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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(2)2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029515

RESUMO

Colistin-induced nephrotoxicity is commonly associated with elevation of serum creatinine level or a reduction of urine output. Uncommonly, tubulopathy associated with colistin has been reported. Here we present a unique case of a 46-year-old man who developed polyuria, hypokalaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesemia and metabolic alkalosis after 3 days of therapy with intravenous colistimethate sodium. After ruling out other causes, a diagnosis of colistin-induced acquired Bartter syndrome was made. The patient required daily aggressive intravenous repletion of fluids and electrolytes. However, polyuria and metabolic abnormalities abated only after drug discontinuation.

2.
QJM ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031633

RESUMO

We present a case of a 43-year-old male who was found to have an intracranial mass lesion on headache imaging. On further follow up, the patient developed systemic features of hypercalcemia, anemia and renal dysfunction. The biopsy of the mass was negative multiple times. A bone marrow biopsy was done due to high suspicion of multiple myeloma which showed plasma cell infiltration of the bone marrow. The patient's serum was however negative for an M band with only a narrow M band in the urine suggestive of oligosecretory multiple myeloma.

3.
Eur J Radiol ; 124: 108843, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007819

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The CT Halo sign or Halo sign (HS) refers to ground-glass opacity surrounding a nodule or mass in the lung parenchyma. We conducted a systematic review to find the etiological associations of HS. We also evaluated the diagnostic performances of HS for invasive fungal infections (IFI) in immunosuppressed patients. METHOD: The systematic review was conducted as per PRISMA guidelines. We searched the PubMed and EMBASE database till June 2018 without any restrictions. Only case reports, case series and original articles published in English language were included. A database created from the electronic searches was compiled and subsequent analysis was done. [PROSPERO registration: CRD42018094739] RESULTS: 168 studies were eligible, which included 51 case reports, 15 prospective studies, 102 retrospective studies. A total of 1977 patients (out of 6371) with HS were identified with age range between <1year-94years. The most common diagnosis in the immunosuppressed, mixed, immunocompetent and not specified groups were IFI (86.9 %, n = 1194), Cryptococcosis (51.6 %, n = 124), Cryptococcosis (40 %, n = 20) and lung neoplasms (81.8 %, n = 36) respectively. 14 studies (11 retrospective, 3 prospective) were included in quantitative analysis. The pooled sensitivity(sn), specificity(sp) and odd's ratio (OR) of HS for diagnosing IFI were 50.4 %, 91 % and 6.61 respectively. Also, HS could not reliably differentiate IPA from mucormycosis in the pooled analysis. CONCLUSIONS: HS can be seen in a large number of diverse conditions both in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent population. In immunosuppressed patients HS is specific for IFI but cannot rule it out. Additionally, it cannot reliably distinguish between IPA and mucormycosis.

4.
Infez Med ; 27(4): 398-402, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846989

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the clinical spectrum and outcome of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in hospitalized patients. A prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in North India between December 2016 and December 2018. Patients diagnosed with IFIs were enrolled. Their clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded using a pre-defined clinical report form. They were followed up till discharge or death and a 60-day outcome was recorded. A total of 110 IFI cases were identified, which included invasive aspergillosis (39%), invasive candidiasis (16%), cryptococcosis (14%) and mucormycosis (12%). Pneumonia (63%) was the most common final diagnosis in these patients. Diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most common risk factor for all four diseases. Additionally, most patients with cryptococcosis had human immunodeficiency virus infection. Mortality was observed in 73% of the patients. Overall, IFIs are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients admitted to medical wards and ICUs.

6.
J Emerg Med ; 57(4): 577, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739916
9.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(8): 74-76, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562725

RESUMO

IgG4-Related Disease(IgG4-RD) is a rare disease that can present with myriad clinical features. We report a tuberculosis contact case who presented with fever and constitutional complaints with imaging evidence of paravertebral and retroperitoneal soft tissue thickening. Further workup, including tissue biopsy ruled out tuberculosis and revealed diagnosis to be IgG4-related disease. Patient was started on oral steroids, which led to symptomatic improvement. In a TB endemic country such as ours, for a patient presenting with pleural and/or peritoneal fibrosis, a differential diagnosis of IgG4-RD must be kept.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Febre/diagnóstico , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/diagnóstico , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Tuberculose
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(9)2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494587

RESUMO

Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) is a recently proposed terminology for interstitial lung disease (ILD) with evidence of autoimmunity that does not meet the criteria for a defined connective tissue disease (CTD). Although ILD is well recognised in patients with established CTD, it is rarely the sole presenting feature of CTD. We report a case of 22-year-old male patient, who presented with progressive shortness of breath for 2 months and had features suggestive of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS). Imaging revealed ILD with usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. Patient had features of autoimmune disorder but did not fulfil the criteria for any CTD and hence was labelled as IPAF. His POS was attributed predominantly to the lower lobe disease. The patient responded well to immunosuppressive treatment. A systematic review of literature of all cases with POS due to pulmonary parenchymal involvement has also been done.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/imunologia , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Asia Ocean J Nucl Med Biol ; 7(2): 185-187, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380459

RESUMO

18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is an important imaging modality in the clinical workup of patients with chronic inflammatory disorders which present quite often with a fever of unknown origin. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem chronic inflammatory disorder with a wide clinical spectrum that can involve different organs. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is usually based on the observation of noncaseating granulomas in biopsy specimens and exclusion of other granulomatous diseases. Skin involvement can occur in 20-25% of sarcoidosis cases. However, scar involvement in sarcoidosis is a rare condition. Herein, we present a case of multisystem sarcoidosis in a 45-year-old woman, who was previously treated with steroids and was in remission for 8 months. The patient presented with multiple skin nodules on the chest and back, a history of intermittent fever, headache, and mild itching at the abdominal scar site for 3 months. Blood investigations revealed elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels. The 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a metabolically active involvement of the cutaneous tissue (posthysterectomy scar), apart from other sites of involvement. Biopsy of the scar site revealed multiple epithelioid cell granulomas with giant cells surrounding the collagenous fibers of the scar tissue.

13.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(4): 76-78, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299847

RESUMO

A 21-year old female, recently diagnosed with osteosarcoma of right humerus, presented to the emergency with history of fever, productive cough, chest pain and progressive respiratory distress for six days. Initial investigations suggested pneumonia but she did not respond to parenteral antibiotics. CT pulmonary angiogram revealed bilateral pulmonary artery embolism. Thrombolysis was performed using alteplase, which failed to improve the clinical condition. In view of underlying malignancy, a possibility of tumour-embolism was considered and she was started on chemotherapy for osteosarcoma. There was dramatic improvement in her respiratory symptoms after the first chemotherapy cycle, along with radiological resolution of the embolism. This case highlights the importance of suspecting tumour embolism in a known case of malignancy with respiratory distress.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Angiografia , Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Osteossarcoma/complicações , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med Mycol Case Rep ; 25: 29-31, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338287

RESUMO

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunologically mediated disease characterized by a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal colonization by Aspergillus. Hydropneumothoraces and bronchopleural fistulae are rare occurrences in patients with ABPA. However, the diagnosis of ABPA is important to consider, as it is easily treatable with specific therapy. We report an unusual case of a patient with ABPA who presented to us with hydropneumothorax with bronchopleural fistula.

15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 105, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223395

RESUMO

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals can either be due to the disease itself or due to associated infections/malignancies. The treatment for HLH requires immunosuppressive therapy but administering immunosuppressive therapy to an already immunosuppressed patient (HIV infection) is complex. We present two such cases of HLH in patients infected with HIV. In the first case, no alternate cause for HLH was found even after extensive investigations and it was attributed to the uncontrolled HIV replication. Patient was started on dexamethasone for the same but succumbed to hospital acquired pneumonia. The second patient was diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma but he succumbed to his illness before initiating immunosuppressive therapy for HLH. We report these cases to highlight the dilemma and a need for further research in this direction.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Drug Discov Ther ; 13(2): 101-107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080200

RESUMO

Acute febrile illness (AFI) is one of the commonest indications for hospitalization and can present with varying severity including single or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). During monsoon season, there is a spurt of AFI often caused by vector borne diseases leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to determine distribution of etiological causes, differential organ involvement and predictors of mortality in critically ill patients with AFI. It was a hospital based observational study which included patients with AFI with dysfunction of at least one organ system. The study was conducted over 4 months during monsoon season. Admitted patients were included who had been subjected to a standard battery of tests and managed with standard hospital based management protocol. 145 patients were included and etiology of fever was ascertained in 81.4% of patients with the most common single infection being chikungunya (20.7%) followed by dengue (20%) fever. Thrombocytopenia and deranged liver biochemistry each were seen in nearly 75% of the patients. Renal (50.3%) and nervous system (46.2%) dysfunction were the predominant organ failures. 49 patients died (33.8%) which correlated with predicted mortality by APACHE (acute physiological assessment and chronic health evaluation) II score. Independent predictors for mortality were older age (> 55 years) (p = 0.01), acidemia (p = 0.01), altered sensorium (p = 0.02) and coagulopathy (p = 0.048). Sub-group analysis revealed that amongst patients with MODS, hypotension could help differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial causes (p = 0.01). Critically ill patients with AFI suffer from significant morbidity and mortality. Features like the presence of hypotension in MODS may differentiate between a bacterial cause vis-à-vis viral or protozoal etiology.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Dengue/epidemiologia , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , APACHE , Adolescente , Adulto , Febre de Chikungunya/complicações , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Criança , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/classificação , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
17.
Drug Discov Ther ; 13(2): 89-95, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080208

RESUMO

Basic bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures like Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) are often performed without sedation, using lignocaine administered via the working channel of bronchoscope (spray-as-you-go technique) and other routes. Our aim was to evaluate the factors responsible for variation in the total dose of lignocaine administered in individual subjects. We prospectively included consecutive subjects undergoing BAL in an outpatient setting from August 2016 to November 2017 at our centre. The subjects were administered lignocaine via nebulization, nasal gel, oropharyngeal spray before and during bronchoscopy ("spray-as-you-go") as per a predefined protocol. The demographic details, high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) characteristics, procedural details, doses of lignocaine administered and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for satisfaction with the procedure were recorded. Using lignocaine dose as outcome, variables were assessed for effect by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. 96 subjects were included with a mean age of 40 years and male predominance (60.4%). Cough was the most common presenting symptom (64.6%). Predisposing factors included tuberculosis (47.9%) and smoking (23.2%). Maximum variation in lignocaine dose occurred prior to intubating vocal cords using "spray-as-you-go", which was significantly related to history of past tuberculosis (p = 0.031), obstructive airway disease (p = 0.009), fibrotic sequelae (p = 0.011) and bronchiectasis (p = 0.049). Obstructive airway disease and fibrotic sequelae were also significant on multivariate analysis (p = 0.01 and 0.005 respectively). Obstructive airway disease and architectural distortion due to fibrotic sequelae leads to higher dose requirement for lignocaine during BAL by fibre-optic bronchoscopy. Caution must be maintained during bronchoscopic procedures to avoid exceeding recommended maximum doses in such patients.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Broncoscopia/métodos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/efeitos adversos , Broncoscopia/efeitos adversos , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Sprays Orais , Estudos Prospectivos , Irrigação Terapêutica , Escala Visual Analógica
18.
Drug Discov Ther ; 13(2): 96-100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080209

RESUMO

Oligoarticular arthritis (inflammation of upto 4 joints) has a wide range of infectious and non-infectious etiologies. The aim of our study was to identify the features which could help in the differentiation of infectious from non-infectious arthritis. The study was prospective and observational, and included 100 patients with oligoarticular inflammatory arthritis. The final diagnosis was made using standard diagnostic criteria and the patients were categorized into infectious and non-infectious groups. Among the 100 patients who were recruited, the following final diagnosis were made: peripheral spondyloarthritis (n = 37), axial spondyloarthritis (n = 11), tuberculosis (n = 19), brucellosis (n = 6), septic arthritis (n = 6), gouty arthritis (n = 5), early rheumatoid arthritis (n = 5), non-tubercular mycobacteria (n = 2), SLE (n = 2), post-chikungunya arthritis (n = 2), acute lymphocytic leukaemia (n = 1), pachydermoperiostosis (n = 1), sarcoidosis (n = 1) and juvenile idiopathoic arthritis (n = 1). The patients were categorized into two groups: infectious (33) and non-infectious (60). The presence of monoarthritis, clinically-significant weight loss, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and erosive arthritis were significantly more common in the infectious group as compared to the non-infectious group.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/epidemiologia , Artrite/classificação , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Artrite/diagnóstico , Artrite Gotosa/diagnóstico , Artrite Gotosa/epidemiologia , Artrite Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Artrite Juvenil/diagnóstico , Artrite Juvenil/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sarcoidose/epidemiologia , Espondilartrite/diagnóstico , Espondilartrite/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(5)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142489

RESUMO

Pulmonary agenesis is a rare developmental disorder with many syndromic associations. Type III agenesis presents with variable amounts of bronchial tree, pulmonary parenchyma and supporting vasculature. It is also reported to be associated with dextrocardia due to shifting of the heart to occupy the space left by the underdeveloped lung, which occurs as early as the fourth week of gestation. Right lung agenesis is considered rarer than its left-sided counterpart and also has a poorer prognosis due to increased chances of respiratory infections. We report a case of isolated right-sided lung hypoplasia with dextrocardia without situs inversus or heterotaxy.


Assuntos
Dextrocardia/complicações , Pulmão/anormalidades , Adolescente , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dextrocardia/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Transtornos da Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Doenças Raras
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(5)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126931

RESUMO

A 43-year-old man presented with acute onset rapidly progressive weakness in all four limbs (proximal greater than distal), following an episode of binge alcohol ingestion, and was admitted for evaluation and management. There was a history of decreased urine output since 2 days with dark-coloured urine. He was found to have severe hypokalemia and renal dysfunction. Serum creatine kinase was significantly high, and further investigation revealed significantly elevated serum and urine myoglobin levels suggestive of rhabdomyolysis, which was secondary to severe hypokalemia. Following supplementation with intravenous and oral potassium and supportive care, the weakness improved significantly, and he was subsequently discharged. This case describes severe hypokalemia, resulting in rhabdomyolysis and generalised lower motor neuron weakness, in a setting of binge alcohol ingestion, which is an entity rarely described in literature.


Assuntos
Bebedeira , Hipopotassemia/diagnóstico , Potássio/uso terapêutico , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/sangue , Hipopotassemia/complicações , Hipopotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Potássio/administração & dosagem , Rabdomiólise/complicações
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