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1.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 23, 2021 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of disease severity might help individualizing the management of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Whether the alveolar compartmentalization of biomarkers has a clinical significance in patients with pneumonia-related ARDS is unknown. This study aimed at assessing the interrelation of ARDS/sepsis biomarkers in the alveolar and blood compartments and explored their association with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Immunocompetent patients with pneumonia-related ARDS admitted between 2014 and 2018 were included in a prospective monocentric study. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and blood samples were obtained within 48 h of admission. Twenty-two biomarkers were quantified in BAL fluid and serum. HLA-DR+ monocytes and CD8+ PD-1+ lymphocytes were quantified using flow cytometry. The primary clinical endpoint of the study was hospital mortality. Patients undergoing a bronchoscopy as part of routine care were included as controls. RESULTS: Seventy ARDS patients were included. Hospital mortality was 21.4%. The BAL fluid-to-serum ratio of IL-8 was 20 times higher in ARDS patients than in controls (p < 0.0001). ARDS patients with shock had lower BAL fluid-to-serum ratio of IL-1Ra (p = 0.026), IL-6 (p = 0.002), IP-10/CXCL10 (p = 0.024) and IL-10 (p = 0.023) than others. The BAL fluid-to-serum ratio of IL-1Ra was more elevated in hospital survivors than decedents (p = 0.006), even after adjusting for SOFA and driving pressure (p = 0.036). There was no significant association between alveolar or alveolar/blood monocytic HLA-DR or CD8+ lymphocytes PD-1 expression and hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: IL-8 was the most compartmentalized cytokine and lower BAL fluid-to-serum concentration ratios of IL-1Ra were associated with hospital mortality in patients with pneumonia-associated ARDS.

2.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 678, 2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287864

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Patients with coronavirus disease-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (C-ARDS) could have a specific physiological phenotype as compared with those affected by ARDS from other causes (NC-ARDS). OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on respiratory mechanics in C-ARDS patients in supine and prone position, and as compared to NC-ARDS. The primary endpoint was the best PEEP defined as the smallest sum of hyperdistension and collapse. METHODS: Seventeen patients with moderate-to-severe C-ARDS were monitored by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and evaluated during PEEP titration in supine (n = 17) and prone (n = 14) position and compared with 13 NC-ARDS patients investigated by EIT in our department before the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: As compared with NC-ARDS, C-ARDS exhibited a higher median best PEEP (defined using EIT as the smallest sum of hyperdistension and collapse, 12 [9, 12] vs. 9 [6, 9] cmH2O, p < 0.01), more collapse at low PEEP, and less hyperdistension at high PEEP. The median value of the best PEEP was similar in C-ARDS in supine and prone position: 12 [9, 12] vs. 12 [10, 15] cmH2O, p = 0.59. The response to PEEP was also similar in C-ARDS patients with higher vs. lower respiratory system compliance. CONCLUSION: An intermediate PEEP level seems appropriate in half of our C-ARDS patients. There is no solid evidence that compliance at low PEEP could predict the response to PEEP.

3.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 679, 2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microaspiration of gastric and oropharyngeal secretions is the main causative mechanism of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a routine investigation tool in intensive care unit and could enhance microaspiration. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of TEE on microaspiration and VAP in intubated critically ill adult patients. METHODS: It is a four-center prospective observational study. Microaspiration biomarkers (pepsin and salivary amylase) concentrations were quantitatively measured on tracheal aspirates drawn before and after TEE. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with TEE-associated microaspiration, defined as: (1) ≥ 50% increase in biomarker concentration between pre-TEE and post-TEE samples, and (2) a significant post-TEE biomarker concentration (> 200 µg/L for pepsin and/or > 1685 IU/L for salivary amylase). Secondary endpoints included the development of VAP within three days after TEE and the evolution of tracheal cuff pressure throughout TEE. RESULTS: We enrolled 100 patients (35 females), with a median age of 64 (53-72) years. Of the 74 patients analyzed for biomarkers, 17 (23%) got TEE-associated microaspiration. However, overall, pepsin and salivary amylase levels were not significantly different between before and after TEE, with wide interindividual variability. VAP occurred in 19 patients (19%) within 3 days following TEE. VAP patients had a larger tracheal tube size and endured more attempts of TEE probe introduction than their counterparts but showed similar aspiration biomarker concentrations. TEE induced an increase in tracheal cuff pressure, especially during insertion and removal of the probe. CONCLUSIONS: We could not find any association between TEE-associated microaspiration and the development of VAP during the three days following TEE in intubated critically ill patients. However, our study cannot formally rule out a role for TEE because of the high rate of VAP observed after TEE and the limitations of our methods.

4.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 699, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection are limited. METHODS: We conducted a monocenter retrospective study comparing the incidence of VAP and invasive aspergillosis between patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (C-ARDS) and those with non-SARS-CoV-2 viral ARDS (NC-ARDS). RESULTS: We assessed 90 C-ARDS and 82 NC-ARDS patients, who were mechanically ventilated for more than 48 h. At ICU admission, there were significantly fewer bacterial coinfections documented in C-ARDS than in NC-ARDS: 14 (16%) vs 38 (48%), p < 0.01. Conversely, significantly more patients developed at least one VAP episode in C-ARDS as compared with NC-ARDS: 58 (64%) vs. 36 (44%), p = 0.007. The probability of VAP was significantly higher in C-ARDS after adjusting on death and ventilator weaning [sub-hazard ratio = 1.72 (1.14-2.52), p < 0.01]. The incidence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria (MDR)-related VAP was significantly higher in C-ARDS than in NC-ARDS: 21 (23%) vs. 9 (11%), p = 0.03. Carbapenem was more used in C-ARDS than in NC-ARDS: 48 (53%), vs 21 (26%), p < 0.01. According to AspICU algorithm, there were fewer cases of putative aspergillosis in C-ARDS than in NC-ARDS [2 (2%) vs. 12 (15%), p = 0.003], but there was no difference in Aspergillus colonization. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, we evidenced a higher incidence of VAP and MDR-VAP in C-ARDS than in NC-ARDS and a lower risk for invasive aspergillosis in the former group.


Assuntos
/microbiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , /microbiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228148

RESUMO

Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a major complication of sickle-cell disease. Bacterial infection is one cause of ACS, so current guidelines recommend the routine use of antibiotics. We performed a prospective before-after study in medical wards and an intensive-care unit (ICU). During the control phase, clinicians were blinded to procalcitonin concentration results. We built an algorithm using the obtained measurements to hasten antibiotic cessation after three days of treatment if bacterial infection was not documented, and procalcitonin concentrations were all <0.5 µg/L. During the intervention period, the procalcitonin algorithm was suggested to physicians as a guide for antibiotic therapy. The primary endpoint was the number of days alive without antibiotics at Day 21. One-hundred patients were analyzed (103 ACS episodes, 60 in intervention phase). Possible or proven lung infection was diagnosed during 13% of all ACS episodes. The number of days alive without antibiotics at Day 21 was higher during the intervention phase: 15 [14-18] vs. 13 [13,14] days (p = 0.001). More patients had a short (≤3 days) antibiotic course during intervention phase: 31% vs 9% (p = 0.01). There was neither infection relapse nor pulmonary superinfection in the entire cohort. A procalcitonin-guided strategy to prescribe antibiotics in patients with ACS may reduce antibiotic exposure with no apparent adverse outcomes.

6.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 151, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the relatively preserved respiratory system compliance despite severe hypoxemia, with specific pulmonary vascular dysfunction, suggests a possible hemodynamic mechanism for VA/Q mismatch, as hypoxic vasoconstriction alteration. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)-almitrine combination to restore oxygenation in severe COVID-19 ARDS (C-ARDS) patients. METHODS: We conducted a monocentric preliminary pilot study in intubated patients with severe C-ARDS. Respiratory mechanics was assessed after a prone session. Then, patients received iNO (10 ppm) alone and in association with almitrine (10 µg/kg/min) during 30 min in each step. Echocardiographic and blood gases measurements were performed at baseline, during iNO alone, and iNO-almitrine combination. The primary endpoint was the variation of oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2 ratio). RESULTS: Ten severe C-ARDS patients were assessed (7 males and 3 females), with a median age of 60 [52-72] years. Combination of iNO and almitrine outperformed iNO alone for oxygenation improvement. The median of PaO2/FiO2 ratio varied from 102 [89-134] mmHg at baseline, to 124 [108-146] mmHg after iNO (p = 0.13) and 180 [132-206] mmHg after iNO and almitrine (p < 0.01). We found no correlation between the increase in oxygenation caused by iNO-almitrine combination and that caused by proning. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study of severe C-ARDS patients, iNO-almitrine combination was associated with rapid and significant improvement of oxygenation. These findings highlight the role of pulmonary vascular function in COVID-19 pathophysiology.

7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(11): 1509-1519, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866033

RESUMO

Rationale: Uncontrolled inflammatory innate response and impaired adaptive immune response are associated with clinical severity in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19).Objectives: To compare the immunopathology of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with that of non-COVID-19 ARDS, and to identify biomarkers associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 ARDS.Methods: Prospective observational monocenter study. Immunocompetent patients diagnosed with RT-PCR-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and ARDS admitted between March 8 and March 30, 2020, were included and compared with patients with non-COVID-19 ARDS. The primary clinical endpoint of the study was mortality at Day 28. Flow cytometry analyses and serum cytokine measurements were performed at Days 1-2 and 4-6 of ICU admission.Measurements and Main Results: As compared with patients with non-COVID-19 ARDS (n = 36), those with COVID-19 (n = 38) were not significantly different regarding age, sex, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II scores but exhibited a higher Day-28 mortality (34% vs. 11%, P = 0.030). Patients with COVID-19 showed profound and sustained T CD4+ (P = 0.002), CD8+ (P < 0.0001), and B (P < 0.0001) lymphopenia, higher HLA-DR expression on monocytes (P < 0.001) and higher serum concentrations of EGF (epithelial growth factor), GM-CSF, IL-10, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1a, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL5/RANTES, and CCL20/MIP-3a. After adjusting on age and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, serum CXCL10/IP-10 (P = 0.047) and GM-CSF (P = 0.050) were higher and nasopharyngeal RT-PCR cycle threshold values lower (P = 0.010) in patients with COVID-19 who were dead at Day 28.Conclusions: Profound global lymphopenia and a "chemokine signature" were observed in COVID-19 ARDS. Increased serum concentrations of CXCL10/IP-10 and GM-CSF, together with higher nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral load, were associated with Day-28 mortality.

8.
JACC Case Rep ; 2(9): 1302-1306, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835272

RESUMO

A 57-year-old woman hospitalized for a COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019)-related refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome developed a few days later anteroseptal ST-segment elevation with acute systolic dysfunction. Coronary angiography was performed with the patient in prone (face down) position, owing to the necessity to maintain a reasonable oxygen saturation during the examination. (Level of Difficulty: Intermediate.).

10.
Chest ; 158(4): 1446-1455, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) using a T-piece remains the most frequently performed trial before extubation in ICUs. RESEARCH QUESTION: We aimed at determining whether initial SBT using pressure-support ventilation (PSV) could increase successful extubation rates among patients at high risk of extubation failure. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Post hoc analysis of a multicenter trial focusing on reintubation in patients at high-risk of extubation failure. The initial SBT was performed using PSV or T-piece according to the physician/center decision. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients successfully extubated 72 hours after initial SBT, that is, extubated after initial SBT and not reintubated within the following 72 hours. RESULTS: Among the 641 patients included in the original study, initial SBT was performed using PSV (7.0 cm H2O in median without positive end-expiratory pressure) in 243 patients (38%) and using a T-piece in 398 patients (62%). The proportion of patients successfully extubated 72 hours after initial SBT was 67% (162/243) using PSV and 56% (223/398) using T-piece (absolute difference 10.6%; 95% CI, 2.8 to 28.1; P = .0076). The proportion of patients extubated after initial SBT was 77% (186/283) using PSV and 63% (249/398) using T-piece (P = .0002), whereas reintubation rates within the following 72 hours did not significantly differ (13% vs 10%, respectively; P = .4259). Performing an initial SBT using PSV was independently associated with successful extubation (adjusted OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.18; P = .0061). INTERPRETATION: In patients at high risk of extubation failure in the ICU, performing an initial SBT using PSV may hasten extubation without an increased risk of reintubation.

11.
J Infect ; 80(5): 504-510, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) has globally increased and spread to the community. No clinical score is available to select carriers in whom these organisms can be empirically targeted at ICU admission. METHODS: We prospectively assessed between 2009 and 2017 the prevalence of ESBL-PE infection in carriers at ICU admission. A logistic regression was used to determine independent risk factors associated with ESBL-PE infection, and to build a clinical risk score. RESULTS: Of the 8,061 admissions over the study 7-year period, 745 (9%) patients were ESBL-PE carriers at admission, of whom 395 had infections at ICU admission including 59 (15%) who had culture-proven ESBL-PE related infection. By multivariable analysis, age >60 years, cirrhosis, being on broad-spectrum antibiotics within the past three months, urinary or intra-abdominal source of infection, and the absence of chronic pulmonary disease, were the five independent factors associated with ESBL-PE infection in carriers. A clinical risk score ranging from 0 to 7 was built based on these variables, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.82 (95% CI 0.78-0.86); p <0.001. The prevalence of ESBL-PE infection for clinical risk scores of 0-1, 2-3, 4-5, or 6-7 was 0%, 4%, 26%, and 49%, respectively. The negative predictive value when Mondor ESBL risk score is <4 was 97%. CONCLUSION: ESBL-PE related infection was not common in carriers at ICU admission. A clinical risk score may spare ESBL-PE carriers with lower risk of ESBL-PE infection at ICU admission unnecessary empiric carbapenem therapy.

12.
Infection ; 48(3): 413-420, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185636

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Corynebacterium spp. (C. spp.) is commonly considered as a contaminant in respiratory specimens. No study has ever focused on its clinical relevance in the lower respiratory tract of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation. The aims were to describe the characteristics of ICU patients with a C. spp. positive deep respiratory specimen, to investigate the impact of C. spp. on the occurrence of pneumonia, and to evaluate the outcomes of these pneumonia. METHODS: We retrospectively included all adult patients admitted to ICU in a 1000-bed University Hospital (2007-2017) who had a C. spp. positive lower respiratory tract specimen at a significant quantitative level. We used clinical, radiological, and microbiological criteria to classify the likelihood of such pneumonia. RESULTS: Among the 31 patients included, acute respiratory failure and postoperative care after major surgery were the main reasons of admission. SAPS II was 47 [34-60]. C. spp. pneumonia was considered as probable, possible and unlikely in 10, 14, and 7 patients, respectively. Fifty-two and 94% of C. spp. strains were sensitive to amoxicillin, and vancomycin/linezolid, respectively. Seventeen patients had a complete course of antibiotic against C. spp. The overall ICU mortality was 58%. CONCLUSION: Corynebacterium spp seems to be responsible for authentic pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. It should be considered as clinically relevant when predominantly present in respiratory specimen from patients suspected with pneumonia in ICU, and empirically treated.


Assuntos
Infecções por Corynebacterium/terapia , Corynebacterium/isolamento & purificação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Corynebacterium/microbiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Crit Care Med ; 48(1): 83-90, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Thyroid storm represents a rare but life-threatening endocrine emergency. Only rare data are available on its management and the outcome of the most severe forms requiring ICU admission. We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, management and in-ICU and 6-month survival rates of patients with those most severe thyroid storm forms requiring ICU admission. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, national study over an 18-year period (2000-2017). SETTING: Thirty-one French ICUs. PATIENTS: The local medical records of patients from each participating ICU were screened using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Inclusion criteria were "definite thyroid storm," as defined by the Japanese Thyroid Association criteria, and at least one thyroid storm-related organ failure. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included in the study. Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease represented the main thyroid storm etiologies (30 [33%] and 24 [26%] patients, respectively), while hyperthyroidism was unknown in 29 patients (32%) before ICU admission. Amiodarone use (24 patients [26%]) and antithyroid-drug discontinuation (13 patients [14%]) were the main thyroid storm-triggering factors. No triggering factor was identified for 30 patients (33%). Thirty-five patients (38%) developed cardiogenic shock within the first 48 hours after ICU admission. In-ICU and 6-month postadmission mortality rates were 17% and 22%, respectively. ICU nonsurvivors more frequently required vasopressors, extracorporeal membrane of oxygenation, renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, and/or therapeutic plasmapheresis. Multivariable analyses retained Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score without cardiovascular component (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.46; p = 0.025) and cardiogenic shock within 48 hours post-ICU admission (odds ratio, 9.43; 1.77-50.12; p = 0.008) as being independently associated with in-ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid storm requiring ICU admission causes high in-ICU mortality. Multiple organ failure and early cardiogenic shock seem to markedly impact the prognosis, suggesting a prompt identification and an aggressive management.


Assuntos
Crise Tireóidea , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Crise Tireóidea/diagnóstico , Crise Tireóidea/mortalidade , Crise Tireóidea/terapia
15.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1465-1475, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577036

RESUMO

Importance: High-flow nasal oxygen may prevent postextubation respiratory failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). The combination of high-flow nasal oxygen with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may be an optimal strategy of ventilation to avoid reintubation. Objective: To determine whether high-flow nasal oxygen with prophylactic NIV applied immediately after extubation could reduce the rate of reintubation, compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone, in patients at high risk of extubation failure in the ICU. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted from April 2017 to January 2018 among 641 patients at high risk of extubation failure (ie, older than 65 years or with an underlying cardiac or respiratory disease) at 30 ICUs in France; follow-up was until April 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to high-flow nasal oxygen alone (n = 306) or high-flow nasal oxygen alternating with NIV (n = 342) immediately after extubation. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of patients reintubated at day 7; secondary outcomes included postextubation respiratory failure at day 7, reintubation rates up until ICU discharge, and ICU mortality. Results: Among 648 patients who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 70 [10] years; 219 women [34%]), 641 patients completed the trial. The reintubation rate at day 7 was 11.8% (95% CI, 8.4%-15.2%) (40/339) with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV and 18.2% (95% CI, 13.9%-22.6%) (55/302) with high-flow nasal oxygen alone (difference, -6.4% [95% CI, -12.0% to -0.9%]; P = .02). Among the 11 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 showed no significant difference. The proportion of patients with postextubation respiratory failure at day 7 (21% vs 29%; difference, -8.7% [95% CI, -15.2% to -1.8%]; P = .01) and reintubation rates up until ICU discharge (12% vs 20%, difference -7.4% [95% CI, -13.2% to -1.8%]; P = .009) were significantly lower with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV than with high-flow nasal oxygen alone. ICU mortality rates were not significantly different: 6% with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV and 9% with high-flow nasal oxygen alone (difference, -2.4% [95% CI, -6.7% to 1.7%]; P = .25). Conclusions and Relevance: In mechanically ventilated patients at high risk of extubation failure, the use of high-flow nasal oxygen with NIV immediately after extubation significantly decreased the risk of reintubation compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03121482.


Assuntos
Extubação , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Retratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , França , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Ventilação não Invasiva/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Desmame do Respirador
16.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 321, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weaning-induced cardiac pulmonary edema (WiPO) is one of the main mechanisms of weaning failure during mechanical ventilation. We hypothesized that weaning-induced cardiac ischemia (WiCI) may contribute to weaning failure from cardiac origin. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of patients mechanically ventilated for at least 24 h who failed a first spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) was conducted in four intensive care units. Patients were explored during a second SBT using multiple tools (echocardiography, continuous 12-lead ST monitoring, biomarkers) to scrutinize the mechanisms of weaning failure. WiPO definition was based on three criteria (echocardiographic signs of increased left atrial pressure, increase in B-type natriuretic peptides, or increase in protein concentration during SBT) according to a conservative definition (at least two criteria) and a liberal definition (at least one criterion). WiCI was diagnosed according to the third universal definition of myocardial infarction proposed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) statement for exercise testing. RESULTS: Among patients who failed a first SBT, WiPO occurred in 124/208 (59.6%) and 44/208 (21.2%) patients, according to the liberal and conservative definition, respectively. Among patients with ST monitoring, WiCI was diagnosed in 36/177 (20.3%) and 12/177 (6.8%) of them, according to the ESC and AHA definitions, respectively. WiCI was not associated with WiPO and was not associated with weaning outcomes. Only two patients of the cohort were treated for an acute coronary syndrome after the second SBT, and seven other patients required coronary angiography during the weaning period. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study showed the common occurrence of pulmonary edema in mechanically ventilated patients who failed a first SBT, but the association with cardiac ischemia and weaning outcomes was weak.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Desmame do Respirador/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/análise , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/métodos
18.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 64, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of organ failure during sepsis are not fully understood. The hypothesis of circulating factors has been suggested to explain septic myocardial dysfunction. We explored the biological coherence of a large panel of sepsis mediators and their clinical relevance in septic myocardial dysfunction and organ failures during human septic shock. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of 24 mediators were assessed on the first day of septic shock using a multi-analyte cytokine kit. Septic myocardial dysfunction and organ failures were assessed using left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, respectively. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients with septic shock (and without immunosuppression or chronic heart failure) were prospectively included. Twenty-four patients (32%) had septic myocardial dysfunction (as defined by LVEF < 45%) and 30 (41%) died in ICU. Hierarchical clustering identified three main clusters of sepsis mediators, which were clinically meaningful. One cluster involved inflammatory cytokines of innate immunity, most of which were associated with septic myocardial dysfunction, organ failures and death; inflammatory cytokines associated with septic myocardial dysfunction had an additive effect. Another cluster involving adaptive immunity and repair (with IL-17/IFN pathway and VEGF) correlated tightly with a surrogate of early sepsis resolution (lactate clearance) and ICU survival. CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary study, we identified a cluster of cytokines involved in innate inflammatory response associated with septic myocardial dysfunction and organ failures, whereas the IL-17/IFN pathway was associated with a faster sepsis resolution and a better survival.

19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(4): 303-312, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation has never been compared with high-flow oxygen to determine whether it reduces the risk of severe hypoxaemia during intubation. We aimed to determine if preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation was more efficient than high-flow oxygen in reducing the risk of severe hypoxaemia during intubation. METHODS: The FLORALI-2 multicentre, open-label trial was done in 28 intensive care units in France. Adult patients undergoing tracheal intubation for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (a partial pressure of arterial oxygen [PaO2] to fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2] ratio of ≤300 mm Hg) were randomly assigned (1:1; block size, four participants) to non-invasive ventilation or high-flow oxygen during preoxygenation, with stratification by PaO2/FiO2 ratio (≤200 mm Hg vs >200 mm Hg). Key exclusion criteria were intubation for cardiac arrest, altered consciousness (defined as a Glasgow coma score of less than eight points), other contraindications to non-invasive ventilation (recent laryngeal, oesophageal, or gastric surgery, and substantial facial fractures), pulse oximetry not available, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and refusal to participate. The primary outcome was the occurrence of severe hypoxaemia (pulse oximetry <80%) during the procedure, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02668458. FINDINGS: Between April 15, 2016, and Jan 8, 2017, 2079 patients were intubated in the 28 participating units, and 322 were enrolled. We excluded five patients with no recorded data, two who withdrew consent or were under legal protection, one who was not intubated, and one who had a cardiac arrest. Of the 313 patients included in the intention-to-treat analysis, 142 were assigned to non-invasive ventilation and 171 to high-flow oxygen therapy. Severe hypoxaemia occurred in 33 (23%) of 142 patients after preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation and 47 (27%) of 171 with high-flow oxygen (absolute difference -4·2%, 95% CI -13·7 to 5·5; p=0·39). In the 242 patients with moderate-to-severe hypoxaemia (PaO2/FiO2 ≤200 mm Hg), severe hypoxaemia occurred less frequently after preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation than with high-flow oxygen (28 [24%] of 117 patients vs 44 [35%] of 125; adjusted odds ratio 0·56, 0·32 to 0·99, p=0·0459). Serious adverse events did not differ between treatment groups, with the most common immediate complications being systolic arterial hypotension (70 [49%] patients in the non-invasive ventilation group vs 86 [50%] patients in the high-flow oxygen group) and chest infiltrate on x-ray (28 [20%] vs 33 [19%]), and the most common late complications being death at day 28 (53 [37%] vs 58 [34%]) and ventilator-associated pneumonia during ICU stay (31 [22%] vs 35 [20%]). INTERPRETATION: In patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy did not change the risk of severe hypoxaemia. Future research should explore the effect of preoxygenation method in patients with moderate-to-severe hypoxaemia at baseline. FUNDING: French Ministry of Health.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Doença Aguda , Cateterismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Nariz , Oximetria , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos
20.
Anesthesiology ; 130(4): 581-591, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps have been associated with tissue damage. Whether these are involved in the pathogenesis of human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and could be a potential therapeutic target is unknown. The authors quantified bronchoalveolar and blood neutrophil extracellular traps in patients with pneumonia-related ARDS and assessed their relationship with ventilator-free days. METHODS: Immunocompetent patients with pneumonia and moderate or severe ARDS (n = 35) and controls (n = 4) were included in a prospective monocentric study. Neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations were quantified (as DNA-myeloperoxidase complexes) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations and the primary clinical endpoint (i.e., the number of live ventilator-free days at day 28) was assessed using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations and ventilator-free days by multiple regression analysis (ß coefficient = 2.40; 95% CI, -2.13 to 6.92; P = 0.288). Neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations were significantly higher in bronchoalveolar lavage than in blood of ARDS patients (median [first to third quartiles]:154 [74 to 1,000] vs. 26 [4 to 68] arbitrary units, difference: -94; 95% CI, -341 to -57; P < 0.0001). Bronchoalveolar concentrations of patients were higher than those of controls (154 [74 to 1,000] vs. 4 [4 to 4] arbitrary units, difference: -150; 95% CI, -996 to -64; P < 0.001) and associated with bronchoalveolar interleukin-8 (Spearman's ρ = 0.42; P = 0.012) and neutrophil concentrations (ρ = 0.57; P < 0.0001). Intensive care unit mortality (12%, n = 2 of 17 vs. 17%, n = 3 of 18; P > 0.99) and the number of ventilator-free days at day 28 (22 [14 to 25] vs. 14 [0 to 21] days; difference: -5; 95% CI, -15 to 0; P = 0.066) did not significantly differ between patients with higher (n = 17) versus lower (n = 18) bronchoalveolar neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchoalveolar neutrophil extracellular trap concentration was not significantly associated with mechanical ventilation duration in pneumonia-related ARDS.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pneumonia/sangue , /sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Estudos de Coortes , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/tendências , /terapia
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