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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 415-423, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the absence of randomised head-to-head trials, we conducted a population-adjusted indirect treatment comparison (PA-ITC) of phase III trial data to evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of maintenance olaparib and bevacizumab alone and in combination in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation (BRCAm). METHODS: An unanchored PA-ITC was performed on investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) data. Individual patient data from SOLO1 (olaparib versus placebo) and from BRCA-mutated patients in PAOLA-1/ENGOT-ov25 (olaparib plus bevacizumab versus placebo plus bevacizumab) were pooled. Each arm of PAOLA-1 was weighted so that key baseline patient characteristics were similar to the SOLO1 cohort. Analyses were performed in patients with complete baseline data. Weighted Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the comparative efficacy of different maintenance therapy strategies, supplemented by weighted Kaplan-Meier analyses. RESULTS: Data from SOLO1 patients (olaparib, n = 254; placebo, n = 126) were compared with data from BRCA-mutated PAOLA-1 patients (olaparib plus bevacizumab, n = 151; placebo plus bevacizumab, n = 71). Adding bevacizumab to olaparib was associated with a numerical improvement in PFS compared with olaparib alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-1.09). Statistically significant improvements in PFS were seen with olaparib alone versus placebo plus bevacizumab (HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.30-0.75), olaparib plus bevacizumab versus placebo (0.23; 0.14-0.34), and placebo plus bevacizumab versus placebo (0.65; 0.43-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Results of this hypothesis-generating PA-ITC analysis support the use of maintenance olaparib alone or with bevacizumab in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCAm.

2.
JAMA Oncol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647981

RESUMO

Importance: A total of 1% to 3% of patients treated with a poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor for high-grade ovarian cancer (HGOC) develop therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs), which are rare but often fatal conditions. Although the cause of these t-MNs is unknown, clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) variants can increase the risk of primary myeloid malignant neoplasms and are more frequent among patients with solid tumors. Objectives: To examine whether preexisting CHIP variants are associated with the development of t-MNs after rucaparib treatment and how these CHIP variants are affected by treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective genetic association study used peripheral blood cell (PBC) samples collected before rucaparib treatment from patients in the multicenter, single-arm ARIEL2 (Study of Rucaparib in Patients With Platinum-Sensitive, Relapsed, High-Grade Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer) (n = 491; between October 30, 2013, and August 9, 2016) and the multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind ARIEL3 (Study of Rucaparib as Switch Maintenance Following Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Patients With Platinum-Sensitive, High-Grade Serous or Endometrioid Epithelial Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal or Fallopian Tube Cancer) (n = 561; between April 7, 2014, and July 19, 2016), which tested rucaparib as HGOC therapy in the treatment and maintenance settings, respectively. The follow-up data cutoff date was September 1, 2019. Of 1052 patients in ARIEL2 and ARIEL3, PBC samples from 20 patients who developed t-MNs (cases) and 44 randomly selected patients who did not (controls) were analyzed for the presence of CHIP variants using targeted next-generation sequencing. Additional longitudinal analysis was performed on available ARIEL2 samples collected during treatment and at the end of treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Enrichment analysis of preexisting variants in 10 predefined CHIP-associated genes in cases relative to controls; association with clinical correlates. Results: Among 1052 patients (mean [SE] age, 61.7 [0.3] years) enrolled and dosed in ARIEL2 and ARIEL3, 22 (2.1%) developed t-MNs. The t-MNs were associated with longer overall exposure to prior platinum therapies (13.2 vs 9.0 months in ARIEL2, P = .04; 12.4 vs 9.6 months in ARIEL3, P = .003). The presence of homologous recombination repair gene variants in the tumor, either germline or somatic, was associated with increased prevalence of t-MNs (15 [4.1%] of 369 patients with HGOC associated with an HRR gene variant vs 7 [1.0%] of 683 patients with wild-type HGOC, P = .002). The prevalence of preexisting CHIP variants in TP53 but not other CHIP-associated genes at a variant allele frequency of 1% or greater was significantly higher in PBCs from cases vs controls (9 [45.0%] of 20 cases vs 6 [13.6%] of 44 controls, P = .009). TP53 CHIP was associated with longer prior exposure to platinum (mean 14.0 months of 15 TP53 CHIP cases vs 11.1 months of 49 non-TP53 CHIP cases; P = .02). Longitudinal analysis showed that preexisting TP53 CHIP variants expanded in patients who developed t-MNs. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this genetic association study suggest that preexisting TP53 CHIP variants may be associated with t-MNs after rucaparib treatment.

3.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe molecular and clinical characteristics of patients with high-grade recurrent ovarian carcinoma (HGOC) who had long-term responses to the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor rucaparib. METHODS: This post hoc analysis pooled patients from Study 10 (NCT01482715; Parts 2A and 2B; n = 54) and ARIEL2 (NCT01891344; Parts 1 and 2; n = 491). Patients with investigator-assessed complete or partial response per RECIST were classified based on duration of response (DOR): long (≥1 year), intermediate (6 months to <1 year), or short (<6 months). Next-generation sequencing was used to detect deleterious mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumors. RESULTS: Overall, 25.3% (138/545) of enrolled patients were responders. Of these, 27.5% (38/138) had long-term responses; 28.3% (39/138) were intermediate- and 34.8% (48/138) were short-term responders. Most of the long-term responders harbored a BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA) mutation (71.1%, 27/38), and BRCA structural variants were most frequent among long-term responders (14.8%; 4/27). Responders with HGOC harboring a BRCA structural variant (n = 5) had significantly longer DOR than patients with other mutation types (n = 81; median not reached vs 0.62 years; HR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.10-0.43; unadjusted p = 0.014). Among responders with BRCA wild-type HGOC, most long- and intermediate-term responders had high genome-wide LOH: 81.8% (9/11) and 76.9% (10/13), respectively, including 7 with deleterious RAD51C, RAD51D, or CDK12 mutations. CONCLUSION: Among patients who responded to rucaparib, a substantial proportion achieved responses lasting ≥1 year. These analyses demonstrate the relationship between DOR to PARP inhibitor treatment and molecular characteristics in HGOC, such as presence of reversion-resistant BRCA structural variants.

4.
JCI Insight ; 6(18)2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549724

RESUMO

Large independent analyses on cancer cell lines followed by functional studies have identified Schlafen 11 (SLFN11), a putative helicase, as the strongest predictor of sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents (DDAs), including platinum. However, its role as a prognostic biomarker is undefined, partially due to the lack of validated methods to score SLFN11 in human tissues. Here, we implemented a pipeline to quantify SLFN11 in human cancer samples. By analyzing a cohort of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) specimens before platinum-based chemotherapy treatment, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that SLFN11 density in both the neoplastic and microenvironmental components was independently associated with favorable outcome. We observed SLFN11 expression in both infiltrating innate and adaptive immune cells, and analyses in a second, independent, cohort revealed that SLFN11 was associated with immune activation in HGSOC. We found that platinum treatments activated immune-related pathways in ovarian cancer cells in an SLFN11-dependent manner, representative of tumor-immune transactivation. Moreover, SLFN11 expression was induced in activated, isolated immune cell subpopulations, hinting that SLFN11 in the immune compartment may be an indicator of immune transactivation. In summary, we propose SLFN11 is a dual biomarker capturing simultaneously interconnected immunological and cancer cell-intrinsic functional dispositions associated with sensitivity to DDA treatment.

5.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The randomized phase 3 CORAIL trial evaluated whether lurbinectedin improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) or topotecan in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to lurbinectedin 3.2 mg/m2 1-h i.v. infusion q3wk (experimental arm), versus PLD 50 mg/m2 1-h i.v. infusion q4wk or topotecan 1.50 mg/m2 30-min i.v. infusion Days 1-5 q3wk (control arm). Stratification factors were PS (0 vs. ≥1), prior PFI (1-3 months vs. >3 months), and prior chemotherapy lines (1-2 vs. 3). The primary endpoint was PFS by Independent Review Committee in all randomized patients. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02421588. RESULTS: 442 patients were randomized: 221 in lurbinectedin arm and 221 in control arm (127 PLD and 94 topotecan). With a median follow-up of 25.6 months, median PFS was 3.5 months (95% CI, 2.1-3.7) in the lurbinectedin arm and 3.6 months (95% CI, 2.7-3.8) in the control arm (stratified log-rank p = 0.6294; HR = 1.057). Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were most frequent in the control arm: 64.8% vs. 47.9% (p = 0.0005), mainly due to hematological toxicities. The most common grade ≥ 3 AEs were: fatigue (7.3% of patients) and nausea (5.9%) with lurbinectedin; mucosal inflammation (8.5%) and fatigue (8.0%) in the control arm. CONCLUSIONS: The primary endpoint of improvement in PFS was not met. Lurbinectedin showed similar antitumor efficacy and was better tolerated than current standard of care in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503204

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune infiltration is a prognostic factor in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) but immunotherapy efficacy is disappointing. Genomic instability is now used to guide the therapeutic value of PARP inhibitors. We aimed to investigate exome-derived parameters to assess the tumor microenvironment according to genomic instability profile. METHODS: We used the HGSC TCGA (the cancer genome atlas) dataset with genomic characteristics, including homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), copy number variant (CNV) signatures, TCR (T cell receptor) clonality and abundance of tissue-infiltrating immune and stromal cell populations. We then investigated the relationship with survival data. RESULTS: In 578 HGSC patients, HRD status, CNV signature 7 and TCR clonality were associated with longer survival. The combination of high CNV signature 7 expression and HRD status or high CNV signature 3 expression and high TCR clonality was associated with a trend towards longer survival compared to each variable alone. Combining T cell infiltrate and TCR clonality improved the prognostic value compared to T cells infiltration alone. Prognostic value of TCR clonality was confirmed in an independent cohort. CONCLUSIONS: TCR clonality is an emerging prognostic biomarker that improves T cell infiltrate information. Analysis of TCR clonality combined with genomic instability could be an interesting prognostic biomarker.

8.
J Gynecol Oncol ; 32(5): e82, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The addition of maintenance olaparib to bevacizumab demonstrated a significant progression-free survival (PFS) benefit in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer in the PAOLA-1/ENGOT-ov25 trial (NCT02477644). We evaluated maintenance olaparib plus bevacizumab in the Japan subset of PAOLA-1. METHODS: PAOLA-1 was a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial. Patients received maintenance olaparib tablets 300 mg twice daily or placebo twice daily for up to 24 months, plus bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks for up to 15 months in total. This prespecified subgroup analysis evaluated investigator-assessed PFS (primary endpoint). RESULTS: Of 24 randomized Japanese patients, 15 were assigned to olaparib and 9 to placebo. After a median follow-up for PFS of 27.7 months for olaparib plus bevacizumab and 24.0 months for placebo plus bevacizumab, median PFS was 27.4 versus 19.4 months, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]=0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.11-1.00). In patients with tumors positive for homologous recombination deficiency, the HR for PFS was 0.57 (95% CI=0.16-2.09). Adverse events in the Japan subset were generally consistent with those of the PAOLA-1 overall population and with the established safety and tolerability profiles of olaparib and bevacizumab. CONCLUSION: Results in the Japan subset of PAOLA-1 support the overall conclusion of the PAOLA-1 trial demonstrating that the addition of maintenance olaparib to bevacizumab provides a PFS benefit in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02477644.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas
9.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This phase II clinical trial evaluated the safety and antitumor activity of balstilimab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, in patients with previously-treated, recurrent/metastatic cervical cancer. METHODS: Eligible patients were 18 years or older with recurrent and/or metastatic cervical cancer and who had relapsed after a prior platinum-based treatment regimen for advanced disease. Balstilimab was administered intravenously at 3 mg/kg once every two weeks, for up to 24 months. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR, RECIST v1.1) as assessed by an independent review committee. RESULTS: At data cutoff, 161 women (median age, 53 years [range 25-81]) were enrolled and treated with balstilimab. Of these, 140 had measurable disease at baseline and one prior line of platinum-based therapy in the metastatic, persistent, or recurrent setting; these patients were included in the efficacy analyses. The ORR was 15% (95% CI, 10.0%-21.8%) and included 5 patients with a complete response and 16 with a partial response. The median duration of response was 15.4 months. In patients with PD-L1-positive tumors the ORR was 20%, however patients with PD-L1-negative tumors also responded to balstilimab (ORR, 7.9%). Responses were not restricted to tumors of squamous cell histology, and an ORR of 12.5% was seen in the subset of patients with cervical adenocarcinoma. The disease control rate was 49.3% (95% CI, 41.1%-57.5%). Immune-mediated enterocolitis (3.1%) and diarrhea (1.9%) were the most common grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events. CONCLUSION: Balstilimab demonstrated meaningful and durable clinical activity, with manageable safety, in patients with previously-treated, recurrent/metastatic cervical cancer.

10.
Gynecol Oncol ; 163(1): 64-71, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognostic significance of endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is controversial. We compared clinical, pathological, and biological features of patients with endometrioid and serous EOC, and assessed the independent effect of histology on outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of patients with EOC selected from the French Epidemiological Strategy and Medical Economics OC database between 2011 and 2016. Our main objective was to compare overall survival (OS) in endometrioid and serous tumors of all grades. Our second objectives were progression-free survival (PFS) and prognostic features. RESULTS: Out of 10,263 patients included, 3180 cases with a confirmed diagnosis of serous (N = 2854) or endometrioid (N = 326) EOC were selected. Patients with endometrioid histology were younger, more often diagnosed at an early stage, with lower-grade tumors, more frequently dMMR/MSI-high, and presented more personal/familial histories of Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. BRCA1/2 mutations were more frequently identified in the serous population. Endometrioid patients were less likely to receive chemotherapy, with less bevacizumab. After median follow-up of 51.7 months (95CI[50.1-53.6]), five-year OS rate was 81% (95CI[74-85]) in the endometrioid subgroup vs. 55% (95CI[53-57] in the serous subset (p < 0.001, log-rank test). In multivariate analyses including [age, ECOG-PS, FIGO, grade, and histology], the endometrioid subtype was independently associated with better OS (HR = 0.38, 95CI[0.20-0.70], p= 0.002) and PFS (HR = 0.53, 95CI[0.37-0.75], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicopathological features at diagnosis are not the same for endometrioid and serous EOC. Endometrioid histology is an independent prognosis factor in EOC. These observations suggest the endometrioid population requires dedicated clinical trials and management.

11.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 99: 102255, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332292

RESUMO

Poly-(ADP)-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are a class of oral anticancer drugs first developed as "synthetically lethal" in cancers harboring BRCA1/BRCA2 inactivating mutations. In high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian cancers (HGOC), PARPi demonstrated benefit as maintenance therapy in relapsing BRCA-mutated and non-mutated tumors. Recently, they extended their indications to frontline maintenance therapy. This review summarizes the current place of PARPi (i) as maintenance or single agent in recurrent disease and (ii) frontline maintenance with different settings. We reviewed the course of biomarker identification, the challenge of overcoming resistance to PARPi and future combinations with targeted therapies, including anti-angiogenic, immune checkpoint inhibitors and DNA damage response inhibitors.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282771

RESUMO

(1) Background: locally resected high-grade sarcomas relapse in 40% of cases. There is no prognostic or predictive genomic marker for response to peri-operative chemotherapy. (2) Methods: MOSCATO and ProfiLER are pan-tumor prospective precision medicine trials for advanced tumors. Molecular analysis in both trials comprised targeted next-generation sequencing and comparative genomic hybridization array. We investigated if molecular alterations identified in these trials in sarcomas were associated with disease-free survival (DFS) and response to anthracyclines. (3) Results: this analysis included 215 sarcomas, amongst which 53 leiomyosarcomas, 27 rhabdomyosarcomas, 20 undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, and 17 liposarcomas. The most frequently altered gene was TP53 (46 mutations and eight deletions). There were 149 surgically resected localized sarcomas. Median DFS in TP53 wild type (WT), deleted, and mutated sarcomas was 16, 10, and 10 months, respectively (p = 0.028; deletions: HR = 1.55; 95% CI = 0.75-3.19; mutations: HR = 1.70; 95%CI = 1.13-2.64). In multivariate analysis, TP53 mutations remained associated with shorter DFS (p = 0.027; HR = 2.30; 95%CI = 1.10-4.82). There were 161 localized and advanced sarcomas evaluable for response to anthracyclines. Objective response rates were 35% and 55% in TP53 WT and mutated sarcomas, respectively (OR = 2.24; 95%CI = 1.01-5.03; p = 0.05). In multivariate analysis, TP53 mutations remained associated with increased response (OR = 3.24; 95%CI = 1.30-8.45; p = 0.01). (4) Conclusions: TP53 mutations are associated with shorter DFS and increased response to anthracyclines. Post-validation, these findings could assist in decision-making for peri-operative treatments.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298729

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a major public health challenge, and faces disparities and delays in the diagnosis and access to care. Our purposes were to describe the medical path of PDAC patients in the real-life setting and evaluate the overall survival at 1 year. We used the national hospital discharge summaries database system to analyze the management of patients with newly diagnosed PDAC over the year 2016 in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region (AuRA) (France). A total of 1872 patients met inclusion criteria corresponding to an incidence of 22.6 per 100,000 person-year. Within the follow-up period, 353 (18.9%) were operated with a curative intent, 743 (39.7%) underwent chemo- and/or radiotherapy, and 776 (41.4%) did not receive any of these treatments. Less than half of patients were operated in a high-volume center, defined by more than 20 PDAC resections performed annually, mainly university hospitals. The 1-year survival rate was 47% in the overall population. This study highlights that a significant number of patients with PDAC are still operated in low-volume centers or do not receive any specific oncological treatment. A detailed analysis of the medical pathways is necessary in order to identify the medical and territorial determinants and their impact on the patient's outcome.

14.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 18(4): 515-520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to describe genomic alterations on squamous cell cervical and anal carcinomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2013 to 2019, 3,269 patients were included in the molecular screening ProfiLER trial. Only patients with non-metastatic cervical or anal cancer, and those initially treated with radiotherapy in a curative intent were selected. Genetic analyses were performed by next generation sequencing (NGS). RESULTS: Genomic alterations were observed in most patients: 5 patients out of 15 (33.3%) had at least one mutation on NGS and 4 out of 15 (26.7%) had at least one aberration of the number of copies of genes in the comparative genomic hybridation (CGH) analysis. The most common mutated gene was PIK3CA. CONCLUSION: All omic approaches must be integrated in the locally advanced cancer setting by new clinical trial design to develop two routes in the treatment strategy: intensification or de-escalation treatment strategy according to omic markers.

15.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(7): 1034-1046, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with ovarian cancer will relapse after receiving frontline platinum-based chemotherapy and eventually develop platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory disease. We report results of avelumab alone or avelumab plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) compared with PLD alone in patients with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory ovarian cancer. METHODS: JAVELIN Ovarian 200 was an open-label, parallel-group, three-arm, randomised, phase 3 trial, done at 149 hospitals and cancer treatment centres in 24 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer (maximum of three previous lines for platinum-sensitive disease, none for platinum-resistant disease) and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) via interactive response technology to avelumab (10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks), avelumab plus PLD (40 mg/m2 intravenously every 4 weeks), or PLD and stratified by disease platinum status, number of previous anticancer regimens, and bulky disease. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival by blinded independent central review and overall survival in all randomly assigned patients, with the objective to show whether avelumab alone or avelumab plus PLD is superior to PLD. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02580058. The trial is no longer enrolling patients and this is the final analysis of both primary endpoints. FINDINGS: Between Jan 5, 2016, and May 16, 2017, 566 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned (combination n=188; PLD n=190, avelumab n=188). At data cutoff (Sept 19, 2018), median duration of follow-up for overall survival was 18·4 months (IQR 15·6-21·9) for the combination group, 17·4 months (15·2-21·3) for the PLD group, and 18·2 months (15·8-21·2) for the avelumab group. Median progression-free survival by blinded independent central review was 3·7 months (95% CI 3·3-5·1) in the combination group, 3·5 months (2·1-4·0) in the PLD group, and 1·9 months (1·8-1·9) in the avelumab group (combination vs PLD: stratified HR 0·78 [repeated 93·1% CI 0·59-1·24], one-sided p=0·030; avelumab vs PLD: 1·68 [1·32-2·60], one-sided p>0·99). Median overall survival was 15·7 months (95% CI 12·7-18·7) in the combination group, 13·1 months (11·8-15·5) in the PLD group, and 11·8 months (8·9-14·1) in the avelumab group (combination vs PLD: stratified HR 0·89 [repeated 88·85% CI 0·74-1·24], one-sided p=0·21; avelumab vs PLD: 1·14 [0·95-1·58], one-sided p=0·83]). The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (18 [10%] in the combination group vs nine [5%] in the PLD group vs none in the avelumab group), rash (11 [6%] vs three [2%] vs none), fatigue (ten [5%] vs three [2%] vs none), stomatitis (ten [5%] vs five [3%] vs none), anaemia (six [3%] vs nine [5%] vs three [2%]), neutropenia (nine [5%] vs nine [5%] vs none), and neutrophil count decreased (eight [5%] vs seven [4%] vs none). Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in 32 (18%) patients in the combination group, 19 (11%) in the PLD group, and 14 (7%) in the avelumab group. Treatment-related adverse events resulted in death in one patient each in the PLD group (sepsis) and avelumab group (intestinal obstruction). INTERPRETATION: Neither avelumab plus PLD nor avelumab alone significantly improved progression-free survival or overall survival versus PLD. These results provide insights for patient selection in future studies of immune checkpoint inhibitors in platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory ovarian cancer. FUNDING: Pfizer and Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Platina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/análogos & derivados , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Compostos de Platina/efeitos adversos , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 33(5): 442-446, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172594

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Guidelines are essential to support appropriate medical management. The objective of our paper is to highlight the need for such recommendations, to reinforce strategies in place and to promote the creation of multidisciplinary networks to provide the most appropriate care to patients and to improve it. RECENT FINDINGS: Gynecological rare cancers are not that rare since they represent around 50% of all gynecological cancers. Surgery remains the cornerstone of management for all subtypes. Apart from malignant ovarian germ-cell tumors for which conventional chemotherapy was proven to be efficient, response to standard systemic treatment for other gynecological cancers are disappointing. Better understanding of these pathologies is needed and requires more adapted management. SUMMARY: Rare cancers are substantially heterogeneous but raise the need of integrating new cases in dedicated networks to enhance and homogenize medical practices. Centralized diagnosis, improved medical practice based on regularly updated international guidelines, and inclusion in innovative clinical trials linked to preclinical studies are essential to contribute to the promotion of improvement in patient care.

17.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 631, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatial inequalities in cancer management have been evidenced by studies reporting lower quality of care or/and lower survival for patients living in remote or socially deprived areas. NETSARC+ is a national reference network implemented to improve the outcome of sarcoma patients in France since 2010, providing remote access to specialized diagnosis and Multidisciplinary Tumour Board (MTB). The IGéAS research program aims to assess the potential of this innovative organization, with remote management of cancers including rare tumours, to go through geographical barriers usually impeding the optimal management of cancer patients. METHODS: Using the nationwide NETSARC+ databases, the individual, clinical and geographical determinants of the access to sarcoma-specialized diagnosis and MTB were analysed. The IGéAS cohort (n = 20,590) includes all patients living in France with first sarcoma diagnosis between 2011 and 2014. Early access was defined as specialised review performed before 30 days of sampling and as first sarcoma MTB discussion performed before the first surgery. RESULTS: Some clinical populations are at highest risk of initial management without access to sarcoma specialized services, such as patients with non-GIST visceral sarcoma for diagnosis [OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.78 to 2.15] and MTB discussion [OR 3.56, 95% CI 3.16 to 4.01]. Social deprivation of the municipality is not associated with early access on NETSARC+ remote services. The quintile of patients furthest away from reference centres have lower chances of early access to specialized diagnosis [OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.31] and MTB discussion [OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.40] but this influence of the distance is slight in comparison with clinical factors and previous studies on the access to cancer-specialized facilities. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of national organization driven by reference network, distance to reference centres slightly alters the early access to sarcoma specialized services and social deprivation has no impact on it. The reference networks' organization, designed to improve the access to specialized services and the quality of cancer management, can be considered as an interesting device to reduce social and spatial inequalities in cancer management. The potential of this organization must be confirmed by further studies, including survival analysis.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Consulta Remota/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarcoma/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Consulta Remota/organização & administração , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Immunol ; 206(10): 2265-2270, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931486

RESUMO

NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes displaying strong antimetastatic activity. Mouse models and in vitro studies suggest a prominent role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase in the control of NK cell homeostasis and antitumor functions. However, mTOR inhibitors are used as chemotherapies in several cancer settings. The impact of such treatments on patients' NK cells is unknown. We thus performed immunophenotyping of circulating NK cells from metastatic breast cancer patients treated with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus over a three-month period. Everolimus treatment resulted in inhibition of mTORC1 activity in peripheral NK cells, whereas mTORC2 activity was preserved. NK cell homeostasis was profoundly altered with a contraction of the NK cell pool and an overall decrease in their maturation. Phenotype and function of the remaining NK cell population was less affected. This is, to our knowledge, the first in vivo characterization of the role of mTOR in human NK cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Prospectivos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 33(4): 345-350, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009140

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article, focus on recently published data of the last 18 months on the management of gynecologic sarcomas. RECENT FINDINGS: Different tools have been studied to identify the differences between benign from malignant uterine conjonctive tumor.Molecular biology impact more and more on the diagnosis of uterine sarcoma with new definitions of very specific groups. This will make it possible to better define the last group of endometrial sarcoma which has been defined as undifferentiated.In several articles, surgical approaches and fertility-sparing surgery were described including the role of surgery for recurrences.Some other articles have evaluated the potential benefice of adjuvant therapy for uterine sarcoma with early stages.Several new targeted therapies are in development. Notably deoxyribonucleic acid repair machinery in uterine leiomyosarcoma and also immune therapies, transforming growth factor beta pathway, mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitor, anti angiogenics, etc. SUMMARY: This last year the potential interest for uterine sarcoma increased, demonstrated by the increasing number of publications in the literature compared to previous years. Despite this greater interest over time, the standard of care for uterine sarcoma does not change and we are always waiting for new innovative therapies able to change routine practice and survival of patients. Currently, the result of different clinical trials, which include new options as targeted molecular approach or immune checkpoint inhibitors are closed to be reported.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Humanos , Leiomiossarcoma/diagnóstico , Leiomiossarcoma/terapia , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sarcoma do Estroma Endometrial/diagnóstico , Sarcoma do Estroma Endometrial/terapia
20.
Gynecol Oncol ; 162(1): 226-234, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934848

RESUMO

Serous endometrial cancer represents a relative rare entity accounting for about 10% of all diagnosed endometrial cancer, but it is responsible for 40% of endometrial cancer-related deaths. Patients with serous endometrial cancer are often diagnosed at earlier disease stage, but remain at higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis when compared stage-for-stage with endometrioid subtype endometrial cancer. Serous endometrial cancers are characterized by marked nuclear atypia and abnormal p53 staining in immunohistochemistry. The mainstay of treatment for newly diagnosed serous endometrial cancer includes a multi-modal therapy with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Unfortunately, despite these efforts, survival outcomes still remain poor. Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network classified all endometrial cancer types into four categories, of which, serous endometrial cancer mostly is found within the "copy number high" group. This group is characterized by the increased cell cycle deregulation (e.g., CCNE1, MYC, PPP2R1A, PIKCA, ERBB2 and CDKN2A) and TP53 mutations (90%). To date, the combination of pembrolizumab and lenvatinib is an effective treatment modality in second-line therapy, with a response rate of 50% in advanced/recurrent serous endometrial cancer. Owing to the unfavorable outcomes of serous endometrial cancer, clinical trials are a priority. At present, ongoing studies are testing novel combinations of various targeted and immunotherapeutic agents in newly diagnosed and advanced/recurrent endometrial cancer - an important strategy for serous endometrial cancer, whereby tumors are usually p53+ and pMMR, making response to PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy unlikely. Here, the rare tumor working group (including members from the European Society of Gynecologic Oncology (ESGO), Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG), and Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG)), performed a narrative review reporting on the current landscape of serous endometrial cancer and focusing on standard and emerging therapeutic options for patients affected by this difficult disease.

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