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1.
Oncologist ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575788

RESUMO

Treatment options for women with recurrent ovarian cancer who have received two or more prior lines of chemotherapy have recently expanded with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Commission (EC) approvals of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor rucaparib. As more oncologists begin to use rucaparib and other PARP inhibitors as part of routine clinical practice, awareness of possible side effects and how to adequately manage toxicities is crucial. In this review, we summarize the safety and tolerability of rucaparib reported in an integrated safety analysis that supported the FDA's initial approval of rucaparib in the treatment setting. Additionally, drawing on clinical data and our personal experience with rucaparib, we provide our recommendations on the management of common side effects observed with rucaparib, including anemia, blood creatinine elevations, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase elevations, thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal-related events (e.g., nausea, vomiting), and asthenia and fatigue. These side effects, many of which appear to be class effects of PARP inhibitors, are often self-limiting and can be managed with adequate interventions such as treatment interruption and/or dose reduction and the use of supportive therapies. Supportive therapies may include blood transfusions for patients with anemia, prophylactic medications to prevent nausea and vomiting, or behavioral interventions to mitigate fatigue. Understanding and appropriate management of potential side effects associated with rucaparib may allow patients with ovarian cancer to continue to benefit from rucaparib treatment. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Rucaparib was recently approved in the U.S. and European Union for use as treatment or maintenance for recurrent ovarian cancer. This review focuses on the safety and tolerability of rucaparib in the treatment setting. Similar side effects are observed in the maintenance setting. Drawing on the authors' clinical experience with rucaparib, rucaparib prescribing information, and published supportive cancer care guidelines, this review discusses how to optimally manage common rucaparib-associated side effects in patients with advanced ovarian cancer in the real-world oncology setting. Adequate management of such side effects is crucial for allowing patients with ovarian cancer to remain on treatment to receive optimal efficacy benefit.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411521

RESUMO

Background: Management of Adolescent and Young Adults (AYAs) cancer is very heterogeneous. In the case of lymphomas, outcomes are mostly favorable but there is still room for improvement. Design: We retrospectively collected the pattern of care of all institutional 13- to 25-year-old AYAs patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed in the Rhône-Alpes region between the years 2000 and 2005. Management, including adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs), and long-term survival were analyzed by comparing adult units (AU) and pediatric units (PU). Results: 278 patients were included: 198 treated for HL (median age of 19 years), 80 treated for NHL (median age of 20 years). Among them, 74% were managed in AU and 26% in PU. The median time between diagnosis and starting treatment was significantly lower in PU than in AU. Sixty-five patients (23%) were included in clinical trials, mostly in AU. Five-year overall survival was 96% for HL [14 deaths, median follow-up 91 months (9-180)] and 90% for NHL [nine deaths, median follow-up 80 months (3-180)]. Secondary cancers occurred for 2% (n = 3) of HL patients and for none in NHL. Other major late complications included cardiovascular accidents in two patients and fatal pulmonary fibrosis in one patient. Major differences in chemotherapy and radiotherapy use are emphasized. Global management conformed to CPGs by 56%. Conclusions: Important differences between adult and pediatric management were reported, without any impact on survival. A few patients can be included in clinical trials: Homogeneity in management could improve specific care for AYAs.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381147

RESUMO

AGO-OVAR 12 investigated the effect of adding the oral triple angiokinase inhibitor nintedanib to standard front-line chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer. At the primary analysis, nintedanib demonstrated significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS; primary endpoint) compared with placebo. We report final results, including overall survival (OS). Patients with primary debulked International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIB-IV newly diagnosed ovarian cancer were randomised 2:1 to receive carboplatin (area under the curve 5 or 6) plus paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 ) on day 1 every 3 weeks for six cycles combined with either nintedanib 200 mg or placebo twice daily on days 2-21 every 3 weeks for up to 120 weeks. Between December 2009 and July 2011, 1,366 patients were randomised (911 to nintedanib, 455 to placebo). Disease was considered as high risk (FIGO stage III with >1 cm residuum, or any stage IV) in 39%. At the final analysis, 605 patients (44%) had died. There was no difference in OS (hazard ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.17, p = 0.86; median 62.0 months with nintedanib vs. 62.8 months with placebo). Subgroup analyses according to stratification factors, clinical characteristics and risk status showed no OS difference between treatments. The previously reported PFS improvement seen with nintedanib did not translate into an OS benefit in the nonhigh-risk subgroup. Updated PFS results were consistent with the primary analysis (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.98; p = 0.029) favouring nintedanib. The safety profile was consistent with previous reports.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(27): 2406-2415, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403866
5.
Eur J Cancer ; 118: 156-165, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to identify actionable genomic alterations in the gynaecological subpopulation of the ProfiLER programme and to report clinical efficacy of recommended targeted treatment (RTT). METHODS: The ProfiLER programme (NCT01774409) is a multicentric prospective trial aiming to implement molecular profiling in patients with advanced refractory cancers. In this programme, tumour DNA is analysed by targeted next-generation sequencing (69 genes) and by whole genome array comparative genomic hybridisation. Clinical cases and genomic profiles are presented in a dedicated molecular tumour board to guide treatment strategies. We report here an analysis of patients with gynaecological cancers included in this trial. RESULTS: From February 2013 to February 2017, 309 patients with gynaecologic cancer were included; 279 (90%) had sufficient quality, and 131 patients (42.4%) had at least one actionable genomic alteration in cancer cells. Four alterations were shared by at least 3% of the patients: 27 (9.7%) PIK3CA mutations, 15 (5.4%) KRAS mutations, 11 (3.9%) ERBB2 amplifications and 9 (3.2%) CDKN2A deletions. Forty-one treatments were initiated among 39 patients (12.6% of the screened population): 8 (20%) had a partial response, and other 10 (24%) had a stable disease. The median progression-free survival was 2.7 months. The median overall survival was 15.6 months for patients who received a RTT. CONCLUSION: Molecular profiling identified actionable alterations in 42.4% of patients with advanced refractory gynaecologic cancer, but only 12.6% were treated with a RTT. Among them, 46% derived clinical benefit (5.8% of the screened population).

6.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 31(5): 394-403, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335830

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past few years, the advent of PARP inhibitors has been a revolution in the management of ovarian cancer. Patients harboring somatic or germ line BRCA1/2 mutations exhibit different clinical and treatment response behavior. The BRCA gene is involved in repairing DNA repair via homologous recombination, and mutation of this gene leads to homologous recombination deficiency (HRD). RECENT FINDINGS: HRD constitutes a therapeutic opportunity for these patients, thanks to the development of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) in the late 2000s. Indeed, using PARPi in patients with HRD simultaneously compromises two mechanisms of DNA repair, resulting in synthetic lethality. SUMMARY: This breakthrough in clinical practice has raised remaining questions: which population will most benefit from PARPi? Are all ovarian cancers susceptible to synthetic lethal strategy? At which stage of ovarian cancer should PARPi be used? Is earlier always better? Are PARPi all equivalent? Which strategies are reasonable to overcome PARPi resistance? Which combination strategies should be efficient?

7.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(9): 1263-1272, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Desmoid tumours are locally aggressive tumours associated with substantial morbidity. No systemic treatments are approved for this disease, with methotrexate-vinblastine the only chemotherapy regimen assessed in a clinical trial setting to date. VEGF overexpression is a common feature in aggressive desmoid tumours. Pazopanib is an oral antiangiogenic agent targeting VEGF receptors 1, 2, and 3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-like protein (PDGFR) α and ß, and c-KIT tyrosine kinases. We aimed to assess antitumour activity and safety of targeted therapy or combination chemotherapy in progressive desmoid tumours. METHODS: DESMOPAZ was a non-comparative, randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial conducted at 12 centres from the French Sarcoma Group. We enrolled adults (≥18 years) with progressive desmoid tumours, normal organ function and centrally documented progressive disease according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 based on two imaging assessments obtained within less than a 6-month interval. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to oral pazopanib 800 mg per day for up to 1 year or to an intravenous regimen combining vinblastine (5 mg/m2 per dose) and methotrexate (30 mg/m2 per dose), administered weekly for 6 months and then every other week for 6 months. Randomisation was stratified according to inclusion centre and tumour location. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who had not progressed at 6 months in the first 43 patients who had received one complete or two incomplete cycles of pazopanib. This endpoint was also assessed as a prespecified exploratory endpoint in all patients who had received one complete or two incomplete cycles of methotrexate-vinblastane. Safety analyses were done for all patients who received at least one dose of allocated treatment. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01876082. FINDINGS: From Dec 4, 2012, to Aug 18, 2017, 72 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned (n=48 in the pazopanib group; n=24 in the methotrexate-vinblastine group). Median follow-up was 23·4 months (IQR 17·1-25·5). 46 patients in the pazopanib group and 20 patients in the methotrexate-vinblastine group were assessable for activity. In the first 43 patients assessable for the primary endpoint in the pazopanib group, the proportion of patients who had not progressed at 6 months was 83·7% (95% CI 69·3-93·2). The proportion of patients treated with methotrexate-vinblastine who had not progressed at 6 months was 45·0% (95% CI 23·1-68·5). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events in the pazopanib group were hypertension (n=10, 21%) and diarrhoea (n=7, 15%) and in the methotrexate-vinblastine group were neutropenia (n=10, 45%) and liver transaminitis (n=4, 18%). 11 patients (23%) had at least one serious adverse event related to study treatment in the pazopanib group, as did and six patients (27%) in the methotrexate-vinblastine group. INTERPRETATION: Pazopanib has clinical activity in patients with progressive desmoid tumours and could be a valid treatment option in this rare and disabling disease. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline and Novartis.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e030013, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217320

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sarcomas are rare tumours of connective tissue. The exact overall incidence of sarcomas is unknown due to diagnostic difficulties and the various histological subtypes (over 80 subtypes). However, the apparent increasing incidence of sarcomas suggests environmental causes such as pesticides. Except for some specific factors (ie, ionising radiation, vinyl chloride, dioxin and genetic predispositions) the scientific knowledge on the aetiology of sarcomas is sparse and inconsistent. France is a particularly appropriate country to set up a study investigating the causes of sarcoma occurrence due to the French organisation in treatment and care of sarcoma patients, which is highly structured and revolved around national expert networks. The main objective of the ETIOlogy of SARcomas (ETIOSARC) project is to study the role of lifestyle, environmental and occupational factors in the occurrence of sarcomas among adults from a multicentric population-based case-control study. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Cases will be all incident patients (older than 18 years) prospectively identified in 15 districts of France covered by a general population-based cancer registry and/or a reference centre in sarcoma's patient care over a 3-year period with an inclusion start date ranging from February 2019 to January 2020 and histologically confirmed by a second review of the diagnosis. Two controls will be individually matched by sex, age (5 years group) and districts of residence and randomly selected from electoral rolls. A standardised questionnaire will be administered by a trained interviewer in order to gather information about occupational and residential history, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors. At the end of the interview, a saliva sample will be systematically proposed. This study will permit to validate or identify already suspected risk factors for sarcomas such as phenoxyherbicides, chlorophenol and to generate new hypothesis to increase our understanding about the genetic and environmental contributions in the carcinogenicity process. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The present study is promoted by the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (identification number C17-03). This study received National French Ethic committee (CPP Sud Méditerrannée I) approval (identification number 18-31) and French Data Protection Authority (CNIL) approval (identification number 918171). Results of this study will be published in international peer-reviewed journals. Technical appendix, statistical code and dataset will be available in the Dryad repository when collection data are completed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03670927.

9.
Future Oncol ; 15(18): 2139-2149, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185741

RESUMO

Aim: We performed a clinical audit of the management of patients with EGFR mutations, 1 year after the introduction of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) in first-line treatment. Methods: Compliance was defined by tumor molecular profiling for stage IIIB and IV non-small-cell lung cancer and first-line treatment as recommended by the French guidelines. Results: Among the 169 EGFR-mutated patients, compliance was 76.4%. The most common noncompliance criterion was chemotherapy given in first-line treatment instead of EGFR-TKI. No dedicated multidisciplinary meeting and type of institutions were independent unfavorable predictors for compliance. Compliance to guidelines was significantly correlated with time-to-first subsequent treatment improvement (2.5 vs 9.1 months; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Implementation of new standards of care is challenging. Our results reinforce the role of multidisciplinary meetings to provide a better access to innovating therapeutics.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246277

RESUMO

In the OS2006 study, patients younger than 18 years were treated with a methotrexate-based regimen (MTX), patients older than 25 years with a doxorubicin-cisplatin-ifosfamide-based regimen (API-AI), whereas patients aged 18-25 years received either API-AI or MTX. We herein report the prespecified subgroup analysis of the outcome of 106 patients treated with API-AI. Preoperative chemotherapy combined three doxorubicin-ifosfamide-cisplatin (API) and two doxorubicin-ifosfamide (AI) courses. Postoperative chemotherapy was assigned by risk group: localised patients with a good histological response (<10% viable cells) received two AI and two cisplatin-ifosfamide (PI) courses; patients with synchronous metastases, poor histological response or unresectable primary received five cycles of etoposide-ifosfamide (EI). Of the 106 patients, 61 were randomised to receive or not zoledronate. Median age was 30 years (range 18-67), 66 (62%) patients were >25 years. The primary tumours were axial in 28 patients (26%), and 28 (26%) presented with metastases. Ninety-six patients (91%) had surgery, conservative in 82 (85%); 36 patients (38%, 95% CI 28-48%) were good responders. Toxicity was manageable, with no significant difference in severe acute toxicity between patients aged >25 years and those younger. With a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 46% (95% CI 36-56) and 57% (95% CI 47-67), respectively. The primary tumour size and initial metastases correlated with a higher risk of event. In these 106 osteosarcoma adult patients, API-AI proved feasible with no excess of toxicity, and favourable activity despite poor-prognosis factors.

11.
Eur J Cancer ; 116: 35-44, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170563

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rare ovarian tumours include complex borderline ovarian tumours, sex-cord tumours, germ cell tumours and rare epithelial tumours. Indications and modalities of fertility preservation (FP), infertility management, contraindications for hormonal contraception or menopause hormone therapy are frequent issues in clinical practice. A panel of experts from the French national network dedicated to rare gynaecological cancers, and experts in reproductive medicine and gynaecology have built guidelines on FP, contraception and menopause hormone therapy in women treated for ovarian rare tumours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A panel of 35 experts from different specialties contributed to the preparation of the guidelines, following the DELPHI method (formal consensus method). Statements were drafted after a systematic literature review and then rated through two successive rounds. RESULTS: Thirty-five recommendations were identified, concerning indications for FP, contraindications for ovarian stimulation, contraceptive options and menopause hormone therapy for each tumour type. DISCUSSION: Overall, caution has been recommended in the case of potentially hormone-sensitive tumours such as sex-cord tumours, serous and endometrioid low-grade adenocarcinomas, as well as for high-risk serous borderline ovarian tumours. CONCLUSION: In the context of a scarce literature, a formal consensus method allowed the elaboration of guidelines, which will help clinicians in the management of these patients.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(17): 5342-5350, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Regarding cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) longitudinal kinetics during chemotherapy, the actual predictive value of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) CA-125 response criterion is questioned. The modeled CA-125 elimination rate constant KELIM exhibited higher prognostic value in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer enrolled in the CALYPSO trial. The objective was to validate the higher predictive and prognostic values of KELIM during first-line treatments. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Data from three large phase III trials were analyzed: AGO OVAR 9 [learning set: carboplatin-paclitaxel (CP) ± gemcitabine; n = 1,288]; AGO OVAR 7 (validation set: CP ± topotecan; n = 192); and ICON7 (validation set: CP ± bevacizumab; n = 1,388). The CA-125 profiles were fit with a nonlinear mixed-effect model during the first 100 days, and the individual KELIM were calculated. KELIM prognostic and predictive values for survival were assessed against GCIG criterion and other prognostic factors in univariate/multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The GCIG CA-125 endpoint provided no meaningful predictive/prognostic information. C-index analyses confirmed the higher predictive value of KELIM compared with GCIG criterion for progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). KELIM provided reproducible prognostic information. Patients with favorable KELIM ≥ upper tercile (0.0711 per days) consistently experienced better OS, with HRs between 0.44 and 0.58 (e.g., median OS >65 months vs. <35 months). CONCLUSIONS: Modeled KELIM provides higher predictive and prognostic information based on CA-125 longitudinal kinetics compared with GCIG response criteria during first-line chemotherapy. Integration of this endpoint in guidelines may be considered. Individual KELIM and survival simulations can be calculated at http://www.biomarker-kinetics.org/. Further assessment of the surrogate value of KELIM treatment-related variations in a GCIG meta-analysis is warranted.See related commentary by Maitland et al., p. 5182.

13.
Bull Cancer ; 106(4): 354-370, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850152

RESUMO

Faced to an undetermined ovarian mass on ultrasound, an MRI is recommended and the ROMA score (combining CA125 and HE4) can be proposed (grade A). In case of suspected early stage ovarian or fallopian tube cancer, omentectomy (at least infracolonic), appendectomy, multiple peritoneal biopsies, peritoneal cytology (grade C) and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy are recommended (grade B) for all histological types, except for the expansive mucinous subtype where lymphadenectomy may be omitted (grade C). Minimally invasive surgery is recommended for early stage ovarian cancer, if there is no risk of tumor rupture (grade B). Adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel is recommended for all high-grade ovarian or Fallopian tube cancers, stage FIGO I-IIA (grade A). In case of ovarian, Fallopian tube or primitive peritoneal cancer of FIGO III-IV stages, thoraco-abdomino-pelvic CT scan with injection (grade B) is recommended. Laparoscopic exploration for multiple biopsies (grade A) and to evaluate carcinomatosis score (at least using the Fagotti score) (grade C) are recommended to estimate the possibility of a complete surgery (i.e. no macroscopic residue). Complete medial laparotomy surgery is recommended for advanced cancers (grade B). It is recommended in advanced cancers to perform para-aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy in case of clinical or radiological suspicion of metastatic lymph node (grade B). In the absence of clinical or radiological lymphadenopathy and in case of complete peritoneal surgery during an initial surgery for advanced cancer, it is possible not to perform a lymphadenectomy because it does not modify the medical treatment and the overall survival (grade B). Primary surgery is recommended when no tumor residue is possible (grade B). After a complete first surgery, it is recommended to deliver 6 cycles of intravenous (grade A) or to propose intraperitoneal (grade B) chemotherapy, to be discussed with patient, according to the benefit/risk ratio. After a complete interval surgery for a FIGO III stage, the hyperthermic intra peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) can be proposed in the same conditions of the OV-HIPEC trial (grade B). In case of tumor residue after surgery or FIGO stage IV, chemotherapy associated with bevacizumab is recommended (grade A).


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/cirurgia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida , Excisão de Linfonodo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Sociedades Médicas , Ultrassonografia
14.
Int J Cancer ; 145(8): 2135-2143, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924137

RESUMO

Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare tumors accounting for less than 1% of human cancers. While the highest incidence of sarcomas is observed in elderly, this population is often excluded or poorly represented in clinical trials. The present study reports on clinicopathological presentation, and outcome of sarcoma patients over 90 recorded in the Netsarc.org French national database. NETSARC (netsarc.org) is a network of 26 reference sarcoma centers with specialized multidisciplinary tumor board (MDTB), funded by the French National Cancer Institute to improve the outcome of sarcoma patients. Since 2010, presentation to an MDTB, second pathological review, and collection of sarcoma patient characteristics and follow-up are collected in a database Information of patients registered from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2016, in NETSARC were collected, analyzed and compared to the younger population. Patients with sarcomas aged >90 have almost exclusively sarcomas with complex genomics (92.0% vs. 66.3%), are less frequently metastatic (5.3% vs. 14·7%) at diagnosis, have more often superficial tumors (39.8% vs. 14.7%), as well as limbs and head and neck sites (75.2% vs. 38.7%) (all p < 0.001). Optimal diagnostic procedures and surgery were less frequently performed in patients over 90 (p < 0.001). These patients were less frequently operated in NETSARC centers, as compared to those of younger age groups including aged 80-90. However, local relapse-free survival, metastatic relapse-free survival and relapse-free survival were not significantly different from those of younger patients, in the whole cohort, as well as in the subgroup of operated patients. As expected overall survival was worse in patients over 90 (p < 0.001). Patients over 90 who were not operated had worse overall survival than younger patients (9.9 vs. 27.3 months, p < 0.001). Patients with STS diagnosed after 90 have distinct clinicopathological features, but comparable relapse-free survival, unless clinical practice guidelines recommendations are not applied. Standard management should be proposed to these patients if oncogeriatric status allows.

15.
Cancer Med ; 8(4): 1368-1378, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a group of rare and heterogeneous mesenchymal tumors with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of long-term survivors and describe their presentation and management in a large cohort of patients with metastatic STS. METHODS: We collected information of patients with metastatic STS managed in Centre Leon Berard between 1985 and 2015 aiming to compare the group of patients alive 5 years after the diagnosis of metastases vs the others. Prognostic factors of patients and tumors characteristics were investigated by logistic regression analysis. For "long-term survivors," we explored therapeutic strategies at metastatic stage. RESULTS: Out of 436 patients enrolled, 39 (9%) were still alive 5 years after diagnostic of metastases with a median survival of 146 months (12 years). This "long-term survivors" group included more female and younger patients, with better performance status, more synovial sarcoma or endometrial stromal sarcoma, more patients with simple genomic sarcomas, lower tumor grade, smaller tumor, and longer disease-free interval. In multivariate analysis, age below 55 at metastatic stage (P = 0.0002) and grade 1 tumor (P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with the "long-term survivors." Their therapeutic management was usually aggressive (intensified or polychemotherapy, repeated local treatment of metastases), leading to 62% of complete response in first-line setting. CONCLUSIONS: Very long-term survivors are observed in metastatic STS. Selection of patients in good condition with less aggressive tumor and administration of intensive treatment may lead to obtain these motivating results in a poor prognosis disease.

16.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 85, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922400

RESUMO

Quantitative lymphocyte alterations are frequent in patients with cancer, and strongly impact prognosis and survival. The development of cancers in immunosuppressed patients has demonstrated the contribution of different T cell populations, including CD4+ cells, in the control of cancer occurrence.Whereas absolute numbers of neutrophils, platelets and red blood cells are routinely monitored in clinic following treatments, because of possible short-term complications, absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC), their subpopulations or diversity (phenotype, TCR) are rarely analyzed and never used to choose therapy or as prognostic criteria. The recent identification of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPi) as powerful therapeutic agents has revitalized immunotherapy of cancer in a broader group of diseases than anticipated. The status of the immune system is now recognized as an important biomarker for response to these novel treatments. Blood ALC values, along with tumor infiltration by CD8+T cells, and ICPi and ICPi-ligand expression, are likely to be a potential marker of sensitivity to anti-ICPi therapy.In this article, we review the current knowledge on the incidence and significance of lymphopenia in cancer patients, and discuss therapeutic strategies to restore lymphocyte numbers.

17.
Virchows Arch ; 475(1): 85-94, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739164

RESUMO

Several subtypes of high-grade endometrial carcinomas (ECs) contain an undifferentiated component of non-epithelial morphology, including undifferentiated and dedifferentiated carcinomas and carcinosarcomas (CSs). The mechanism by which an EC undergoes dedifferentiation has been the subject of much debate. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the mechanisms implicated in the transdifferentiation of high-grade carcinomas. To improve our understanding of the role of EMT in these tumors, we studied a series of 89 carcinomas including 14 undifferentiated/dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas (UECs/DECs), 49 CSs (21 endometrial, 29 tubo-ovarian and peritoneal), 17 endometrioid carcinomas (grade 1-3), and 9 high-grade serous carcinomas of the uterus, using a panel of antibodies targeting known epithelial markers (Pan-Keratin AE1/AE3 and E-cadherin), mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin), EMT transcription factors (TFs) (ZEB1, ZEB2, TWIST1), PAX8, estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), and the p53 protein. At least one of the three EMT markers (more frequently ZEB1) was positive in the sarcomatous component of 98% (n = 48/49) of CSs and 98% (n = 13/14) of the undifferentiated component of UEC/DEC. In addition, 86% of sarcomatous areas of CSs and 79% of the undifferentiated component of UEC/DEC expressed all three EMT-TFs. The expression of these markers was associated with the loss of or reduction in epithelial markers (Pan-keratin, E-cadherin), PAX8, and hormone receptors. In contrast, none of the endometrioid and serous endometrial carcinomas expressed ZEB1, while 6% and 36% of endometrioid and 11% and 25% of serous carcinomas focally expressed ZEB2 and TWIST1, respectively. Although morphologically different, EMT appears to be implicated in the dedifferentiation in both CSs and UEC/DEC. Indeed, we speculate that the occurrence of EMT in a well differentiated endometrioid carcinoma may consecutively lead to a dedifferentiated and undifferentiated carcinoma, while in a type II carcinoma, it may result in a CS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma/química , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Uterinas/química , Carcinoma/classificação , Carcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma Endometrioide/química , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Carcinossarcoma/química , Carcinossarcoma/patologia , Desdiferenciação Celular , Neoplasias do Endométrio/química , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Gradação de Tumores , Proteínas Nucleares/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/análise , Neoplasias Uterinas/classificação , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/análise , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/análise
18.
Oncologist ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) is a rare, locally aggressive tumor usually arising from pelvis or perineum, with a high local-recurrence rate after complete surgery. Anecdotal responses to hormone therapy have been reported. In the present study we aimed at studying surgical treatment outcomes and sensitivity to hormone therapy of AA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, international retrospective effort including patients with AA treated at three European referral centers (Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy and the Italian Rare Cancer Network; Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; and Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Seville, Spain). RESULTS: A total of 36 patients were included. Median follow-up was 51.3 months. Thirty-three patients (92%) underwent complete (R0 + R1) surgery, with a local relapse rate of 50% and a median relapse-free survival of 39 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 27-68.1). Thirteen patients received a first-line systemic treatment with hormone therapy for locally advanced disease, with an overall response rate of 62% and a median progression-free survival of 24.6 months (95% CI, 11.0-39.7). In two patients, adding an aromatase inhibitor (AI) on progression to first-line GnRH agonist (GnRHa) resulted in a new tumor response. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that in AA, surgical local control may be challenging, with a significant rate of local relapse despite complete surgery. Hormone therapy is an active treatment option, with a potential of disease control and of being combined with surgery. The addition of an AI to first-line GnRHa could be an effective second-line systemic therapy in premenopausal female patients with AA. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: In this retrospective effort including 36 patients with aggressive angiomyxoma, local relapse rate after complete surgery was 50%, with a median relapse-free survival of 39 months, confirming that local control is challenging. Overall response rate to first-line hormone therapy was 62%, with a median progression-free survival of 24.6 months. Thus, hormone therapy has a potential of disease control and of being combined with surgery.

19.
Cancer Discov ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425037

RESUMO

A key resistance mechanism to platinum-based chemotherapies and PARP inhibitors in BRCA-mutant cancers is the acquisition of BRCA reversion mutations that restore protein function. To estimate the prevalence of BRCA reversion mutations in high-grade ovarian carcinoma (HGOC), we performed targeted next-generation sequencing of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from pretreatment and postprogression plasma in patients with deleterious germline or somatic BRCA mutations treated with the PARP inhibitor rucaparib. BRCA reversion mutations were identified in pretreatment cfDNA from 18% (2/11) of platinum-refractory and 13% (5/38) of platinum-resistant cancers, compared to 2% (1/48) of platinum-sensitive cancers (P = 0.049). Patients without BRCA reversion mutations detected in pretreatment cfDNA had significantly longer rucaparib progression-free survival than those with reversion mutations (median, 9.0 vs. 1.8 months; HR, 0.12; P < 0.0001). To study acquired resistance, we sequenced 78 postprogression cfDNA, identifying eight additional patients with BRCA reversion mutations not found in pretreatment cfDNA.

20.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin combination is a standard regimen in platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer patients. The pegylated liposomal doxorubicin shortage from 2011 to 2013 urged assessment of the efficacy and tolerance of non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with carboplatin. METHODS: MYCA was a multicenter 2-step phase Ib-II single arm trial meant to assess the safety and efficacy of carboplatin AUC 5 mg/min.mL combined with non-pegylated liposomal (dose escalation from 40 to 50 mg/m2 during phase Ib step; and 50 mg/m2 during phase II step), every 4 weeks in patients with platinum-sensitive relapse. The primary objective was disease control rate (DCR) at 12 months. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2014, 87 patients were enrolled. They were treated as second (78%) or third line (22%) treatment. Total of 67 patients (78%) completed 6 cycles. G-CSF support was prescribed to 58% patients. The DCR at 12 months was 30.0% (95% CI, 20.3-39.7); the median PFS was 10.0 months (95% CI, 8.6-11.0). The median overall survival was 28.1 months (95% CI, 22.3-32.5); and the objective response rate was 58% (95% CI, 47-68). Grade 3-4 neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia were observed in 17%, 13% and 1%, respectively; febrile neutropenia in 6%. One patient who did not receive GCSF support died from febrile neutropenia. CONCLUSION: Non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-carboplatin combination exhibits an acceptable safety profile, with GCSF prophylaxis. Acknowledging the lack of direct comparison, efficacy in terms of 12 month DCR was comparable with standard treatments.

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