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Materials (Basel) ; 15(16)2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36013650


The depletion of aggregate-related natural resources is the primary concern of all researchers globally. Recent studies emphasize the significance of recycling and reusing various types of natural or by-product material waste from industry as a result of the building industry's rising demand for aggregate as the primary component in concrete production. It has been demonstrated that the geopolymer system has exceptional features, such as high strength, superior durability, and greater resistance to fire exposure, making it a viable alternative to ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete. This study will examine the present method utilized to generate artificial aggregate-based geopolymers, including their physical and mechanical properties, as well as their characterization. The production process of geopolymer derived from synthetic aggregates will be highlighted. In conjunction with the bonding of aggregates and the cement matrix, the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is highlighted in this work as an additional important property to be researched in the future. It will be discussed how to improve the properties of geopolymers based on artificial aggregates. It has been demonstrated that cold bonding provides superior qualities for artificial aggregate while conserving energy during production. The creation of ITZ has a significant impact on the bonding strength between artificial aggregates and the cement matrix. Additionally, improvement strategies demonstrate viable methods for enhancing the quality of manufactured aggregates. In addition, other recommendations are discussed in this study for future work.

Materials (Basel) ; 15(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683229


As the demand for nonrenewable natural resources, such as aggregate, is increasing worldwide, new production of artificial aggregate should be developed. Artificial lightweight aggregate can bring advantages to the construction field due to its lower density, thus reducing the dead load applied to the structural elements. In addition, application of artificial lightweight aggregate in lightweight concrete will produce lower thermal conductivity. However, the production of artificial lightweight aggregate is still limited. Production of artificial lightweight aggregate incorporating waste materials or pozzolanic materials is advantageous and beneficial in terms of being environmentally friendly, as well as lowering carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, additives, such as geopolymer, have been introduced as one of the alternative construction materials that have been proven to have excellent properties. Thus, this paper will review the production of artificial lightweight aggregate through various methods, including sintering, cold bonding, and autoclaving. The significant properties of artificial lightweight aggregate, including physical and mechanical properties, such as water absorption, crushing strength, and impact value, are reviewed. The properties of concrete, including thermal properties, that utilized artificial lightweight aggregate were also briefly reviewed to highlight the advantages of artificial lightweight aggregate.

Materials (Basel) ; 14(22)2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832267


Underwater concrete is a cohesive self-consolidated concrete used for concreting underwater structures such as bridge piers. Conventional concrete used anti-washout admixture (AWA) to form a high-viscosity underwater concrete to minimise the dispersion of concrete material into the surrounding water. The reduction of quality for conventional concrete is mainly due to the washing out of cement and fine particles upon casting in the water. This research focused on the detailed investigations into the setting time, washout effect, compressive strength, and chemical composition analysis of alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) paste through underwater placement in seawater and freshwater. Class C fly ash as source materials, sodium silicate, and sodium hydroxide solution as alkaline activator were used for this study. Specimens produced through underwater placement in seawater showed impressive performance with strength 71.10 MPa on 28 days. According to the Standard of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE), the strength of specimens for underwater placement must not be lower than 80% of the specimen's strength prepared in dry conditions. As result, the AAFA specimens only showed 12.11% reduction in strength compared to the specimen prepared in dry conditions, thus proving that AAFA paste has high potential to be applied in seawater and freshwater applications.

Materials (Basel) ; 14(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374466


In recent years, research and development of geopolymers has gained significant interest in the fields of repairs and restoration. This paper investigates the application of a geopolymer as a repair material by implementation of high-calcium fly ash (FA) as a main precursor, activated by a sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution. Three methods of concrete substrate surface preparation were cast and patched: as-cast against ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPCC), with drilled holes, wire-brushed, and left as-cast against the OPCC grade 30. This study indicated that FA-based geopolymer repair materials (GRMs) possessed very high bonding strength at early stages and that the behavior was not affected significantly by high surface treatment roughness. In addition, the investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy have revealed that the geopolymer repair material became chemically bonded to the OPC concrete substrate, due to the formation of a C-A-S-H gel. Fundamentally, the geopolymer network is composed of tetrahedral anions (SiO4)4- and (AlO4)5- sharing the oxygen, which requires positive ions such as Na+, K+, Li+, Ca2+, Na+, Ba2+, NH4+, and H3O+. The availability of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at the surface of the OPCC substrate, which was rich in calcium ions (Ca2+), reacted with the geopolymer; this compensated the electron vacancies of the framework cavities at the bonding zone between the GRM and the OPCC substrate.