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2.
Crit Care Med ; 48(1): 83-90, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Thyroid storm represents a rare but life-threatening endocrine emergency. Only rare data are available on its management and the outcome of the most severe forms requiring ICU admission. We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, management and in-ICU and 6-month survival rates of patients with those most severe thyroid storm forms requiring ICU admission. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, national study over an 18-year period (2000-2017). SETTING: Thirty-one French ICUs. PATIENTS: The local medical records of patients from each participating ICU were screened using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Inclusion criteria were "definite thyroid storm," as defined by the Japanese Thyroid Association criteria, and at least one thyroid storm-related organ failure. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included in the study. Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease represented the main thyroid storm etiologies (30 [33%] and 24 [26%] patients, respectively), while hyperthyroidism was unknown in 29 patients (32%) before ICU admission. Amiodarone use (24 patients [26%]) and antithyroid-drug discontinuation (13 patients [14%]) were the main thyroid storm-triggering factors. No triggering factor was identified for 30 patients (33%). Thirty-five patients (38%) developed cardiogenic shock within the first 48 hours after ICU admission. In-ICU and 6-month postadmission mortality rates were 17% and 22%, respectively. ICU nonsurvivors more frequently required vasopressors, extracorporeal membrane of oxygenation, renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, and/or therapeutic plasmapheresis. Multivariable analyses retained Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score without cardiovascular component (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.46; p = 0.025) and cardiogenic shock within 48 hours post-ICU admission (odds ratio, 9.43; 1.77-50.12; p = 0.008) as being independently associated with in-ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid storm requiring ICU admission causes high in-ICU mortality. Multiple organ failure and early cardiogenic shock seem to markedly impact the prognosis, suggesting a prompt identification and an aggressive management.

3.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1465-1475, 2019 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577036

RESUMO

Importance: High-flow nasal oxygen may prevent postextubation respiratory failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). The combination of high-flow nasal oxygen with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may be an optimal strategy of ventilation to avoid reintubation. Objective: To determine whether high-flow nasal oxygen with prophylactic NIV applied immediately after extubation could reduce the rate of reintubation, compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone, in patients at high risk of extubation failure in the ICU. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted from April 2017 to January 2018 among 641 patients at high risk of extubation failure (ie, older than 65 years or with an underlying cardiac or respiratory disease) at 30 ICUs in France; follow-up was until April 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to high-flow nasal oxygen alone (n = 306) or high-flow nasal oxygen with NIV (n = 342) immediately after extubation. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of patients reintubated at day 7; secondary outcomes included postextubation respiratory failure at day 7, reintubation rates up until ICU discharge, and ICU mortality. Results: Among 648 patients who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 70 [10] years; 219 women [34%]), 641 patients completed the trial. The reintubation rate at day 7 was 11.8% (95% CI, 8.4%-15.2%) (40/339) with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV and 18.2% (95% CI, 13.9%-22.6%) (55/302) with high-flow nasal oxygen alone (difference, -6.4% [95% CI, -12.0% to -0.9%]; P = .02). Among the 11 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 showed no significant difference. The proportion of patients with postextubation respiratory failure at day 7 (21% vs 29%; difference, -8.7% [95% CI, -15.2% to -1.8%]; P = .01) and reintubation rates up until ICU discharge (12% vs 20%, difference -7.4% [95% CI, -13.2% to -1.8%]; P = .009) were significantly lower with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV than with high-flow nasal oxygen alone. ICU mortality rates were not significantly different: 6% with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV and 9% with high-flow nasal oxygen alone (difference, -2.4% [95% CI, -6.7% to 1.7%]; P = .25). Conclusions and Relevance: In mechanically ventilated patients at high risk of extubation failure, the use of high-flow nasal oxygen with NIV immediately after extubation significantly decreased the risk of reintubation compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03121482.

4.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 321, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weaning-induced cardiac pulmonary edema (WiPO) is one of the main mechanisms of weaning failure during mechanical ventilation. We hypothesized that weaning-induced cardiac ischemia (WiCI) may contribute to weaning failure from cardiac origin. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of patients mechanically ventilated for at least 24 h who failed a first spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) was conducted in four intensive care units. Patients were explored during a second SBT using multiple tools (echocardiography, continuous 12-lead ST monitoring, biomarkers) to scrutinize the mechanisms of weaning failure. WiPO definition was based on three criteria (echocardiographic signs of increased left atrial pressure, increase in B-type natriuretic peptides, or increase in protein concentration during SBT) according to a conservative definition (at least two criteria) and a liberal definition (at least one criterion). WiCI was diagnosed according to the third universal definition of myocardial infarction proposed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) statement for exercise testing. RESULTS: Among patients who failed a first SBT, WiPO occurred in 124/208 (59.6%) and 44/208 (21.2%) patients, according to the liberal and conservative definition, respectively. Among patients with ST monitoring, WiCI was diagnosed in 36/177 (20.3%) and 12/177 (6.8%) of them, according to the ESC and AHA definitions, respectively. WiCI was not associated with WiPO and was not associated with weaning outcomes. Only two patients of the cohort were treated for an acute coronary syndrome after the second SBT, and seven other patients required coronary angiography during the weaning period. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study showed the common occurrence of pulmonary edema in mechanically ventilated patients who failed a first SBT, but the association with cardiac ischemia and weaning outcomes was weak.

6.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 64, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of organ failure during sepsis are not fully understood. The hypothesis of circulating factors has been suggested to explain septic myocardial dysfunction. We explored the biological coherence of a large panel of sepsis mediators and their clinical relevance in septic myocardial dysfunction and organ failures during human septic shock. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of 24 mediators were assessed on the first day of septic shock using a multi-analyte cytokine kit. Septic myocardial dysfunction and organ failures were assessed using left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, respectively. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients with septic shock (and without immunosuppression or chronic heart failure) were prospectively included. Twenty-four patients (32%) had septic myocardial dysfunction (as defined by LVEF < 45%) and 30 (41%) died in ICU. Hierarchical clustering identified three main clusters of sepsis mediators, which were clinically meaningful. One cluster involved inflammatory cytokines of innate immunity, most of which were associated with septic myocardial dysfunction, organ failures and death; inflammatory cytokines associated with septic myocardial dysfunction had an additive effect. Another cluster involving adaptive immunity and repair (with IL-17/IFN pathway and VEGF) correlated tightly with a surrogate of early sepsis resolution (lactate clearance) and ICU survival. CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary study, we identified a cluster of cytokines involved in innate inflammatory response associated with septic myocardial dysfunction and organ failures, whereas the IL-17/IFN pathway was associated with a faster sepsis resolution and a better survival.

7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(4): 303-312, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation has never been compared with high-flow oxygen to determine whether it reduces the risk of severe hypoxaemia during intubation. We aimed to determine if preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation was more efficient than high-flow oxygen in reducing the risk of severe hypoxaemia during intubation. METHODS: The FLORALI-2 multicentre, open-label trial was done in 28 intensive care units in France. Adult patients undergoing tracheal intubation for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (a partial pressure of arterial oxygen [PaO2] to fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2] ratio of ≤300 mm Hg) were randomly assigned (1:1; block size, four participants) to non-invasive ventilation or high-flow oxygen during preoxygenation, with stratification by PaO2/FiO2 ratio (≤200 mm Hg vs >200 mm Hg). Key exclusion criteria were intubation for cardiac arrest, altered consciousness (defined as a Glasgow coma score of less than eight points), other contraindications to non-invasive ventilation (recent laryngeal, oesophageal, or gastric surgery, and substantial facial fractures), pulse oximetry not available, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and refusal to participate. The primary outcome was the occurrence of severe hypoxaemia (pulse oximetry <80%) during the procedure, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02668458. FINDINGS: Between April 15, 2016, and Jan 8, 2017, 2079 patients were intubated in the 28 participating units, and 322 were enrolled. We excluded five patients with no recorded data, two who withdrew consent or were under legal protection, one who was not intubated, and one who had a cardiac arrest. Of the 313 patients included in the intention-to-treat analysis, 142 were assigned to non-invasive ventilation and 171 to high-flow oxygen therapy. Severe hypoxaemia occurred in 33 (23%) of 142 patients after preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation and 47 (27%) of 171 with high-flow oxygen (absolute difference -4·2%, 95% CI -13·7 to 5·5; p=0·39). In the 242 patients with moderate-to-severe hypoxaemia (PaO2/FiO2 ≤200 mm Hg), severe hypoxaemia occurred less frequently after preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation than with high-flow oxygen (28 [24%] of 117 patients vs 44 [35%] of 125; adjusted odds ratio 0·56, 0·32 to 0·99, p=0·0459). Serious adverse events did not differ between treatment groups, with the most common immediate complications being systolic arterial hypotension (70 [49%] patients in the non-invasive ventilation group vs 86 [50%] patients in the high-flow oxygen group) and chest infiltrate on x-ray (28 [20%] vs 33 [19%]), and the most common late complications being death at day 28 (53 [37%] vs 58 [34%]) and ventilator-associated pneumonia during ICU stay (31 [22%] vs 35 [20%]). INTERPRETATION: In patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy did not change the risk of severe hypoxaemia. Future research should explore the effect of preoxygenation method in patients with moderate-to-severe hypoxaemia at baseline. FUNDING: French Ministry of Health.

8.
Anesthesiology ; 130(4): 581-591, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps have been associated with tissue damage. Whether these are involved in the pathogenesis of human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and could be a potential therapeutic target is unknown. The authors quantified bronchoalveolar and blood neutrophil extracellular traps in patients with pneumonia-related ARDS and assessed their relationship with ventilator-free days. METHODS: Immunocompetent patients with pneumonia and moderate or severe ARDS (n = 35) and controls (n = 4) were included in a prospective monocentric study. Neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations were quantified (as DNA-myeloperoxidase complexes) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations and the primary clinical endpoint (i.e., the number of live ventilator-free days at day 28) was assessed using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations and ventilator-free days by multiple regression analysis (ß coefficient = 2.40; 95% CI, -2.13 to 6.92; P = 0.288). Neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations were significantly higher in bronchoalveolar lavage than in blood of ARDS patients (median [first to third quartiles]:154 [74 to 1,000] vs. 26 [4 to 68] arbitrary units, difference: -94; 95% CI, -341 to -57; P < 0.0001). Bronchoalveolar concentrations of patients were higher than those of controls (154 [74 to 1,000] vs. 4 [4 to 4] arbitrary units, difference: -150; 95% CI, -996 to -64; P < 0.001) and associated with bronchoalveolar interleukin-8 (Spearman's ρ = 0.42; P = 0.012) and neutrophil concentrations (ρ = 0.57; P < 0.0001). Intensive care unit mortality (12%, n = 2 of 17 vs. 17%, n = 3 of 18; P > 0.99) and the number of ventilator-free days at day 28 (22 [14 to 25] vs. 14 [0 to 21] days; difference: -5; 95% CI, -15 to 0; P = 0.066) did not significantly differ between patients with higher (n = 17) versus lower (n = 18) bronchoalveolar neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchoalveolar neutrophil extracellular trap concentration was not significantly associated with mechanical ventilation duration in pneumonia-related ARDS.

10.
Ann Intensive Care ; 8(1): 103, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion is common during invasive mechanical ventilation, but its role during weaning is unclear. We aimed at assessing the prevalence and risk factors for pleural effusion at initiation of weaning. We also assessed its impact on weaning outcomes and its evolution in patients with difficult weaning. METHODS: We performed a prospective multicenter study in five intensive care units in France. Two hundred and forty-nine patients were explored using ultrasonography. Presence of moderate-to-large pleural effusion (defined as a maximal interpleural distance ≥ 15 mm) was assessed at weaning start and during difficult weaning. RESULTS: Seventy-three (29%) patients failed weaning, including 46 (18%) who failed the first spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) and 39 (16%) who failed extubation. Moderate-to-large pleural effusion was detected in 81 (33%) patients at weaning start. Moderate-to-large pleural effusion was associated with more failures of the first SBT [27 (33%) vs. 19 (11%), p < 0.001], more weaning failures [37 (47%) vs. 36 (22%), p < 0.001], less ventilator-free days at day 28 [21 (5-24) vs. 23 (16-26), p = 0.01], and a higher mortality at day 28 [14 (17%) vs. 14 (8%), p = 0.04]. The association of pleural effusion with weaning failure persisted in multivariable analysis and sensitivity analyses. Short-term (48 h) fluid balance change was not associated with the evolution of interpleural distance in patients with difficult weaning. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter observational study, pleural effusion was frequent during the weaning process and was associated with worse weaning outcomes.

11.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 50(11-12): 822-830, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal salmonellosis (NTS) often occurs in children with sickle-cell disease (SCD) and remains a significant cause of mortality in developing countries. However, there is lack of reports on the clinical presentation, outcome and complications of NTS in adults with SCD. METHODS: We performed a chart review between 2006 and 2016 of adults SCD diagnosed with NTS in 3 referral centers monitoring approximately 3500 SCD adults. RESULTS: Twenty-three episodes of NTS were diagnosed among 22 SCD adults. Diagnosis was challenging: 65% (n = 15/23) of patients presented with vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) and 30% had no fever. Isolated serotypes were: ser. Enteritidis (n = 8), ser. Typhimurium (n = 6), others (n = 3). We identified two patterns of infections: (1) bacteremic NTS (n = 15) with (n = 9) or without secondary foci of infections (n = 6); (2) non-bacteremic NTS with extra-intestinal foci of infection (n = 8), including primary bones/joints infections (n = 5). Half of patients with osteo-articular localization (n = 6/13) had a previous history of osteonecrosis (n = 2) or osteomyelitis (n = 4) at the same site. Morbidity was high, 6 patients (26%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, 14 patients (61%) required RBC transfusion for VOC. Half of the episodes (n = 12) required surgery (n = 10) or interventional radiology (n = 2) to control the infection. One patient presented a relapse of NTS bacteraemia one year after the first episode. CONCLUSIONS: Besides bloodstream infections, clinical presentation of NTS in adults with SCD is non-specific at admission. A triad including bacteraemia, secondary focis of infection and bone localizations was observed in 30% of cases.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico por imagem , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/patologia , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/microbiologia , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Articulações/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulações/microbiologia , Articulações/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/patologia , Sorogrupo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e023772, 2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185583

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent practice guidelines suggest applying non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to prevent postextubation respiratory failure in patients at high risk of extubation failure in intensive care unit (ICU). However, such prophylactic NIV has been only a conditional recommendation given the low certainty of evidence. Likewise, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy has been shown to reduce reintubation rates as compared with standard oxygen and to be as efficient as NIV in patients at high risk. Whereas HFNC may be considered as an optimal therapy during the postextubation period, HFNC associated with NIV could be an additional means of preventing postextubation respiratory failure. We are hypothesising that treatment associating NIV with HFNC between NIV sessions may be more effective than HFNC alone and may reduce the reintubation rate in patients at high risk. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is an investigator-initiated, multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing HFNC alone or with NIV sessions during the postextubation period in patients at high risk of extubation failure in the ICU. Six hundred patients will be randomised with a 1:1 ratio in two groups according to the strategy of oxygenation after extubation. The primary outcome is the reintubation rate within the 7 days following planned extubation. Secondary outcomes include the number of patients who meet the criteria for moderate/severe respiratory failure, ICU length of stay and mortality up to day 90. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the ethics committee and patients will be included after informed consent. The results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03121482.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Desmame do Respirador , Extubação , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Retratamento
13.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 210, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30119686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a devastating infection in tuberculosis endemic areas with limited access to intensive care. Functional outcomes of severe adult TBM patients admitted to the ICU in nonendemic areas are not known. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study (2004-2016) of consecutive TBM patients admitted to 12 ICUs in the Paris area, France. Clinical, biological, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at admission associated with a poor functional outcome (i.e., a score of 3-6 on the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 90 days) were identified by logistic regression. Factors associated with 1-year mortality were investigated by Cox proportional hazards modeling. RESULTS: We studied 90 patients, of whom 61 (68%) had a score on the Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 10 at presentation and 63 (70%) required invasive mechanical ventilation. Brain MRI revealed infarction and hydrocephalus in 38/75 (51%) and 25/75 (33%) cases, respectively. A poor functional outcome was observed in 55 (61%) patients and was independently associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.03, 95% CI 1.0-1.07), cerebrospinal fluid protein level ≥ 2 g/L (aOR 5.31, 95% CI 1.67-16.85), and hydrocephalus on brain MRI (aOR 17.2, 95% CI 2.57-115.14). By contrast, adjunctive steroids were protective (aOR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.56). The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio of adjunctive steroids for 1-year mortality (47%, 95% CI 37%-59%) was 0.23 (95% CI 0.11-0.44). Among survivors at 1 year, functional independence (mRS of 0-2) was observed in 27/37 (73%, 95% CI 59%-87%) cases. CONCLUSIONS: A poor functional outcome in adult TBM patients admitted to the ICU in a nonendemic area is observed in 60% of cases and is independently associated with elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein level and hydrocephalus. Our data also suggest a protective effect of adjunctive steroids, with reduced disability and mortality, irrespective of immune status and severity of disease at presentation. One-year follow-up revealed functional independence in most survivors.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Tuberculose Meníngea/complicações , Adulto , Infarto Encefálico/complicações , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/complicações , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paris , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
15.
IDCases ; 12: 64-65, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942752

RESUMO

We report a rare case of emphysematous pyelonephritis complicated by septic shock and multiple gas emboli in the pulmonary artery (with transient cor pulmonale), coronary artery (with transient acute coronary syndrome).

16.
Crit Care Med ; 46(2): 208-215, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, noninvasive ventilation and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen are alternative strategies to conventional oxygen therapy. Endotracheal intubation is frequently needed in these patients with a risk of delay, and early predictors of failure may help clinicians to decide early. We aimed to identify factors associated with intubation in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure treated with different noninvasive oxygenation techniques. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Twenty-three ICUs. PATIENTS: Patients with a respiratory rate greater than 25 breaths/min and a PaO2/FIO2 ratio less than or equal to 300 mm Hg. INTERVENTION: Patients were treated with standard oxygen, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen, or noninvasive ventilation. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Respiratory variables one hour after treatment initiation. Under standard oxygen, patients with a respiratory rate greater than or equal to 30 breaths/min were more likely to need intubation (odds ratio, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.13-6.75; p = 0.03). One hour after high-flow nasal cannula oxygen initiation, increased heart rate was the only factor associated with intubation. One hour after noninvasive ventilation initiation, a PaO2/FIO2 ratio less than or equal to 200 mm Hg and a tidal volume greater than 9 mL/kg of predicted body weight were independent predictors of intubation (adjusted odds ratio, 4.26; 95% CI, 1.62-11.16; p = 0.003 and adjusted odds ratio, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.22-8.06; p = 0.02, respectively). A tidal volume above 9 mL/kg during noninvasive ventilation remained independently associated with 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure breathing spontaneously, the respiratory rate was a predictor of intubation under standard oxygen, but not under high-flow nasal cannula oxygen or noninvasive ventilation. A PaO2/FIO2 below 200 mm Hg and a high tidal volume greater than 9 mL/kg were the two strong predictors of intubation under noninvasive ventilation.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Doença Aguda , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia
17.
Shock ; 49(6): 641-648, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia is a common feature of sepsis and may involve various mechanisms often related to the inflammatory response. This study aimed at evaluating factors associated with thrombocytopenia during human septic shock. In particular, we used a multiplex analysis to assess the role of endogenous sepsis mediators. METHODS: Prospective, observational study. Thrombocytopenia was defined as an absolute platelet count <100 G/L or a 50% relative decrease in platelet count during the first week of septic shock. Plasma concentrations of 27 endogenous mediators involved in sepsis and platelet pathophysiology were assessed at day-1 using a multi-analyte Milliplex human cytokine kit. Patients with underlying diseases at risk of thrombocytopenia (hematological malignancies, chemotherapy, cirrhosis, and chronic heart failure) were excluded. RESULTS: Thrombocytopenia occurred in 33 (55%) of 60 patients assessed. Patients with thrombocytopenia were more prone to present with extrapulmonary infections and bacteremia. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was frequent (81%) in these patients. Unbiased hierarchical clustering identified five different clusters of sepsis mediators, including one with markers of platelet activation (e.g., thrombospondin-1) positively associated with platelet count, one with markers of inflammation (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha and heat shock protein 70), and endothelial dysfunction (e.g., intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) negatively associated with platelet count, and another involving growth factors of thrombopoiesis (e.g., thrombopoietin), also negatively associated with platelet count. Surrogates of hemodilution (e.g., hypoprotidemia and higher fluid balance) were also associated with thrombocytopenia. CONCLUSION: Multiple mechanisms seemed involved in thrombocytopenia during septic shock, including endothelial dysfunction/coagulopathy, hemodilution, and altered thrombopoiesis.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Choque Séptico/sangue , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombopoese , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Prospectivos , Choque Séptico/patologia , Trombocitopenia/patologia
18.
Br J Haematol ; 179(4): 627-634, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905364

RESUMO

Pulmonary artery thrombosis (PAT) is involved in lung vascular dysfunction during acute chest syndrome (ACS) complicating sickle cell disease (SCD). No clinical score is available to identify patients eligible for multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography during ACS. This retrospective study aimed to develop a risk score for PAT during ACS (PAT-ACS risk score). Patients with SCD were investigated by MDCT during ACS. A logistic regression was performed to determine independent risks factors for PAT and to build the PAT-ACS risk score. A total of 43 episodes (11·9%) of PAT were diagnosed in 361 episodes of ACS. Multivariate analysis identified four risk factors, which were included in the PAT-ACS risk score: a baseline haemoglobin >82 g/l, the lack of a triggering factor for ACS, a platelet count >440 × 109 /l and a PaCO2 <38 mmHg at ACS diagnosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the PAT-ACS risk score was 0·74 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0·69-0·79) and differed from that of the revised Geneva score (0·63 (95% CI 0·58-0·69); P = 0·04). The negative predictive value of a PAT-ACS risk score ≥2 was 94%. In conclusion, we propose a simple clinical risk score to identify SCD patients at high risk of PAT during ACS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Torácica Aguda/etiologia , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Trombose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Gasometria , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Contagem de Plaquetas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
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