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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246002, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285612

RESUMO

Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Resumo A valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos é um novo conceito no manejo florestal. A avaliação econômica fornece base para o pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ecoturismo e os serviços de estoque de carbono do vale de Miandam, distrito Swat, Paquistão. Para o cálculo do estoque de carbono, um tamanho de amostra de 155 parcelas de 0,1 hectare (ha) foi tirado, usando pesquisa preliminar com intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro admissível de 10%. Os dados para serviços de turismo foram coletados de proprietários de todos os hotéis, 100 turistas e informantes-chave da área em 10% de intensidade de amostragem em questionário pré-testado para um período de 20 anos (1997-2017). Os resultados mostraram que o vale de Miandam tem estoque de carbono no valor de US$ 16.306.000, enquanto o valor do ecoturismo foi de US$ 1.578.458 anualmente. Os resultados também mostraram que a tendência do turismo diminuiu drasticamente para estrangeiros e locais após o incidente de 11 de Setembro, e a situação se agravou ainda mais durante a era da talibanização ou militância de 2008-2011. Este estudo recomenda a implementação da estratégia de PES na taxa de 5%, portanto um total de US$ 78.922 pode ser ganho com ecoturismo e crédito de carbono na área de estudo anualmente, o que pode desempenhar um papel importante no manejo florestal sustentável.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240199, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278495

RESUMO

Abstract One of the most important traits that plant breeders aim to improve is grain yield which is a highly quantitative trait controlled by various agro-morphological traits. Twelve morphological traits such as Germination Percentage, Days to Spike Emergence, Plant Height, Spike Length, Awn Length, Tillers/Plant, Leaf Angle, Seeds/Spike, Plant Thickness, 1000-Grain Weight, Harvest Index and Days to Maturity have been considered as independent factors. Correlation, regression, and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to identify the different durum wheat traits, which significantly contribute to the yield. The necessary assumptions required for applying regression modeling have been tested and all the assumptions are satisfied by the observed data. The outliers are detected in the observations of fixed traits and Grain Yield. Some observations are detected as outliers but the outlying observations did not show any influence on the regression fit. For selecting a parsimonious regression model for durum wheat, best subset regression, and stepwise regression techniques have been applied. The best subset regression analysis revealed that Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike have a marked increasing effect whereas Plant thickness has a negative effect on durum wheat yield. While stepwise regression analysis identified that the traits, Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike significantly contribute to increasing the durum wheat yield. The simple correlation coefficient specified the significant positive correlation of Grain Yield with Germination Percentage, Number of Tillers/Plant, Seeds/Spike, and Harvest Index. These results of correlation analysis directed the importance of morphological characters and their significant positive impact on Grain Yield. The results of PCA showed that most variation (70%) among data set can be explained by the first five components. It also identified that Seeds/Spike; 1000-Grain Weight and Harvest Index have a higher influence in contributing to the durum wheat yield. Based on the results it is recommended that these important parameters might be considered and focused in future durum wheat breeding programs to develop high yield varieties.


Resumo Uma das características mais importantes que os produtores de plantas visam melhorar é o rendimento de grãos, que é uma particularidade altamente quantitativa e controlada por várias características agromorfológicas. Foram considerados 12 traços morfológicos como fatores independentes, como Porcentagem de Germinação, Dias para Emergência da Espiga, Altura da Planta, Comprimento da Espiga, Comprimento da Aresta, Perfilhos /Planta, Ângulo da Folha, Sementes /Espiga, Espessura da Planta, Peso de 1000 Grãos, Índice de Colheita e Dias até a Maturidade,. A correlação, regressão e análise de componentes principais (em inglês Principal Component Analysis (PCA)) são usadas para identificar as diferentes características do trigo duro, que contribuem significativamente para o rendimento. As suposições necessárias exigidas para a aplicação da modelagem de regressão foram testadas e todas as suposições são adequadas de acordo com os dados observados. Os outliers são detectados nas observações de características fixas e rendimento de grãos. Algumas observações são detectadas como outliers, mas as observações outliers não mostraram qualquer influência no ajuste da regressão. Para selecionar um modelo de regressão parcimonioso para o trigo duro, foram aplicadas tanto a melhor regressão de subconjunto quanto as técnicas de regressão stepwise. A melhor análise de regressão de subconjunto revelou que a porcentagem de germinação, perfilhos /planta e sementes /espiga tem um efeito de aumento acentuado, enquanto a espessura da planta tem um efeito negativo sobre o rendimento do trigo duro. Enquanto a análise de regressão passo a passo identificou que as características, porcentagem de germinação, perfilhos/planta e sementes /espiga contribuem significativamente para aumentar a produtividade do trigo duro. O coeficiente de correlação simples especificou a correlação positiva significativa do rendimento de grãos com a porcentagem de germinação, número de perfilhos/planta, sementes / espiga e índice de colheita. Esses resultados da análise de correlação direcionaram a importância dos caracteres morfológicos e seu impacto positivo e significativo no rendimento de grãos. Os resultados da PCA mostraram que a maior parte da variação (70%) entre o conjunto de dados pôde ser explicada pelos cinco primeiros componentes. Também identificou que Sementes / Espiga, Peso de 1000 Grãos e Índice de Colheita têm uma maior influência na contribuição para o rendimento do trigo duro. Com base nos resultados, recomenda-se que esses importantes parâmetros possam ser considerados e focados em futuros programas de melhoramento de trigo duro para desenvolver variedades de alto rendimento.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242636, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285595

RESUMO

Abstract Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.


Resumo Guindastes são a grande e atraente criatura da natureza com um pescoço longo, pernas e vida útil. Adultos de ambos os sexos são os mesmos com padrões de cores semelhantes. Guindastes Demoiselle passam a maior parte da vida em gramíneas secas. Também se encontram ao redor do córrego, rios, lagos rasos, pântanos naturais e depressões. Para avaliar o estado atual do uso do hábitat e as principais ameaças, um estudo foi realizado no distrito de Tehsil Domel, em Bannu. Foram utilizados o método transect e testes de qualidade da água (temperatura, pH, contaminação da bactéria E. coli). Para determinar as principais ameaçasfoi utilizado o método de questionário. Todos os dados foram analisados por meio da versão SPSS 21. Com base na distribuição, foram selecionados quatro locais de estudo e quatro amostras de água de cada local de estudo. A maioria dos locais estava moderada a altamente degradada, exceto no ponto de encontro dos rios Kashoo e Kurram, que teve baixa degradação com pastagem de gado e atividades humanas. Os testes de qualidade da água mostraram variação de pH de 7-9, temperatura 6,5-8,5 e contaminação de E. coli em todas as amostras. A pesquisa do questionário revelou que a caça, a degradação do hábitat e a poluição são as principais ameaças. Efetiva conservação e gestão a longo prazo na área de estudo são necessárias para se concentrar na proteção de um hábitat livre de distúrbios.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468532

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the phylogenetic similarities among the muntjac (Muntiacus spp.). The phylogenetic similarities among seven major muntjac species were studied by comparing the nucleotide sequence of 16s rRNA and cytochrome b genome. Nucleotide sequences, retrieved from NCBI databases were aligned by using DNASTAR software. A phylogenetic tree was created for the selected species of muntjac by using the maximum likelihood method on MEGA7 software. The results of nucleotide sequences (16s rRNA) showed phylogenetic similarities between, the M. truongsonensis and M. rooseveltorum had the highest (99.2%) while the lowest similarities (96.8%) found between M. crinifrons and M. putaoensi. While the results of nucleotide sequences (Cty b) showed the highest similarity (100%) between M. muntjak and M. truongsonensis and the lowest s (91.5%) among M. putaoensis and M. crinifrons. The phylogenetic tree of muntjac species (16s rRNA gene) shows the main two clusters, the one including M. putaoensis, M. truongsonensis, M. rooseveltorum, and M. muntjak, and the second one including M. crinifrons and M. vuquangensis. The M. reevesi exists separately in the phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree of muntjac species using cytochrome b genes shows that the M. muntjak and M. truongsonensis are clustered in the same group.


Assuntos
Citocromos b , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Citocromos b/genética , Cervo Muntjac/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; : e13729, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525257

RESUMO

AIM: Slc26a9 is a member of the Slc26 multifunctional anion transporter family. Polymorphisms in Slc26a9 are associated with an increased incidence of meconium ileus and diabetes in cystic fibrosis patients. We investigated the expression of Slc26a9 in the murine pancreatic ducts, islets and parenchyma, and elucidated its role in pancreatic ductal electrolyte and fluid secretion and endocrine function. METHODS: Pancreatic Slc26a9 and CFTR mRNA expression, fluid and bicarbonate secretion were assessed in slc26a9-/- mice and their age- and sex-matched wild-type (wt) littermates. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. RESULTS: Compared with stomach, the mRNA expression of Slc26a9 was low in pancreatic parenchyma, 20-fold higher in microdissected pancreatic ducts than parenchyma, and very low in islets. CFTR mRNA was ∼ 10fold higher than Slc26a9 mRNA expression in each pancreatic cell type. Significantly reduced pancreatic fluid secretory rates and impaired glucose tolerance were observed in female slc26a9-/- mice, whereas alterations in male mice did not reach statistical significance. No significant difference was observed in peripheral insulin resistance in slc26a9-/- compared to sex- and aged-matched wt controls. In contrast, isolated slc26a9-/- islets in short term culture displayed no difference in insulin content, but a significantly reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to age- and sex-matched wt islets, suggesting that the impaired glucose tolerance is a pancreatic defect. CONCLUSIONS: Deletion of Slc26a9 is associated with a reduction in pancreatic fluid secretion and impaired glucose tolerance in female mice. The results underline the importance of Slc26a9 in pancreatic physiology.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378665

RESUMO

Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Paquistão
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346960

RESUMO

Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.


Assuntos
Aves , Ecossistema , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Rios , Áreas Alagadas
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e240199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190802

RESUMO

One of the most important traits that plant breeders aim to improve is grain yield which is a highly quantitative trait controlled by various agro-morphological traits. Twelve morphological traits such as Germination Percentage, Days to Spike Emergence, Plant Height, Spike Length, Awn Length, Tillers/Plant, Leaf Angle, Seeds/Spike, Plant Thickness, 1000-Grain Weight, Harvest Index and Days to Maturity have been considered as independent factors. Correlation, regression, and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to identify the different durum wheat traits, which significantly contribute to the yield. The necessary assumptions required for applying regression modeling have been tested and all the assumptions are satisfied by the observed data. The outliers are detected in the observations of fixed traits and Grain Yield. Some observations are detected as outliers but the outlying observations did not show any influence on the regression fit. For selecting a parsimonious regression model for durum wheat, best subset regression, and stepwise regression techniques have been applied. The best subset regression analysis revealed that Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike have a marked increasing effect whereas Plant thickness has a negative effect on durum wheat yield. While stepwise regression analysis identified that the traits, Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike significantly contribute to increasing the durum wheat yield. The simple correlation coefficient specified the significant positive correlation of Grain Yield with Germination Percentage, Number of Tillers/Plant, Seeds/Spike, and Harvest Index. These results of correlation analysis directed the importance of morphological characters and their significant positive impact on Grain Yield. The results of PCA showed that most variation (70%) among data set can be explained by the first five components. It also identified that Seeds/Spike; 1000-Grain Weight and Harvest Index have a higher influence in contributing to the durum wheat yield. Based on the results it is recommended that these important parameters might be considered and focused in future durum wheat breeding programs to develop high yield varieties.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum , Paquistão , Fenótipo , Sementes
9.
Cureus ; 11(5): e4620, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312547

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly patients, affecting individuals older than 60 years. It is a complex degenerative brain disease characterized by progressive cognitive impairment. AD constitutes a major global health concern. A central role for inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. Despite the understanding of multiple molecular pathways in the pathophysiology of AD, novel treatment agents with a possible role in modifying the disease activity are still lacking. Our article provides a comprehensive review of various observational studies and randomized trials encompassing the use of anti-inflammatory agents in the management of AD patients and utilizes the conclusions derived therefrom to give recommendations in this regard.

10.
J Magn Reson ; 139(1): 126-31, 1999 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10388591

RESUMO

The transverse relaxation time in the rotating frame T2rho is proposed as an effective parameter to get specific contrast in solid state imaging. Several peculiarities make T2rho an interesting candidate to map dynamics and structure in solids: the effect of the secular spin interaction can be controlled by the experimenter and therefore the relaxation associated with the nonsecular terms, which is particularly sensitive to very slow dynamics, can be observed. In this paper we present preliminary results obtained on polymers and prove the capability of the MARF Imaging, enhanced by a filter based on rotary echo refocusing, to produce images of solids contrasted by T2rho.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Microscopia , Poliuretanos/química
11.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 16(10): 1289-94, 1998 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9858287

RESUMO

The two-dimensional FT Imaging of 13C-glucose obtained with twin spin-echo double resonance sequence is presented. The images have been obtained by a doubly tuned surface coil on samples containing water and 13C-enriched glucose in water. It is shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that the whole editing capability of the twin spin-echo double resonance imaging sequence is also preserved in the presence of the radiofrequency field inhomogeneity produced by the surface coil. As in an efficient selective irradiation method, the enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio with respect to the direct 13C detection, depends on the number of protons J-coupled to 13C.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Isótopos de Carbono , Glucose , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Imagens de Fantasmas/estatística & dados numéricos , Água
12.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 16(4): 435-40, 1998 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9665554

RESUMO

An extension of the solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging based on magic angle in the rotating frame (MARF) line narrowing approach is presented. The modified magic angle in the rotating frame imaging sequence is able to yield T1rho maps of large band polymers with remarkable contrast sensitivity and without contrast parameter alteration referable to the narrowing procedure. This last feature is examined closely in order to outline the actual effectiveness of the method. Further experimental details, especially regarding probe coil design, recently improved, are discussed and some new results are presented.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Estruturais , Polímeros/química , Ondas de Rádio , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagens de Fantasmas , Polietilenos/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Poliuretanos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Public Underst Sci ; 6(3): 247-67, 1997 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11619415

RESUMO

In September 1994 a plague epidemic hit a number of cities in India. Though the spread of the disease was controlled within a short period of about one month, its influences on various channels of information, on the functioning of government departments (especially health and sanitation), on the scientific community and on people's scientific information level were remarkable. This paper analyzes the responses of 1127 individuals interviewed in December 1994. The data indicates high levels of informedness about health, hygiene and plague, with little reference to extra-scientific explanations of the causes of the epidemic. Respondents expressed a high degree of confidence in the modern system of medicine. From this analysis we also infer that the public could not be described as 'superstitious', 'unscientific' or 'unhygienic': only when denied access to information and civic amenities did they show extra-scientific thinking or 'unhygienic' behaviour.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/história , Higiene/história , Peste/história , Opinião Pública , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índia
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