procedures were developed to make scoring practical and efficient; interclass correlation showed good reliability of scoring procedures for both tasks (0.997; p<.001). RESULTS: The INPH group demonstrated slower performance on SDT (p<.001) and made a greater number of errors on both tasks (p<.001). Combined Time/Error scores revealed poorer performance in the INPH group for original-LTT (p<.001), modified-LTT (p ≤ .001) and SDT (p<.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate LTT and SDT may prove useful for monitoring psychomotor skills in INPH. While completion time reflects impaired processing speed, reduced accuracy may suggest planning and self-monitoring difficulties, aspects of executive functioning known to be compromised in INPH. This is the first study to underscore the importance of performance accuracy in INPH and introduce practical/reliable error scoring for these tasks. Future work will establish reliability and validity of these measures and determine their utility as outcome tools.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/complicações , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtornos Psicomotores/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicomotores/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
11.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 72(1): 22-30, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25372657

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Problem adaptation therapy (PATH) is a treatment for older adults with major depression, cognitive impairment (from mild cognitive deficits to moderate dementia), and disability. Antidepressants have limited efficacy in this population and psychosocial interventions are inadequately investigated. OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of 12-week PATH vs supportive therapy for cognitively impaired patients (ST-CI) in reducing depression and disability in 74 older adults with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized clinical trial at the Weill Cornell Institute of Geriatric Psychiatry from April 1, 2006, to September 31, 2011. Interventions were administered at the participants' homes. Participants included 74 older individuals (age ≥ 65 years) with major depression and cognitive impairment to the level of moderate dementia. They were recruited through collaborating community agencies of Weill Cornell Institute of Geriatric Psychiatry and were randomly assigned to 12 weekly sessions of PATH or ST-CI (14.8% attrition rate). INTERVENTIONS: Home-delivered PATH vs home-delivered ST-CI. Problem adaptation therapy integrates a problem-solving approach with compensatory strategies, environmental adaptations, and caregiver participation to improve patients' emotion regulation. Supportive therapy for cognitively impaired patients focuses on expression of affect, understanding, and empathy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Mixed-effects models for longitudinal data compared the efficacy of PATH with that of ST-CI in reducing depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II) during 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Participants in PATH had significantly greater reduction in depression (Cohen d, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.13-1.06; treatment × time, F(1,179) = 8.03; P = .005) and disability (Cohen d, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.20-1.14; treatment × time, F(1,169) = 14.86; P = .001) than ST-CI participants during the 12-week period (primary outcomes). Furthermore, PATH participants had significantly greater depression remission rates than ST-CI participants (37.84% vs 13.51%; χ(2) = 5.74; P = .02; number needed to treat = 4.11) (secondary outcome). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Problem adaptation therapy was more efficacious than ST-CI in reducing depression and disability. Problem adaptation therapy may provide relief to a large group of depressed and cognitively impaired older adults who have few treatment options. TRIALS REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00368940.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos Cognitivos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental , Resolução de Problemas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/reabilitação , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 35(3-4): 183-96, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23445555

RESUMO

AIM: We sought to identify markers of motor and nonmotor function in Parkinson's disease (PD) using advanced neuroimaging techniques in subjects with PD. METHODS: We enrolled 26 nondemented PD subjects and 12 control subjects. All subjects underwent [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography (FDG-PET) and magnetic resonance imaging, and a complete neuropsychological battery. RESULTS: FDG-PET of subjects with PD revealed significant metabolic elevations in the bilateral posterior lentiform nucleus, posterior cingulate, and parahippocampus, and metabolic reductions in the bilateral temporoparietal association cortex and occipital lobe versus controls. PD subjects had significant reductions in executive/attention function, memory/verbal learning, and speed of thinking, and significantly increased depression, anxiety and apathy scores compared with controls. Motor dysfunction correlated with increased metabolism in the posterior lentiform nucleus, pons, and cerebellum, and decreased metabolism in the temporoparietal lobe. Cognitive dysfunction correlated with increased posterior cingulate metabolism and decreased temporoparietal lobe metabolism. Depressive symptoms correlated with increased amygdala metabolism; anxiety scores correlated with decreased caudate metabolism, and apathy scores correlated with increased metabolism in the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal lobe and decreased metabolism in the temporoparietal association cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that motor, cognitive, and emotional dysfunction in PD are associated with distinct patterns of cerebral metabolic changes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Curva ROC
13.
Neurosurgery ; 68(2): 416-9, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21135747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement in gait after shunt placement has been well documented in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH); however, controversy remains regarding the extent and pattern of postsurgical cognitive changes. Conflicting findings may be explained by variability in both test selection and follow-up intervals across studies. Furthermore, most investigations lack a control group, making it difficult to disentangle practice effects from a true treatment effect. OBJECTIVE: To examine postshunt changes in a sample of well-characterized iNPH participants compared with a group of age- and education-matched healthy control subjects. METHODS: We identified 12 participants with iNPH undergoing shunt placement and 9 control participants. All participants were evaluated with comprehensive neuropsychological testing and standardized gait assessment at baseline and were followed up for 6 months. RESULTS: Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant group- (iNPH and control) by-time (baseline and 6 months) interaction for Trailmaking Test B: (P < .003) and Symbol Digit Modalities (P < .02), with greater improvement in iNPH participants relative to control subjects. In addition, the iNPH group showed greater improvement in gait (P < .001) and caregivers reported improved activities of daily living (P < .01) and reduced caregiver distress (P < .01). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates improvements in mental tracking speed and sustained attention 6 months after shunt placement in iNPH. The present investigation is the first study to use a controlled design to show that cognitive improvement in iNPH is independent of practice effects. Furthermore, these findings indicate functional and quality-of-life improvements for both the shunt responder and their caregiver.


Assuntos
Derivações do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Transtornos Cognitivos/cirurgia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/cirurgia , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/cirurgia , Atividades Cotidianas , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/complicações , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Qualidade de Vida
14.
Clin Interv Aging ; 5: 323-31, 2010 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21228897

RESUMO

Less than half of older adults with depression achieve remission with antidepressant medications, and rates of remission are even poorer for those with comorbid conditions. Psychosocial interventions have been effective in treating geriatric depression, either alone or better yet, in combination with antidepressant medications. Traditional strategies for nonpharmacological treatment of late-life depression do not specifically address the co-occurring cognitive impairment and disability that is prevalent in this population. Newer therapies are recognizing the need to simultaneously direct treatment efforts in late-life depression towards the triad of depressive symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, and functional disability that is so often found in geriatric depression, and this comprehensive approach holds promise for improved treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Cuidadores/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Comorbidade , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 111(9): 752-7, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19720451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Tap Test (TT) is a commonly used method for predicting shunt responsiveness in patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH). The present study investigates whether measures of upper extremity motor function are useful for assessing response to spinal fluid drainage. METHODS: 42 subjects undergoing evaluations for idiopathic NPH (iNPH) participated in this study. A standardized gait evaluation, a neuropsychological battery, and objective tests of upper extremity motor functions were administered. A Neurologist skilled in NPH assessment independently rated patients as TT Responders (n=26) or Non-Responders (n=16) based on clinical impression of change 2-4h after 40-50 cm(3) drainage of spinal fluid by lumbar puncture (LP). In the subset of subjects who underwent shunt placement, operative outcome was also evaluated. RESULTS: TT Responders improved significantly more than TT Non-Responders in Upper Extremity Coordination/Speed tasks (p<.001). The groups did not differ on other neuropsychological measures post-LP. A possible association was observed between pre- and post-TT changes in Upper Extremity Coordination/Speed and post-shunt improvement. Among Upper Extremity Coordination/Speed measures, Line Tracing displayed the greatest sensitivity (76%) to change post-LP. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that measures of upper extremity motor functions may be useful as measures of Tap Test response in patients with iNPH. These upper extremity motor tasks can be rapidly administered (<5 min) in clinical practice and may provide an additional dimension beyond gait and cognition for evaluating response to LP.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/psicologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Exame Neurológico , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
16.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 24(1): 11-9, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19395353

RESUMO

Boxing has held appeal for many athletes and audiences for centuries, and injuries have been part of boxing since its inception. Although permanent and irreversible neurologic dysfunction does not occur in the majority of participants, an association has been reported between the number of bouts fought and the development of neurologic, psychiatric, or histopathological signs and symptoms of encephalopathy in boxers. The purpose of this paper is to (i) provide clinical neuropsychologists, other health-care professionals, and the general public with information about the potential neuropsychological consequences of boxing, and (ii) provide recommendations to improve safety standards for those who participate in the sport.


Assuntos
Boxe/lesões , Lesão Encefálica Crônica/diagnóstico , Lesão Encefálica Crônica/prevenção & controle , Neuropsicologia/educação , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/prevenção & controle , Boxe/ética , Boxe/normas , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Risco , Segurança
17.
Liver Int ; 29(5): 629-35, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19302444

RESUMO

Low-grade or minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is characterised by relatively mild neurocognitive impairments, and occurs in a substantial percentage of patients with liver disease. The presence of MHE is associated with a significant compromise of quality of life, is predictive of the onset of overt hepatic encephalopathy and is associated with a poorer prognosis for outcome. Early identification and treatment of MHE can improve quality of life and may prevent the onset of overt encephalopathy, but to date, there has been little agreement regarding the optimum method for detecting MHE. The International Society on Hepatic Encephalopathy and Nitrogen Metabolism convened a group of experts for the purpose of reviewing available data and making recommendations for a standardised approach for neuropsychological assessment of patients with liver disease who are at risk of MHE. Specific recommendations are presented, along with a proposed methodology for further refining these assessment procedures through prospective research.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Encefalopatia Hepática/complicações , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 110(5): 455-61, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18359152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify components of gait associated with a positive tap test (TT) in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with iNPH underwent clinical evaluation pre- and post-TT and were classified as responders (Rs) or non-responders (NRs). Elements of gait were assessed with a formal standardized Gait Scale and compared between groups. RESULTS: Analysis of pre/post-TT group differences revealed an interaction for Total Gait Score and Walking Score, with improvements in responders only. Total Gait Scores improved by 29% in the Rs and 4.85% in the NRs. Rs showed significant post-TT improvements on a timed 10m walk, turning, and balance. Tandem walking, turning, truck balance and start stop hesitation showed trends toward improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The classic features of gait often used in determining diagnosis of NPH (wide based stride, reduced foot-floor clearance, and small steps) were not helpful in identifying responders to the TT. Walking speed, steps for turning, and tendency towards falling were most likely to improve post-TT. These straightforward measures can readily be adapted into clinical practice to assist in determination of shunt candidacy.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Marcha , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/complicações , Punção Espinal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Derivações do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/métodos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/classificação , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/complicações , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/terapia , Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 25(3): 399-405, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17371731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which almost all the organs are involved. Neuropsychiatric SLE is of one of the major concerns in the clinical evaluation of this disease. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are often nonspecific or negative. In this study, we explored the use of diffusion tensor imaging in assisting with the diagnosis of SLE. METHODS: Data from 34 SLE patients (age range, 18-73 years) and 29 age-matched volunteers (age range, 29-64 years) were analyzed. MRI was performed on a 1.5-T clinical MR scanner with a quadrature head coil. The average diffusion constant (D(av)) and diffusion anisotropy maps [fractional anisotropy (FA)] were determined on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Regional diffusion measurements were made by region of interest in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), anterior and posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC) and frontal lobe and thalamus. The diffusion distribution was fitted to a triple-Gaussian model. The mean of the brain tissue distribution was determined as a mean diffusion constant for the whole brain (BD(av)). Student's t test was used to determine the diffusion difference between SLE patients and control subjects. The SLE patients were separated into two groups according to their MRI results. A P value lower than .05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Twenty of the 34 SLE patients with abnormal MRI results showed findings dominated by nonspecific white matter disease. The BD(av) and D(av) values of the frontal lobe, splenium CC and anterior IC were significantly higher in all SLE patients as compared with the control subjects. The SLE patients with normal MRI results also showed higher BD(av) and D(av) values in the frontal lobe, splenium and anterior and posterior limbs of the IC as compared with the control subjects. There was no significant difference in the D(av) values of the thalamus between the SLE patients and the control subjects. The BD(av) value in the SLE patient group was robustly correlated with the D(av) values of the frontal lobe, splenium and thalamus. These correlations were found to be similarly significant for the SLE patients with normal MRI findings. The diffusion anisotropy measurements showed that splenium CC had the highest FA value in both the control subjects and SLE patients. Overall, SLE patients had lower FA values in the genu and splenium CC as compared with the control subjects. In the group of patients with normal MRI findings, the FA values of the genu and splenium CC as well as the anterior IC were also lower than those in the control subjects. Pearson's correlation statistics revealed robust correlations between the measurements of D(av) and FA values in the SLE patient group. CONCLUSION: Quantitative diffusion imaging and diffusion anisotropy showed early changes in the brains of the SLE patients. Increased BD(av) and D(av) values of the frontal lobe as well as decreased anisotropy in the genu CC and anterior IC may represent preclinical signs of central nervous system involvement of SLE even when the routine MRI findings are negative or nonspecific. Quantitative diffusion analysis may prove to be useful in detecting the initial brain involvement of SLE and may enable monitoring of early disease progression and treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Genet Med ; 8(12): 746-51, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17172937

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether individuals recall their apolipoprotein E genotype and numeric lifetime risk estimates after undergoing a risk assessment for Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: One-hundred and four participants underwent Alzheimer's disease risk assessment that included disclosure of apolipoprotein E genotype and a numeric lifetime risk estimate. RESULTS: At six weeks and one year post-disclosure, 59% and 48% of participants, respectively, recalled their lifetime risk estimate, and 69% and 63% recalled their apolipoprotein E genotype. Participants were more likely to remember their genotype than numeric lifetime risk estimate at one year (P < 0.05). Apolipoprotein E epsilon4-positive participants had better recall of their genotype at both time points (P < 0.05). Participants were more likely to recall whether they carried the "risk-enhancing form of apolipoprotein E" than their specific genotype (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that apolipoprotein E genotype, especially the presence of an epsilon4 allele, is more memorable than a numeric risk estimate for Alzheimer's disease. Participants recalled genotype information in a more simplified, binary form. Health professionals testing for complex disorders such as Alzheimer's disease must find an appropriate balance between communicating risk in an understandable format and addressing the probabilistic nature of the information.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Revelação , Rememoração Mental , Adulto , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco
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