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1.
Insects ; 13(3)2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323529

RESUMO

High-temperature events are evidenced to exert significant influence on the population performance and thermal biology of insects, such as aphids. However, it is not yet clear whether the bacterial symbionts of insects mediate the thermal tolerance traits of their hosts. This study is intended to assess the putative association among the chronic and acute thermal tolerance of two cereal aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.), and the abundance of their bacterial symbionts. The clones of aphids were collected randomly from different fields of wheat crops and were maintained under laboratory conditions. Basal and acclimated CTmax and chronic thermal tolerance indices were measured for 5-day-old apterous aphid individuals and the abundance (gene copy numbers) of aphid-specific and total (16S rRNA) bacterial symbionts were determined using real-time RT-qPCR. The results reveal that R. padi individuals were more temperature tolerant under chronic exposure to 31 °C and also exhibited about 1.0 °C higher acclimated and basal CTmax values than those of S. avenae. Moreover, a significantly higher bacterial symbionts' gene abundance was recorded in temperature-tolerant aphid individuals than the susceptible ones for both aphid species. Although total bacterial (16S rRNA) abundance per aphid was higher in S. avenae than R. padi, the gene abundance of aphid-specific bacterial symbionts was nearly alike for both of the aphid species. Nevertheless, basal and acclimated CTmax values were positively and significantly associated with the gene abundance of total symbiont density, Buchnera aphidicola, Serratia symbiotica, Hamilton defensa, Regiella insecticola and Spiroplasma spp. for R. padi, and with the total symbiont density, total bacteria (16S rRNA) and with all aphid-specific bacterial symbionts (except Spiroplasma spp.) for S. avenae. The overall study results corroborate the potential role of the bacterial symbionts of aphids in conferring thermal tolerance to their hosts.

2.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(11): 2665-2668, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783757

RESUMO

Carbuncle is a painful subcutaneous mass of interconnected infected hair follicles with multiple discharging sinuses. It has predisposition in conditions like diabetes, immune-compromised states, chronic skin diseases etc. The authors present a case of a 67 year old diabetic male admitted in July 2020 at Akbar Niazi Teaching Hospital (ANTH) Islamabad, with a giant carbuncle on his back. Due to its large size, systemic co-morbidity, and increased risk of complications in surgical treatment, a multi-disciplinary team approach was employed. Both general and plastic surgeons were involved, who performed excision and soft tissue coverage respectively. The aim of the surgical intervention methods, like wide excision and debridement, application of vacuum assisted wound closure (VAC), and skin grafting was to minimise the healing time and risk of development of post-operative infection. The patient was surgically managed and sent home in a good condition.


Assuntos
Carbúnculo , Idoso , Desbridamento , Humanos , Masculino , Pele , Transplante de Pele , Cicatrização
3.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(7): e04275, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295474

RESUMO

Appropriate risk stratification and careful follow-up are mandated in elderly patients with comorbidities. Herein, we report a case presenting 5 months after the nonoperative management of acute cholecystitis during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Glob Food Sec ; 282021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868911

RESUMO

African consumers have purchased increasing amounts of processed food over the past 50 years. The opportunity cost of time of women and men has increased as more of them work outside the home, driving them to buy processed food and food prepared away from home to save arduous home-processing and preparation labor. In the past several decades, this trend has accelerated with a surge on the supply side of the processing sector and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and large private companies making massive aggregate investments. Packaged, industrialized, ultra-processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a growing proportion of the processed food consumed. Also, in the past several decades, overweight and obesity have joined the long-standing high levels of stunting and wasting among children and extreme thinness among women of childbearing age. Together these phenomena have formed a double burden of malnutrition (DBM). The DBM has emerged as an important health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The rise of the DBM and the increase in ultra-processed food consumption are linked. Policy makers face a dilemma. On the one hand, purchases of processed food are driven by long-term factors, such as urbanization, increased income, and employment changes, and thus policy cannot change the pursuit of convenience and labor-saving food. Moreover, much processed food, like packaged milk, is a boon to nutrition, and the processed food system is a major source of jobs for women. On the other hand, the portion (some 10-30%) of processed food that is ultra-processed is a public health challenge, and policy must address its detrimental effects on disease burden. The global experience suggests that double duty actions are most important as are selected policies focused on healthy weaning foods for addressing stunting and taxes on SSBs, nutrition labeling, and other measures can steer consumers away from unhealthy ultra-processed foods to addressing obesity and possibly child nutrition and stunting. We recommend that African governments consider these policy options, but note that the current extreme fragmentation of the processing sector, consisting of vast numbers of informal SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa, and the limited administrative/implementation capacity of many African governments require pursuing this path only gradually.

5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(1(B)): 210-214, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the outcome of Video assisted Thoracoscopy (Vats) in Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax (PSP). METHODS: This case series was carried out from Jan 2010 to Jan 2017 in Department of Thoracic Surgery CMH Rawalpindi and Lahore. A total of 98 patients underwent Video-assisted thoracoscopic for PSP. Inclusion criteria were physiologically fit patients with PSP for recurrent attacks, occupational hazards and prolonged air leak. Exclusion criteria included secondary spontaneous pneumothorax, previous pleurodesis and physiologically unfit patient for general anaesthesia. Vanderschueren's thoracoscopic classification was used for macroscopic staging. A 3-port technique was used for apical stapling with partial pleurectomy up to 6th rib. Parietal pleura and diaphragm was also abraded. RESULTS: Occupational hazard was the commonest indication for surgery, n= 39 (39.7%). This was followed by recurrent pneumothorax 37 (37.7%), persistent air leak 19 (19.38%) and contra lateral pneumothorax n=4 (4.08%). Mean age was 22.8 ± 6.5 years. Majority of the cases , 69(70.4%) were in stage 3 of Vanderschueren's classification. Stage 4 were (18.5%) and stage 2 were 7 (7.14%). Mean operative time was 51 ± 14. 4 minutes. Postoperative prolonged air leak occurred in 3 patients and post-operative neuralgia occurred in 8 patients. Mean follow-up was 22 ±5.5 months, range 5-24 months for all patients. One had generalized recurrence and 2 patients had subpulmonic trapping of air. CONCLUSION: Video-assisted thoracoscopic stapling and pleurectomy is an effective definitive treatment for primary spontaneous pneumothorax when indicated with minimal recurrence.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Pleurodese , Pneumotórax/cirurgia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(12): 4086-4092, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV) is one of the most destructive pathogens of rice and other cereal crops. The virus is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus) in a circulative-propagative manner. Thus, blocking transmission by the insect vector would provide an effective strategy to prevent epidemic outbreaks of the disease. RESULTS: In this study, we explored the effect of ribavirin on acquisition and transmission of the virus by specifically inhibiting the expression of sugar transporter 6 (LsSt-6), which was recently reported as a key vector component for RSV transmission. Ribavirin at the highest concentration tested (250 µmol L-1 ) significantly reduced RSV acquisition and transmission efficiency by SBPHs through inhibiting LsSt-6 messenger RNA (mRNA) level. Survival of the model insect Spodoptera frugiperda cell line (Sf9) was 95.0 ± 2.2 and 85.6 ± 2.1% after exposure to 250 µmol L-1 ribavirin or 8-azaguanine, respectively. Further study confirmed that 250 µmol L-1 ribavirin also significantly reduced LsSt-6 mRNA and protein levels in Sf9 cells. However, 8-azaguanine did not significantly inhibit viral infectivity and LsSt-6 mRNA levels in SBPH or the Sf9 cell line. CONCLUSION: This result provides evidence that ribavirin has the potential to disrupt LsSt-6 expression but not others like viral RNAs to prevent acquiring RSV, which leads to less viral accumulation in SBPH tissues and thereby lower transmission efficiency. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Oryza , Tenuivirus , Animais , Insetos Vetores , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Açúcares , Tenuivirus/genética
7.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 32(1): 13-17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upper cervical oesophageal and hypo-pharyngeal malignancies pose significant challenges in surgical management. In advanced tumours total laryngopharyngeal esophagectomy (TLPO) and gastric pull up provides excellent result. METHODS: It is a descriptive case series and was conducted from Jan 2010 to Jan 2017. Thirty-five patients underwent TLPO. The inclusion criteria were; tumours of hypo-pharynx which allow tumour free resection margins and cervical oesophageal tumours not involving mediastinal trachea. There were no clinically palpable cervical lymph nodes. Patients with locoregional advanced disease and poor performance status were excluded. All cases underwent standard one stage TLPO with bilateral inter-jugular lymph nodal clearance. Minimal invasive techniques used in three cases. RESULTS: Out of 35 patients, n=21 (60%) of patient had lesion of hypopharynx with post cricoid involvement, n=13 (37.1%) had primary tumour of cervical oesophagus abutting pharynx and cricoid and only one patient had a tumour of hypopharynx with perforation. Histopathological conformation of diagnosis done in all patients preoperatively which showed Well differentiated Squamous cell in n=19 (54.28%), moderately differentiated squamous cell in 28.57% (n=10). Post-operative staging of the patients 74.28% (n=26) fall in stage 3. Operative time was less than 3 hours in 17 patients with two team technique, between 3-4 hours in 8 patients and more than 4 hours in 3 patients. SVT in 14.28% (n=5), Atrial Fibrillation in 5.71% (n=2). Chest complications including pneumothorax in 11.43% (n=4), basal atelectasis in 22.86% (n=8), pulmonary embolism in 2.85% (n=1), aspiration in 8.57% (n=3) and tracheal stenosis in n=1, 5.71% (n=2) cases had anastomotic leak. Postop 28 days mortality was 8.57% (n=3). CONCLUSIONS: TLPO with stomach pull up offer good results in patients with resectable disease with acceptable morbidity and mortality in operable patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia , Laringectomia , Neoplasias Faríngeas/cirurgia , Faringectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Gastroplastia , Humanos , Hipofaringe/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Arch Virol ; 165(8): 1883-1886, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447621

RESUMO

A novel iflavirus, tentatively named "Langfang leafhopper iflavirus" (LfLHV) was detected in leafhopper (Psammotettix alienus) by total RNA sequencing, and its genome sequence was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The complete genome consisted of 10,700 nucleotides (nt) excluding the poly A tail and included one open reading frame (9,453 nt in length), encoding a polyprotein of 3,150 amino acids (aa). The nucleotide sequence of the complete genome was shared 44.1-53.3% identical, and the deduced amino acid sequence RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 22-74% identical to those of other iflaviruses. These values were all below the species demarcation threshold of 90%. Conserved motifs for structural proteins, helicase, protease, and RdRp were also similar to those in other iflaviruses. These results, as well as those of phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the polyprotein and RdRp of LfLHV and other iflaviruses, indicate that the sequence represents a novel virus of the family Iflaviridae.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Hemípteros/virologia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Animais , Genômica/métodos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência/métodos , Proteínas Virais/genética
9.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(3): 313-317, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the outcome and morbidity associated with decortication in empyema thoracis. STUDY DESIGN: A case series. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Departments of Surgery, Combined Military Hospitals (CMH) of Rawalpindi, Quetta and Lahore, from January 2006 to March 2018. METHODOLOGY: This is a retrospective study of 812 cases of open and VATS (video-assisted thoracic surgery) decortication for empyema thoracis, operated by the same consultants. Only patients with established empyema were included. Those who were unfit for one-lung ventilation, undergoing local anesthesia procedures like rib resection, clagget window or tube windows, with clotted hemothorax and malignant pathology were excluded. Posterolateral serratus sparing thoracotomy was used in open decortications. Multiportal or uniport VATS was employed for video-assisted thoracoscopic decortications (VATD). Histopathology and microbiological sampling was also done in all cases. RESULTS: There were 537 (66.1%) males and 275 (33.9%) females. Age ranged from 1 to 80 years with a mean of 37 years. Open decortication was done in 650 (80%), standard decortication with posterolateral thoracotomy in 458 (56.4%), minithoracotomy was done in 69 (8.4%) patients with loculated empyema, thoracotomy and open decortication with conventional thoracoplasty was done in 21 patients. Twenty-two patients required open decortications with tailored thoracoplasty and muscle flap. Open decortication with intercostal muscle (ICM) flap or primary closure of bronchopleural fistula was performed in 55 patients. VATD was done in 162 cases, out of which 120 were early empyema, and 42 were of chronic empyema; of which 22 required a further utility thoracotomy. Decortication with lung resection and muscle flap reinforcement to bronchial stump was done in 25 patients. Blood transfusion was required in 331 (40.7%). Twenty-six (3.4%) patients developed residual space and collection requiring intervention; and 384 (47.3%) patients had a histopathology diagnostic for tuberculosis. There were 11 (1.3%) deaths. CONCLUSION: Open decortication is still one of the preferred procedures in developing countries. VATD is also increasingly utilised for empyema.


Assuntos
Empiema Pleural/cirurgia , Pulmão/cirurgia , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida , Toracotomia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(2): 197-200, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of muscle flap to cover the bronchial stump in the resectional surgery for bronchiectasis for prevention of bronchopleural fistula. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Combined Military Hospitals of Quetta, Lahore, and Rawalpindi from January 2006 to August 2017. METHODOLOGY: Patients with localised bronchiectatic changes were included. Patients with carcinoma and without flap resection were excluded. Resectional surgery was performed through posterolateral thoracotomy approach, under general anesthesia with one lung ventilation. Pediculated or bipediculated intercostal muscle flap (ICM) was used to reinforce the bronchial stump. Pediculated ICM flaps were utilised for reinforcement of bronchial stump and bipediculated flaps were used over lesser. RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety-eight cases of bronchiectasis with average age of patients 38.5 ±19.8 years and male to female ratio of 2:1 were included. Bronchiectasis was unilateral in 377 cases. Tuberculous was found in 278 of the cases. Thirty-five had poor lung function tests (FEV1 <1.5%). Eighty-two patients underwent pneumonectomy, 228 patients had lobectomy and 88 patients underwent segmentectomy. Posterior-based pediculated ICM flap was used in 365 patients, and bipediculated ICM flaps in 30 cases. The most common complication was post-thoracotomy neuralgia 53. Bronchopleural fistula, despite transposition of intercostal muscle flap on bronchial stump, was present in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: Application of muscle flap over bronchial stump after resection surgery for bronchiectasis, is simple, safe and effective surgical option to avoid complication of bronchopleural fistula.


Assuntos
Brônquios/cirurgia , Fístula Brônquica/prevenção & controle , Bronquiectasia/cirurgia , Músculos Intercostais/transplante , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Toracotomia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Cureus ; 11(8): e5375, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616608

RESUMO

Background The proximal tibia with the meta-diaphysis junction is a critical weight-bearing area. An injury around this region may be restricted to the tibia or associated with a significant soft-tissue injury. The objective of the present study is to assess the results of closed reduction and Ilizarov external fixation in the management of complex tibial plateau fractures. Patients and methods The study included 26 patients with high-energy tibial plateau fractures (Schatzker types V and VI). The ages ranged from 23 to 60 years, with an average of 35 years. The trauma was a road traffic accident in 19 cases and a fall from a height in eight cases. The fractures were closed in 18 cases and open in five. The open fractures were Gustilo-Anderson type I in three cases and type II in five cases. Soft-tissue injuries associated with closed fractures were classified according to the Tscherne system. The follow-up period averaged 24 months. The average time of surgery was 85 mins (range: 60-120 min). The mean time to union was 12 weeks. At the final follow-up, the average total range of knee flexion was 120° (range: 0-170°). Results Results were satisfactory in 22 cases and unsatisfactory in four cases according to Rasmussen's knee functional score. Complications included pin-tract infection in 10 cases, an extension lag in three cases and varus deformity of about 17° in one case. Conclusion Hybrid external fixation is a good method for the treatment of comminuted tibial plateau fractures. It allows for early joint movement and reduces the risk of serious complications.

12.
Saudi Med J ; 39(6): 598-602, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of  Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) in blunt abdominal trauma caused by motor vehicle accidents at our Hospital in Dhahran city. METHODS: This descriptive, observational study was conducted in the Radiology Department at King Fahad Military Medical Complex   Dhahran, Saudi Arabia between September 2016 and September 2017.  All adult patients (n=105) involved in motor vehicle accidents with blunt abdominal injury on presentation were retrospectively reviewed for FAST and CT scans for detection of free fluid. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma studies were conducted or supervised by senior registrar of general surgery (trauma team leader). Computed tomography findings were reviewed by 2 experienced radiologists. High and low-grade solid abdominal visceral (liver, spleen, kidney) injuries were identified on CT scans. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma and CT scan findings were identified as 'positive' and 'negative' for presence and absence of free fluid respectively. Outcomes of FAST were presented on a 2x2 contingency table. RESULTS: Sensitivity of FAST in detecting intraperitoneal free fluid was calculated as 76.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.14-85.69%), specificity 84.2% (95% CI, 68.75-93.98%) and accuracy 79% (95% CI, 70.01-86.38%). Focused assessment with sonography for trauma detected free fluid in most cases of high-grade solid visceral injuries. Nearly half of true-negative cases were having low grade visceral or other injuries. CONCLUSION: Focused assessment with sonography for trauma is an important tool in initial assessment of suspected blunt abdominal injury patients with high sensitivity and specificity. A negative FAST does not exclude low grade solid visceral or other injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
13.
Elife ; 72018 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690995

RESUMO

Malaria has been a major driving force in the evolution of the human genome. In sub-Saharan African populations, two neighbouring polymorphisms in the Complement Receptor One (CR1) gene, named Sl2 and McCb, occur at high frequencies, consistent with selection by malaria. Previous studies have been inconclusive. Using a large case-control study of severe malaria in Kenyan children and statistical models adjusted for confounders, we estimate the relationship between Sl2 and McCb and malaria phenotypes, and find they have opposing associations. The Sl2 polymorphism is associated with markedly reduced odds of cerebral malaria and death, while the McCb polymorphism is associated with increased odds of cerebral malaria. We also identify an apparent interaction between Sl2 and α+thalassaemia, with the protective association of Sl2 greatest in children with normal α-globin. The complex relationship between these three mutations may explain previous conflicting findings, highlighting the importance of considering genetic interactions in disease-association studies.


Assuntos
Malária Cerebral/genética , Malária Cerebral/patologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Complemento 3b/genética , Talassemia alfa/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia , Masculino , Mali , Modelos Estatísticos
14.
Plant Pathol J ; 33(1): 43-52, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28167887

RESUMO

A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1-97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8-97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

15.
Acta Pol Pharm ; 74(3): 995-1000, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29513970

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that is communicable from one person to another. Pakistan stands forefront among few unfortunate countries that still have heavy burden of TB infection. Being a developing country, TB patients in Pakistan have to face different socio-economic constraints that upset life of the patients as well as their families. A cross sectional survey was conducted in three selected districts, Lodharan, Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar during February 2011 to June 2011. From three hundred selected patients 210 Were enrolled in study after receiving written consents. Data were collected though structured questionnaire and verbal-interviews and statistically analyzes by using the univariate analysis. The survey results showed that the low educational status (p < 0.0012, CI 95%), unawareness of disease (88.7%), crowded population (p = 0.0000, CI, 95%), poverty, high treatment cost and distant access to public health facilities were directly related to prevalence of TB. Different disease related constraints including poor attitude of family members, colleagues, society and even health care professionals (p = 0.0000, CI 95%) were also found to be major social factors leading to non-compliance and denial of TB treatment. Socio-economic constraints such as low literacy rate, unemployment, unawareness of disease, high treatment cost, poor attitude of family, society and healthcare professionals were directly related to noncompliance and should be given high priority consideration for achieving better TB management and mitigation.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Adesão à Medicação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/economia , Estudos Transversais , Custos de Medicamentos , Escolaridade , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Preconceito , Opinião Pública , Fatores de Risco , Vergonha , Estigma Social , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose/economia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/psicologia
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 188(10): 572, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27640167

RESUMO

To assess the trace metal pollution in the Siran River, sediments were collected from 12 sites, from the left and right banks of the river in 2013. The concentrations, accumulation, distribution pattern, and pollution status of heavy metals in sediments were investigated using geoaccumulation index (I geo) and enrichment factor (EF). The toxic risk of heavy metals was assessed using interim sediment quality guidelines (ISQGs), portable effect level (PEL), threshold effect level (TEL), and toxic effect threshold (TET). I geo and EF values showed that sediments were loaded with Ni, Cd, Pb, and Co and no obvious variations were found among the left and right banks of the river. The EF and I geo values were found in order of Co > Pb > Ni > As > Cd > Cu > Zn > Fe and Cd > Co > Pb > Ni > As > Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate statistical analysis like inter-metal correlation, cluster analysis (CA), and principal component analysis (PCA) results revealed that geogenic and anthropogenic activities were major sources of sediment contamination in the study area. These results indicated that more attention should be paid to the inner loads of sediment in order to achieve improvements in reservoir water quality after the control of external pollution.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Acetilcisteína/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Multivariada , Paquistão , Análise de Componente Principal , Qualidade da Água
17.
Acta Pol Pharm ; 73(6): 1659-1664, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634123

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that is communicable from one person to another. Pakistan stands forefront among few unfortunate countries that still have heavy burden of TB infection. Being a developing country, TB patients in Pakistan have to face different socio-economic constraints that upset life of the patients as well as their families. A cross sectional survey was conducted in three selected districts, Lodharan, Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar during February 2011 to June 2011. From three hundred selected patients 210 were enrolled in study after receiving written consents. Data were collected though structured questionnaire and verbal interviews and statistically analyzed by using the univariate analysis. The survey results showed that the low educational status (p < 0.0012, CI 95%), unawareness of disease (88.7%), crowded population (p =0.0000, CI, 95%), poverty, high treatment cost and distant access to public health facilities were directly related to prevalence of TB. Different disease related constraints including poor attitude of family members, colleagues, society and even health care professionals (p = 0.0000, CI 95%) were also found to be major social factors leading to non-compliance and denial of TB treatment. Socio-economic constraints such as low literacy rate, unemployment, unawareness of disease, high treatment cost, poor attitude of family, society and health care professionals were directly related to noncompliance and should be given high priority consideration for achieving better TB management and mitigation.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Cooperação do Paciente , Tuberculose/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Pobreza , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/economia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 28(6): 1953-8, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26639472

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to investigate the antiulcer activity of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds in albino mice. After acclimatization, animals were divided into six equal groups. Aspirin 150 mg/kg was used to induce gastric ulcer in all groups except normal control. Omeprazole 20mg/kg was used as synthetic anti ulcer drug in study. Three dose levels of B. vulgaris seed powder 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg were used respectively orally. Histopathological analysis was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. vulgaris seed powder. Results of the study showed that in case of aspirin treated mice gastric luminal mucosa villi were decreased in height or were absent. In the glandular region there was connective tissue proliferation and also infiltration of cells. Similar infiltration of cells was present on muscularis mucosa. In esophageal region tumor cells were present. However three dose levels of B. vulgaris significantly reduced the tissue proliferation, infiltration of cells and sloughing induced by aspirin. Highest dose of B. vulgaris (900 mg/kg) showed similar results as synthetic antiulcer drug omeprazole.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Aspirina , Berberis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Antiulcerosos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Berberis/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoproteção , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Omeprazol/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Pós , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
19.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 27(2): 323-5, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26411107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foreign body bronchus is a surgical emergency and is associated with a high mortality if neglected or complicated. The objective of this study was to analyse the outcome of bronchotomy and resectional procedures after failed bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval. METHODS: This study of 24 cases of bronchotomy and resectional procedures after failed bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval was done from June 2008 to June 2009 and March 2010 to Sep 2013. Patients after failed retrieval of foreign body by bronchoscopy either by ENT specialists or thoracic surgeons underwent bronchotomy or resectional procedures were included in the study. We used the posterolateral thoracotomy approach for the surgical procedures. RESULTS: Bronchotomy and resectional procedures were done in 24 cases. Age of patients ranged from 2 years to 51 years. Most patients were children and right side was mostly involved. Bronchotomy procedures were 10 (41%) and resectional surgeries were 13 (58%). Emergency lobectonies were 3 out of 13 resectional surgeries. Right intermedius bronchus was opened up and incision was extended in the direction of foreign body in 6 cases and left bronchus intermedius was opened in 4 cases. Haemoptysis was the main symptom in late presenters. Range of objects retrieved in our study was from pins, needles to whistles. CONCLUSION: Retention causes endobronchial obstruction with stasis leading to irreversible damaged parenchyma. Foreign body with structural changes require resection, others can be offered bronchotomy which is a safe procedure for retained non retrievable foreign bodies.


Assuntos
Brônquios/cirurgia , Broncoscopia/efeitos adversos , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brônquios/lesões , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 201(1): 76-82, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26094597

RESUMO

Binding of host immunoglobulin is a common immune evasion mechanism demonstrated by microbial pathogens. Previous work showed that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum binds the Fc-region of human IgM molecules, resulting in a coating of IgM on the surface of infected erythrocytes. IgM binding is a property of P. falciparum strains showing virulence-related phenotypes such as erythrocyte rosetting. The parasite ligands for IgM binding are members of the diverse P. falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein One (PfEMP1) family. However, little is known about the amino acid sequence requirements for IgM binding. Here we studied an IgM binding domain from a rosette-mediating PfEMP1 variant, DBL4ζ of TM284var1, and found that the minimal IgM binding region mapped to the central region of the DBL domain, comprising all of subdomain 2 and adjoining parts of subdomains 1 and 3. Site-directed mutagenesis of charged amino acids within subdomain 2, predicted by molecular modelling to form the IgM binding site, showed no marked effect on IgM binding properties. Overall, this study identifies the minimal IgM binding region of a PfEMP1 domain, and indicates that the existing homology model of PfEMP1-IgM interaction is incorrect. Further work is needed to identify the specific interaction site for IgM within the minimal binding region of PfEMP1.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
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