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2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(44): 24592-24600, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665197

RESUMO

The rate coefficient for the possible reaction of OH radical with N2O was determined to be k1 < 1 × 10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 between 253 and 372 K using pulsed laser photolysis to generate OH radicals and pulsed laser induced fluorescence to detect them. The rate coefficient for the reaction of NO3 radical with N2O was measured to be k2 < 5 × 10-20 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 298 K using a direct method that involves a large reaction chamber equipped with cavity ring down spectroscopic detection of NO3 and N2O5. Various tests were carried out ensure the accuracy of our measurements. Based on our measured upper limits, we suggest that these two reactions alter the atmospheric lifetime of N2O of ∼120 years by less than 4%.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(8): 4246-4257, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747177

RESUMO

The rate coefficients for the reactions of NO3 radicals with methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), n-butane (n-C4H10), iso-butane (iso-C4H10), 2,3-dimethylbutane (C6H14), cyclopentane (C5H10) and cyclohexane (C6H12) at atmosphere pressure (1000 ± 5 hPa) and room temperature (298 ± 1.5 K) were measured using an absolute method. Careful attention was paid to the role of secondary reactions and impurities. The upper limits of rate coefficients for methane and ethane at 298 K are <4 × 10-20 and <5 × 10-19 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively. The rate coefficients at 298 K for propane, n-butane, iso-butane, 2,3-dimethybutane, cyclopentane and cyclohexane are, (9.2 ± 2.9) × 10-18, (1.5 ± 0.4) × 10-17, (8.2 ± 2.2) × 10-17, (5.8 ± 2.4) × 10-16, (1.5 ± 0.6) × 10-16 and (1.3 ± 0.4) × 10-16 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively. Rate coefficients for the reactions of NO3 radical with two deuterated n-butanes (butane-D10 and butane-1,1,1,4,4,4-D6) are also reported. We show that the rate coefficients for NO3 reactions correlate with the enthalpy change for the reaction, thereby suggesting that the mechanism for NO3 reactions with alkanes is through H atom abstraction. The measured rate coefficients are compared with available literature values. This study increases the number of available rate coefficients for the reactions of NO3 with alkanes and sets significantly lower upper limits for reaction of NO3 with ethane and methane. The atmospheric significance of our reported rate coefficients is briefly discussed.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(52): 13192-13197, 2018 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559187

RESUMO

Different regions of the world have had different historical patterns of emissions of carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases, and aerosols as well as different land-use changes. One can estimate the net cumulative contribution by each region to the global mean radiative forcing due to past greenhouse gas emissions, aerosol precursors, and carbon dioxide from land-use changes. Several patterns stand out from such calculations. Some regions have had a common historical pattern in which the short-term offsets between the radiative forcings from carbon dioxide and sulfate aerosols temporarily led to near-zero radiative forcing during periods of exponential emissions growth with few emission controls. This happened for North America and Europe in the mid-20th century and China in the 1990s and 2000s. However, these same periods lead to a commitment to future radiative forcing from the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that stay in the atmosphere long after the aerosols. For every region, this commitment to future radiative forcing (2018-2100) from emissions already in the atmosphere is larger than the cumulative radiative forcing to date (1900-2017). This comparison again highlights how the full radiative forcing from greenhouse gases is unmasked once the aerosol emissions are reduced to improve air quality. The relative contributions from various regions to global climate forcing depends more on the time the contributions are compared (e.g., now or 2100) and future development scenarios than on whether cumulative radiative forcing, ocean heat content, or temperature is used to compare regional contributions.

5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(19): 11359-11366, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130965

RESUMO

The ozone layer depletion and its recovery, as well as the climate influence of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and their substitutes that influence climate, are of interest to both the scientific community and the public. Here we report on the emissions of ODSs and their substitute from China, which is currently the largest consumer (and emitter) of these substances. We provide, for the first time, comprehensive information on ODSs and replacement hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions in China starting from 1980 based on reported production and usage. We also assess the impacts (and costs) of controls on ODS consumption and emissions on the ozone layer (in terms of CFC-11-equivalent) and climate (in CO2-equivalent). In addition, we show that while China's future ODS emissions are likely to be defined as long as there is full compliance with the Montreal Protocol; its HFC emissions through 2050 are very uncertain. Our findings imply that HFC controls over the next decades that are more stringent than those under the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol would be beneficial in mitigating global climate change.


Assuntos
Perda de Ozônio , Ozônio , China , Ruanda , Ozônio Estratosférico
6.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(19): 4635-4646, 2018 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694043

RESUMO

Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with ( E)-CF3CH═CHCF3 (( E)-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene, HFO-1336mzz(E)) were measured over a range of temperatures (211-374 K) and bath gas pressures (20-300 Torr; He, N2) using a pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) technique. k1( T) was independent of pressure over this range of conditions with k1(296 K) = (1.31 ± 0.15) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and k1( T) = (6.94 ± 0.80) × 10-13exp[-(496 ± 10)/ T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1, where the uncertainties are 2σ, and the pre-exponential term includes estimated systematic error. Rate coefficients for the OD reaction were also determined over a range of temperatures (262-374 K) at 100 Torr (He). The OD rate coefficients were ∼15% greater than the OH values and showed similar temperature dependent behavior with k2( T) = (7.52 ± 0.44) × 10-13exp[-(476 ± 20)/ T] and k2(296 K) = (1.53 ± 0.15) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The rate coefficients for reaction 1 were also measured using a relative rate technique between 296 and 375 K with k1(296 K) measured to be (1.22 ± 0.1) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, in agreement with the PLP-LIF results. In addition, the 296 K rate coefficient for the O3 + ( E)-CF3CH═CHCF3 reaction was determined to be <5.2 × 10-22 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. A theoretical computational analysis is presented to interpret the observed positive temperature dependence for the addition reaction and the significant decrease in OH reactivity compared to the ( Z)-CF3CH═CHCF3 stereoisomer reaction. The estimated atmospheric lifetime of ( E)-CF3CH═CHCF3, due to loss by reaction with OH, is estimated to be ∼90 days, while the actual lifetime will depend on the location and season of its emission. Infrared absorption spectra of ( E)-CF3CH═CHCF3 were measured and used to estimate the 100 year time horizon global warming potentials (GWP) of 32 (atmospherically well-mixed) and 14 (lifetime-adjusted).

13.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(23): 4464-4474, 2017 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498668

RESUMO

Two different experimental methods (relative rate and absolute rate methods) were used to measure the rate coefficients for the reactions of NO3 radical with six methacrylate esters: methyl methacrylate (MMA, k1), ethyl methacrylate (EMA, k2), propyl methacrylate (PMA, k3), isopropyl methacrylate (IPMA, k4), butyl methacrylate (BMA, k5), and isobutyl methacrylate (IBMA, k6). In the relative rate method, the loss of the esters relative to that of a reference compound was followed in a 7300 L Teflon-walled chamber at 298 ± 2 K and 1000 ± 5 hpa. In the absolute method, the temporal profiles of NO3 and N2O5 were followed by using a dual channel cavity ring-down spectrometer in the presence of an excess of ester in the 7300 L chamber. The rate coefficients from these two methods (weighted averages) in the units of 10-15 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 298 K are k1 = 2.98 ± 0.35, k2 = 4.67 ± 0.49, k3 = 5.23 ± 0.60, k4 = 7.91 ± 1.00, k5 = 5.91 ± 0.58, and k6 = 6.24 ± 0.66. The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. Unweighted averages are also reported. In addition, the rate coefficient k7 for the reaction of NO3 radical with deuterated methyl methacrylate (MMA-d8) was measured by using the relative rate method to be essentially the same as k1. The trends in the measured rate coefficient with the length and nature of the alkyl group, along with the equivalence of k1 and k7, strongly suggest that the reaction of NO3 with the methacrylate esters proceeds via addition to the double bond on the methacrylate group. The present results are compared with those from previous studies. Using the measured values of the rate coefficients, along with those for reactions of these esters with OH, O3, and chlorine atoms, we calculated the atmospheric lifetimes of methacrylate esters. We suggest that NO3 radicals do contribute to the atmospheric loss of these unsaturated esters, but to a lesser extent than their reactions with OH and O3.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(21): 5781-90, 2016 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27222566

RESUMO

The effect of an increase in atmospheric aerosol concentrations on the distribution and radiative properties of Earth's clouds is the most uncertain component of the overall global radiative forcing from preindustrial time. General circulation models (GCMs) are the tool for predicting future climate, but the treatment of aerosols, clouds, and aerosol-cloud radiative effects carries large uncertainties that directly affect GCM predictions, such as climate sensitivity. Predictions are hampered by the large range of scales of interaction between various components that need to be captured. Observation systems (remote sensing, in situ) are increasingly being used to constrain predictions, but significant challenges exist, to some extent because of the large range of scales and the fact that the various measuring systems tend to address different scales. Fine-scale models represent clouds, aerosols, and aerosol-cloud interactions with high fidelity but do not include interactions with the larger scale and are therefore limited from a climatic point of view. We suggest strategies for improving estimates of aerosol-cloud relationships in climate models, for new remote sensing and in situ measurements, and for quantifying and reducing model uncertainty.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(4): 2027-34, 2016 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26731627

RESUMO

Many hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) that are widely used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (now regulated under the Montreal Protocol) are very potent greenhouse gases (GHGs). China's past and future HFC emissions are of great interest because China has emerged as a major producer and consumer of HFCs. Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive inventory estimate of China's HFC emissions during 2005-2013. Results show a rapid increase in HFC production, consumption, and emissions in China during the period and that the emissions of HFC with a relatively high global warming potential (GWP) grew faster than those with a relatively low GWP. The proportions of China's historical HFC CO2-equivalent emissions to China's CO2 emissions or global HFC CO2-equivalent emissions increased rapidly during 2005-2013. Using the "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario, in which HFCs are used to replace a significant fraction of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in China (to date, there are no regulations on HFC uses in China), emissions of HFCs are projected to be significant components of China's and global future GHG emissions. However, potentials do exist for minimizing China's HFC emissions (for example, if regulations on HFC uses are established in China). Our findings on China's historical and projected HFC emission trajectories could also apply to other developing countries, with important implications for mitigating global GHG emissions.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Aquecimento Global
16.
Atmos Meas Tech ; 9(7): 3063-3093, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619117

RESUMO

Natural emissions of ozone-and-aerosol-precursor gases such as isoprene and monoterpenes are high in the southeast of the US. In addition, anthropogenic emissions are significant in the Southeast US and summertime photochemistry is rapid. The NOAA-led SENEX (Southeast Nexus) aircraft campaign was one of the major components of the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) and was focused on studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to form secondary pollutants. During SENEX, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted 20 research flights between 27 May and 10 July 2013 based out of Smyrna, TN. Here we describe the experimental approach, the science goals and early results of the NOAA SENEX campaign. The aircraft, its capabilities and standard measurements are described. The instrument payload is summarized including detection limits, accuracy, precision and time resolutions for all gas-and-aerosol phase instruments. The inter-comparisons of compounds measured with multiple instruments on the NOAA WP-3D are presented and were all within the stated uncertainties, except two of the three NO2 measurements. The SENEX flights included day- and nighttime flights in the Southeast as well as flights over areas with intense shale gas extraction (Marcellus, Fayetteville and Haynesville shale). We present one example flight on 16 June 2013, which was a daytime flight over the Atlanta region, where several crosswind transects of plumes from the city and nearby point sources, such as power plants, paper mills and landfills, were flown. The area around Atlanta has large biogenic isoprene emissions, which provided an excellent case for studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions. In this example flight, chemistry in and outside the Atlanta plumes was observed for several hours after emission. The analysis of this flight showcases the strategies implemented to answer some of the main SENEX science questions.

17.
Chem Rev ; 115(10): 3679-81, 2015 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26012554
18.
Chem Rev ; 115(10): 3682-703, 2015 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25950414
20.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(19): 4396-407, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25470739

RESUMO

Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) and reaction rate coefficients, k1-k4, for the gas-phase reaction of Cl atoms with (12)CH3D (k1), (12)CH2D2 (k2), (12)CHD3 (k3), and (12)CD4 (k4) over the temperature range 223-343 K in 630 Torr of synthetic air are reported. Rate coefficients were measured using a relative rate technique with (12)CH4 as the primary reference compound. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the methane isotopologue loss. The obtained KIE values were (12)CH3D: KIE1(T) = (1.227 ± 0.004) exp((43 ± 5)/T); (12)CH2D2: KIE2(T) = (1.14 ± 0.20) exp((191 ± 60)/T); (12)CHD3: KIE3(T) = (1.73 ± 0.34) exp((229 ± 60)/T); and (12)CD4: KIE4(T) = (1.01 ± 0.3) exp((724 ± 19)/T), where KIEx(T) = kCl+(12)CH4(T)/kx(T). The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ (95% confidence) level and represent the precision of our data. The following Arrhenius expressions and 295 K rate coefficient values (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) were derived from the above KIE using a rate coefficient of 7.3 × 10(-12) exp(-1280/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the reaction of Cl with (12)CH4: k1(T) = (5.95 ± 0.70) × 10(-12) exp(-(1323 ± 50)/T), k1(295 K) = (6.7 ± 0.8) × 10(-14); k2(T) = (6.4 ± 1.3) × 10(-12) exp(-(1471 ± 60)/T), k2(295 K) = (4.4 ± 0.9) × 10(-14); k3(T) = (4.2 ± 1.0) × 10(-12) exp(-(1509 ± 60)/T), k3(295 K) = (2.53 ± 0.6) × 10(-14); and k4(T) = (7.13 ± 2.3) × 10(-12) exp(-(2000 ± 120)/T), k4(295 K) = (0.81 ± 0.26) × 10(-14). The reported uncertainties in the pre-exponential factors are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors in our measurements and the uncertainty in the reference reaction rate coefficient. The results from this study are compared with previously reported room-temperature rate coefficients for each of the deuterated methanes as well as the available temperature dependent data for the Cl atom reactions with CH3D and CD4. A two-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model was used to examine the implications of the present results to the atmospheric lifetime and vertical variation in the loss of the deuterated methane isotopologues. The relative contributions of the reactions of OH, Cl, and O((1)D) to the loss of the isotopologues in the stratosphere were also examined. The results of the calculations are described and discussed.

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