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2.
Ann Neurol ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epalrestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor increases phosphomannomutase (PMM) enzyme activity in a PMM2-congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) worm model. Epalrestat also decreases sorbitol level in diabetic neuropathy. We evaluated the genetic, biochemical, and clinical characteristics, including the Nijmegen Progression CDG Rating Scale (NPCRS), urine polyol levels and fibroblast glycoproteomics in patients with PMM2-CDG. METHODS: We performed PMM enzyme measurements, multiplexed proteomics, and glycoproteomics in PMM2-deficient fibroblasts before and after epalrestat treatment. Safety and efficacy of 0.8 mg/kg/day oral epalrestat were studied in a child with PMM2-CDG for 12 months. RESULTS: PMM enzyme activity increased post-epalrestat treatment. Compared with controls, 24% of glycopeptides had reduced abundance in PMM2-deficient fibroblasts, 46% of which improved upon treatment. Total protein N-glycosylation improved upon epalrestat treatment bringing overall glycosylation toward the control fibroblasts' glycosylation profile. Sorbitol levels were increased in the urine of 74% of patients with PMM2-CDG and correlated with the presence of peripheral neuropathy, and CDG severity rating scale. In the child with PMM2-CDG on epalrestat treatment, ataxia scores improved together with significant growth improvement. Urinary sorbitol levels nearly normalized in 3 months and blood transferrin glycosylation normalized in 6 months. INTERPRETATION: Epalrestat improved PMM enzyme activity, N-glycosylation, and glycosylation biomarkers in vitro. Leveraging cellular glycoproteome assessment, we provided a systems-level view of treatment efficacy and discovered potential novel biosignatures of therapy response. Epalrestat was well-tolerated and led to significant clinical improvements in the first pediatric patient with PMM2-CDG treated with epalrestat. We also propose urinary sorbitol as a novel biomarker for disease severity and treatment response in future clinical trials in PMM2-CDG. ANN NEUROL 2021.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6227, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711829

RESUMO

The SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) protein syntaxin-5 (Stx5) is essential for Golgi transport. In humans, the STX5 mRNA encodes two protein isoforms, Stx5 Long (Stx5L) from the first starting methionine and Stx5 Short (Stx5S) from an alternative starting methionine at position 55. In this study, we identify a human disorder caused by a single missense substitution in the second starting methionine (p.M55V), resulting in complete loss of the short isoform. Patients suffer from an early fatal multisystem disease, including severe liver disease, skeletal abnormalities and abnormal glycosylation. Primary human dermal fibroblasts isolated from these patients show defective glycosylation, altered Golgi morphology as measured by electron microscopy, mislocalization of glycosyltransferases, and compromised ER-Golgi trafficking. Measurements of cognate binding SNAREs, based on biotin-synchronizable forms of Stx5 (the RUSH system) and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), revealed that the short isoform of Stx5 is essential for intra-Golgi transport. Alternative starting codons of Stx5 are thus linked to human disease, demonstrating that the site of translation initiation is an important new layer of regulating protein trafficking.

4.
Front Genet ; 12: 744884, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567092

RESUMO

This study reports on a Mexican mestizo patient with a multi-systemic syndrome including neurological involvement and a type I serum transferrin profile. Clinical exome sequencing revealed complex alleles in ALG1, the encoding gene for the chitobiosyldiphosphodolichol beta-mannosyltransferase that participates in the formation of the dolichol-pyrophosphate-GlcNAc2Man5, a lipid-linked glycan intermediate during N-glycan synthesis. The identified complex alleles were NM_019109.5(ALG1): c.[208 + 16_208 + 19dup; 208 + 25G > T] and NM_019109.5(ALG1): c.[208 + 16_208 + 19dup; 1312C > T]. Although both alleles carried the benign variant c.208 + 16_208 + 19dup, one allele carried a known ALG1 pathogenic variant (c.1312C > T), while the other carried a new uncharacterized variant (c.208 + 25G > T) causing non-functional alternative splicing that, in conjunction with the benign variant, defines the pathogenic protein effect (p.N70S_S71ins9). The presence in the patient's serum of the pathognomonic N-linked mannose-deprived tetrasaccharide marker for ALG1-CDG (Neu5Acα2,6Galß1,4-GlcNAcß1,4GlcNAc) further supported this diagnosis. This is the first report of an ALG1-CDG patient from Latin America.

5.
JIMD Rep ; 60(1): 67-74, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258142

RESUMO

Background: Glutaric acidemia type I (GA1) is an organic acidemia that is often unrecognized in the newborn period until patients suffer an acute encephalopathic crisis, which can be mistaken for nonaccidental trauma. Presymptomatic identification of GA1 patients is possible by newborn screening (NBS). However, the biochemical "low-excretor" (LE) phenotype with nearly normal levels of disease metabolites can be overlooked, which may result in untreated disease and irreversible neurological sequelae. The LE phenotype is also a potential source of false negative (FN) NBS results that merits further investigation. Methods: Samples from six LE GA1 patients were analyzed by biochemical and molecular methods and newborn screen outcomes were retrospectively investigated. Results: Five LE GA1 patients were identified that had normal NBS results and three of these presented clinically with GA1 symptoms. One additional symptomatic patient was identified who did not undergo screening. Semiquantitative urine organic acid analysis was consistent with a GA1 diagnosis in two (33%) of the six patients, while plasma glutarylcarnitine was elevated in four (67%) of the six and urine glutarylcarnitine was elevated in four (80%) of five patients. Five GCDH variants were identified in these patients; three of which have not been previously linked to the biochemical LE phenotype. Conclusions: The data presented here raise awareness of potential FN NBS results for LE GA1 patients. The LE phenotype is not protective against adverse clinical outcomes, and the possibility of FN NBS results calls for high vigilance amongst clinicians, even in the setting of a normal NBS result.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(6): 1040-1052, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964207

RESUMO

SLC37A4 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized multitransmembrane protein required for transporting glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6P) into the ER. Once transported into the ER, Glc-6P is subsequently hydrolyzed by tissue-specific phosphatases to glucose and inorganic phosphate during times of glucose depletion. Pathogenic variants in SLC37A4 cause an established recessive disorder known as glycogen storage disorder 1b characterized by liver and kidney dysfunction with neutropenia. We report seven individuals who presented with liver dysfunction multifactorial coagulation deficiency and cardiac issues and were heterozygous for the same variant, c.1267C>T (p.Arg423∗), in SLC37A4; the affected individuals were from four unrelated families. Serum samples from affected individuals showed profound accumulation of both high mannose and hybrid type N-glycans, while N-glycans in fibroblasts and undifferentiated iPSC were normal. Due to the liver-specific nature of this disorder, we generated a CRISPR base-edited hepatoma cell line harboring the c.1267C>T (p.Arg423∗) variant. These cells replicated the secreted abnormalities seen in serum N-glycosylation, and a portion of the mutant protein appears to relocate to a distinct, non-Golgi compartment, possibly ER exit sites. These cells also show a gene dosage-dependent alteration in the Golgi morphology and reduced intraluminal pH that may account for the altered glycosylation. In summary, we identify a recurrent mutation in SLC37A4 that causes a dominantly inherited congenital disorder of glycosylation characterized by coagulopathy and liver dysfunction with abnormal serum N-glycans.


Assuntos
Antiporters/genética , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/etiologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Hepatopatias/complicações , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/patologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Genes Dominantes , Glicosilação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem
7.
JIMD Rep ; 59(1): 3-9, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977023

RESUMO

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of bile acid synthesis caused by pathogenic variants in the CYP27A1 gene encoding the mitochondrial enzyme sterol 27-hydroxylase. Patients with CTX can present with a wide range of symptoms, but most often have evidence of tendon xanthomas along with possible cataracts, atherosclerosis, or neurological dysfunction. Regardless of clinical phenotype, CTX patients typically exhibit levels of cholestanol and bile acid precursors in the circulation that are many fold increased over normal control concentrations. Here we report two siblings, one with the rare spinal xanthomatosis phenotype and the other with a very mild form of CTX manifesting as minor tendon xanthomatosis and gastrointestinal complaints who both carry compound heterozygous variants in CYP27A1: NM_000784.3: c.410G > A (p.Arg137Gln) and c.1183C > T (p.Arg395Cys). However, biochemical analysis of these patients revealed normal levels of serum cholestanol and relatively mild elevations of the bile acid precursors 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 7α,12α-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one. The atypical biochemical presentation of these cases represents a diagnostic challenge for a disorder once thought to have a sensitive biomarker in cholestanol and highlight the need for thorough investigation of patients with symptomatology consistent with CTX that includes bile acid precursor biochemical testing and molecular analysis.

8.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 44(5): 1263-1271, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043239

RESUMO

Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) catalyzes the interconversion of glucose-6-phosphate to glucose-1-phosphate and is a key enzyme of glycolysis, glycogenesis, and glycogenolysis. PGM1 deficiency (OMIM: 614921) was initially defined as a glycogen storage disorder (type XIV), and later re-classified as a PGM1-congenital disorder of glycosylation (PGM1-CDG). Serum transferrin (Tf) glycan isoform analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is used as a primary diagnostic screen tool, and reveals a very unique CDG profile described as a mixture of CDG-type I and CDG-type II patterns. Oral d-galactose supplementation shows significant clinical and metabolic improvements, which are indicated by the Tf glycan isoform normalization over time in patients with PGM1-CDG. Thus, there is a need for biomarkers to guide d-galactose dosage in patients in order to maintain effective and safe drug levels. Here, we present a simplified algorithm called PGM1-CDG Treatment Monitoring Index (PGM1-TMI) for assessing the response of PGM1-CDG patients to d-galactose supplementation. For our single-center cohort of 16 PGM1-CDG patients, the Tf glycan profile analysis provided the biochemical diagnosis in all of them. In addition, the PGM1-TMI was reduced in PGM1-CDG patients under d-galactose supplementation as compared with their corresponding values before treatment, indicating that glycosylation proceeds towards normalization. PGM1-TMI allows tracking Tf glycan isoform normalization over time when the patients are on d-galactose supplementation.

9.
Life (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673403

RESUMO

NGLY1 deficiency is the first recognized autosomal recessive disorder of N-linked deglycosylation (NGLY1-CDDG). This severe multisystemic disease is still poorly known and, to date, most cases have been diagnosed through whole exome or genome sequencing. The aim of this study is to provide the clinical, biochemical and molecular description of the first NGLY1-CDDG patient from France along with a literature review. The index case presented with developmental delay, acquired microcephaly, hypotonia, alacrimia, feeding difficulty, and dysmorphic features. Given the complex clinical picture and the multisystemic involvement, a trio-based exome sequencing was conducted and urine oligosaccharides were assessed using mass spectrometry. The exome sequencing revealed a novel variant in the NGLY1 gene in a homozygous state. NGLY1 deficiency was confirmed by the identification of the Neu5Ac1Hex1GlcNAc1-Asn oligosaccharide in the urine of the patient. Literature review revealed the association of some key clinical and biological features such as global developmental delay-hypertransaminasemia, movement disorders, feeding difficulties and alacrima/hypolacrima.

10.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 44(4): 1001-1012, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734437

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in ALG13 (ALG13 UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit) cause an X-linked congenital disorder of glycosylation (ALG13-CDG) where individuals have variable clinical phenotypes that include developmental delay, intellectual disability, infantile spasms, and epileptic encephalopathy. Girls with a recurrent de novo c.3013C>T; p.(Asn107Ser) variant have normal transferrin glycosylation. Using a highly sensitive, semi-quantitative flow injection-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF/MS) N-glycan assay, we report subtle abnormalities in N-glycans that normally account for <0.3% of the total plasma glycans that may increase up to 0.5% in females with the p.(Asn107Ser) variant. Among our 11 unrelated ALG13-CDG individuals, one male had abnormal serum transferrin glycosylation. We describe seven previously unreported subjects including three novel variants in ALG13 and report a milder neurodevelopmental course. We also summarize the molecular, biochemical, and clinical data for the 53 previously reported ALG13-CDG individuals. We provide evidence that ALG13 pathogenic variants may mildly alter N-linked protein glycosylation in both female and male subjects, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear.

11.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 44(4): 987-1000, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583022

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a continuously expanding group of monogenic disorders of glycoprotein and glycolipid biosynthesis that cause multisystem diseases. Individuals with ALG3-CDG frequently exhibit severe neurological involvement (epilepsy, microcephaly, and hypotonia), ocular anomalies, dysmorphic features, skeletal anomalies, and feeding difficulties. We present 10 unreported individuals diagnosed with ALG3-CDG based on molecular and biochemical testing with 11 novel variants in ALG3, bringing the total to 40 reported individuals. In addition to the typical multisystem disease seen in ALG3-CDG, we expand the symptomatology of ALG3-CDG to now include endocrine abnormalities, neural tube defects, mild aortic root dilatation, immunodeficiency, and renal anomalies. N-glycan analyses of these individuals showed combined deficiencies of hybrid glycans and glycan extension beyond Man5 GlcNAc2 consistent with their truncated lipid-linked precursor oligosaccharides. This spectrum of N-glycan changes is unique to ALG3-CDG. These expanded features of ALG3-CDG facilitate diagnosis and suggest that optimal management should include baseline endocrine, renal, cardiac, and immunological evaluation at the time of diagnosis and with ongoing monitoring.

12.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 102, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632285

RESUMO

A recent report on long-term dietary mannose supplementation in phosphomannomutase 2 deficiency (PMM2-CDG) claimed improved glycosylation and called for double-blind randomized study of the dietary supplement in PMM2-CDG patients. A lack of efficacy of short-term mannose supplementation in multiple prior reports challenge this study's conclusions. Additionally, some CDG types have previously been reported to demonstrate spontaneous improvement in glycosylated biomarkers, including transferrin. We have likewise observed improvements in transferrin glycosylation without mannose supplementation. This observation questions the reliability of transferrin as a therapeutic outcome measure in clinical trials for PMM2-CDG. We are concerned that renewed focus on mannose therapy in PMM2-CDG will detract from clinical trials of more promising therapies. Approaches to increase efficiency of clinical trials and ultimately improve patients' lives requires prospective natural history studies and identification of reliable biomarkers linked to clinical outcomes in CDG. Collaborations with patients and families are essential to identifying meaningful study outcomes.


Assuntos
Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação , Fosfotransferases (Fosfomutases) , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/tratamento farmacológico , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Humanos , Manose , Fosfotransferases (Fosfomutases)/deficiência , Fosfotransferases (Fosfomutases)/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transferrina/análogos & derivados
13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 20, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a heterogeneous group of rare metabolic diseases with multi-system involvement. The liver phenotype of CDG varies not only according to the specific disorder, but also from patient to patient. In this study, we sought to identify common patterns of liver injury among patients with a broad spectrum of CDG, and to provide recommendations for follow-up in clinical practice. METHODS: Patients were enrolled in the Frontiers in Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation natural history study. We analyzed clinical history, molecular genetics, serum markers of liver injury, liver ultrasonography and transient elastography, liver histopathology (when available), and clinical scores of 39 patients with 16 different CDG types (PMM2-CDG, n = 19), with a median age of 7 years (range: 10 months to 65 years). For patients with disorders which are treatable by specific interventions, we have added a description of liver parameters on treatment. RESULTS: Our principal findings are (1) there is a clear pattern in the evolution of the hepatocellular injury markers alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase according to age, especially in PMM2-CDG patients but also in other CDG-I, and that the cholangiocellular injury marker gamma-glutamyltransferase is not elevated in most patients, pointing to an exclusive hepatocellular origin of injury; (2) there is a dissociation between liver ultrasound and transient elastography regarding signs of liver fibrosis; (3) histopathological findings in liver tissue of PMM2-CDG patients include cytoplasmic glycogen deposits; and (4) most CDG types show more than one type of liver injury. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, we recommend that all CDG patients have regular systematic, comprehensive screening for liver disease, including physical examination (for hepatomegaly and signs of liver failure), laboratory tests (serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), liver ultrasound (for steatosis and liver tumors), and liver elastography (for fibrosis).


Assuntos
Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação , Fosfotransferases (Fosfomutases) , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Seguimentos , Glicosilação , Humanos , Lactente , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/metabolismo
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(1): 213-218, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044030

RESUMO

Glycosylation is a critical post/peri-translational modification required for the appropriate development and function of the immune system. As an example, abnormalities in glycosylation can cause antibody deficiency and reduced lymphocyte signaling, although the phenotype can be complex given the diverse roles of glycosylation. Human MGAT2 encodes N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II, which is a critical enzyme in the processing of oligomannose to complex N-glycans. Complex N-glycans are essential for immune system functionality, but only one individual with MGAT2-CDG has been described to have an abnormal immunologic evaluation. MGAT2-CDG (CDG-IIa) is a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) associated with profound global developmental disability, hypotonia, early onset epilepsy, and other multisystem manifestations. Here, we report a 4-year old female with MGAT2-CDG due to a novel homozygous pathogenic variant in MGAT2, a 4-base pair deletion, c.1006_1009delGACA. In addition to clinical features previously described in MGAT2-CDG, she experienced episodic asystole, persistent hypogammaglobulinemia, and defective ex vivo mitogen and antigen proliferative responses, but intact specific vaccine antibody titers. Her infection history has been mild despite the testing abnormalities. We compare this patient to the 15 previously reported patients in the literature, thus expanding both the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum for MGAT2-CDG.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/genética , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Arritmias Cardíacas/complicações , Arritmias Cardíacas/imunologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/complicações , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/imunologia , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/patologia , Feminino , Glicosilação , Homozigoto , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Mutação/genética , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/imunologia , Fenótipo
15.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 44(1): 148-163, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681750

RESUMO

Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects glycogen metabolism, glycolysis, and protein glycosylation. Previously known as GSD XIV, it was recently reclassified as a congenital disorder of glycosylation, PGM1-CDG. PGM1-CDG usually manifests as a multisystem disease. Most patients present as infants with cleft palate, liver function abnormalities and hypoglycemia, but some patients present in adulthood with isolated muscle involvement. Some patients develop life-threatening cardiomyopathy. Unlike most other CDG, PGM1-CDG has an effective treatment option, d-galactose, which has been shown to improve many of the patients' symptoms. Therefore, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment for PGM1-CDG patients are crucial decisions. In this article, our group of international experts suggests diagnostic, follow-up, and management guidelines for PGM1-CDG. These guidelines are based on the best available evidence-based data and experts' opinions aiming to provide a practical resource for health care providers to facilitate successful diagnosis and optimal management of PGM1-CDG patients.

16.
Int J Neonatal Screen ; 6(1): 10, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073008

RESUMO

Enzyme-based newborn screening for Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) has a high false-positive rate due to the prevalence of pseudodeficiency alleles, often resulting in unnecessary and costly follow up. The glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), dermatan sulfate (DS) and heparan sulfate (HS) are both substrates for α-l-iduronidase (IDUA). These GAGs are elevated in patients with MPS I and have been shown to be promising biomarkers for both primary and second-tier testing. Since February 2016, we have measured DS and HS in 1213 specimens submitted on infants at risk for MPS I based on newborn screening. Molecular correlation was available for 157 of the tested cases. Samples from infants with MPS I confirmed by IDUA molecular analysis all had significantly elevated levels of DS and HS compared to those with confirmed pseudodeficiency and/or heterozygosity. Analysis of our testing population and correlation with molecular results identified few discrepant outcomes and uncovered no evidence of false-negative cases. We have demonstrated that blood spot GAGs analysis accurately discriminates between patients with confirmed MPS I and false-positive cases due to pseudodeficiency or heterozygosity and increases the specificity of newborn screening for MPS I.

17.
Int J Neonatal Screen ; 6(2): 33, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073028

RESUMO

The expansion of the recommend uniform screening panel to include more than 50 primary and secondary target conditions has resulted in a substantial increase of false positive results. As an alternative to subjective manipulation of cutoff values and overutilization of molecular testing, here we describe the performance outcome of an algorithm for disorders of methionine, cobalamin, and propionate metabolism that includes: (1) first tier screening inclusive of the broadest available spectrum of markers measured by tandem mass spectrometry; (2) integration of all results into a score of likelihood of disease for each target condition calculated by post-analytical interpretive tools created byCollaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports (CLIR), a multivariate pattern recognition software; and (3) further evaluation of abnormal scores by a second tier test measuring homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and methylcitric acid. This approach can consistently reduce false positive rates to a <0.01% level, which is the threshold of precision newborn screening. We postulate that broader adoption of this algorithm could lead to substantial savings in health care expenditures. More importantly, it could prevent the stress and anxiety experienced by many families when faced with an abnormal newborn screening result that is later resolved as a false positive outcome.

18.
Int J Neonatal Screen ; 6(2)2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802993

RESUMO

Newborn screening for one or more lysosomal disorders has been implemented in several US states, Japan and Taiwan by multiplexed enzyme assays using either tandem mass spectrometry or digital microfluidics. Another multiplex assay making use of immunocapture technology has also been proposed. To investigate the potential variability in performance of these analytical approaches, we implemented three high-throughput screening assays for the simultaneous screening for four lysosomal disorders: Fabry disease, Gaucher disease, mucopolysaccharidosis type I, and Pompe disease. These assays were tested in a prospective comparative effectiveness study using nearly 100,000 residual newborn dried blood spot specimens. In addition, 2nd tier enzyme assays and confirmatory molecular genetic testing were employed. Post-analytical interpretive tools were created using the software Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports (CLIR) to determine its ability to improve the performance of each assay vs. the traditional result interpretation based on analyte-specific reference ranges and cutoffs. This study showed that all three platforms have high sensitivity, and the application of CLIR tools markedly improves the performance of each platform while reducing the need for 2nd tier testing by 66% to 95%. Moreover, the addition of disease-specific biochemical 2nd tier tests ensures the lowest false positive rates and the highest positive predictive values for any platform.

19.
Mol Genet Metab ; 130(4): 247-254, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type 1 (HT-1) has greatly improved with early detection through newborn screening and the introduction of nitisinone (NTBC) therapy. A recent guideline calls for periodic monitoring of biochemical markers and NTBC levels to tailor treatment; however, this is currently only achieved through a combination of clinical laboratory tests. We developed a multiplexed assay measuring relevant amino acids, succinylacetone (SUAC), and NTBC in dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate treatment monitoring. METHODS: Tyrosine, phenylalanine, methionine, NTBC and SUAC were eluted from DBS with methanol containing internal standards for each analyte and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry over 6.5 min in the multiple reaction monitoring positive mode. RESULTS: Pre-analytical and analytical factors were studied and demonstrated a reliable assay. Chromatography resolved an unknown substance that falsely elevates SUAC concentrations and was present in all samples. To establish control and disease ranges, the method was applied to DBS collected from controls (n = 284) and affected patients before (n = 2) and after initiation of treatment (n = 29). In the treated patients SUAC concentrations were within the normal range over a wide range of NTBC levels. CONCLUSIONS: This assay enables combined, accurate measurement of revelevant metabolites and NTBC in order to simplify treatment monitoring of patients with HT-1. In addition, the use of DBS allows for specimen collection at home to facilitate more standardization in relation to drug and dietary treatment.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cicloexanonas/sangue , Heptanoatos/sangue , Laboratórios/normas , Nitrobenzoatos/sangue , Tirosinemias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Padrões de Referência , Manejo de Espécimes , Tirosinemias/sangue , Tirosinemias/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(7): 103941, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407885

RESUMO

Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome (BBSOAS) is a recently described autosomal dominant syndrome of developmental delay, cortical vision loss with optic nerve atrophy, epilepsy, and autism spectrum disorder. Due to its many overlapping features with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), the differential diagnosis between these disorders may be difficult and relies on molecular genetic testing. We report on a 31-year-old female initially diagnosed with ALG6-CDG based on glycosylation abnormalities on transferrin isoelectrofocusing and targeted genetic testing, and later diagnosed with BBSOAS by whole-exome sequencing (WES). Functional studies on cultured fibroblasts including Western blotting and RT-qPCR, as well as mass spectrometry of glycosylated transferrin and MALDI-TOF glycan analysis in serum, demonstrated normal glycosylation in this patient. In this report, we extend the phenotype of BBSOAS with ataxia and protein-losing enteropathy. This case is illustrative of the utility of whole exome sequencing in the diagnostic odyssey, and the potential pitfalls of relying on focused genetic testing results for diagnosis of conditions with complex overlapping phenotypes.


Assuntos
Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Atrofias Ópticas Hereditárias/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto , Ataxia/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos , Glicosilação , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Mutação , Atrofias Ópticas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Atrofia Óptica/diagnóstico , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
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