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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the associations of these metabolites with T2D incidence and the potential effect of dietary interventions remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the association of baseline and 1-y changes in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle metabolites with insulin resistance and T2D incidence, and the potential modifying effect of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions. METHODS: We included 251 incident T2D cases and 638 noncases in a nested case-cohort study within the PREDIMED Study during median follow-up of 3.8 y. Participants were allocated to MedDiet + extra-virgin olive oil, MedDiet + nuts, or control diet. Plasma metabolites were measured using a targeted approach by LC-tandem MS. We tested the associations of baseline and 1-y changes in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle metabolites with subsequent T2D risk using weighted Cox regression models and adjusting for potential confounders. We designed a weighted score combining all these metabolites and applying the leave-one-out cross-validation approach. RESULTS: Baseline circulating concentrations of hexose monophosphate, pyruvate, lactate, alanine, glycerol-3 phosphate, and isocitrate were significantly associated with higher T2D risk (17-44% higher risk for each 1-SD increment). The weighted score including all metabolites was associated with a 30% (95% CI: 1.12, 1.51) higher relative risk of T2D for each 1-SD increment. Baseline lactate and alanine were associated with baseline and 1-y changes of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. One-year increases in most metabolites and in the weighted score were associated with higher relative risk of T2D after 1 y of follow-up. Lower risks were observed in the MedDiet groups than in the control group although no significant interactions were found after adjusting for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a panel of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis-related metabolites that was significantly associated with T2D risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A MedDiet could counteract the detrimental effects of these metabolites.This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

2.
Nutrition ; 71: 110645, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lifestyle, obesity, and eating habits are emerging as determinants for the instability of telomeres. The increase in childhood and adolescent obesity and the association of biochemical profiles and dietary components with telomere length (TL) makes it an important issue in nutritional research. The aim of the present study was to investigate TL and its association with ethnic background, adiposity, clinical and biochemical parameters, and dietary patterns among Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study encompassing 981 children and adolescents between 7 and 17 y of age was performed. Dietary intake habits, anthropometry, and clinical data were collected. TL analysis was performed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Children presented significantly longer TL than adolescents (P = 0.046). Participants who self-declared as black, mulatto, or brown (P < 0.001) also showed longer TL than those who were white. Regarding biochemical parameters, individuals with altered glucose levels had shorter TL than normoglycemic participants in the total sample (P = 0.014). Such difference remained statistically significant in adolescents (P = 0.019). Participants who reported eating fruits and vegetables regularly had longer TL than those who did not (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The results suggested that both biochemical parameters and the intake of antioxidant-rich food, such as fruits and vegetables, are associated with the stability of telomere biology among young Brazilians.

3.
Neuroepidemiology ; 54(1): 45-57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study and compare associations of 5 dietary patterns - Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative delay (MIND), Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), and a pro-vegetarian diet (PVD) - with cognitive function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A subgroup of 806 participants from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra"(SUN) cohort of university graduates, >55 years old, was interviewed with the validated Spanish Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (STICS-m) at baseline and after 2 and 6 years. For recruitment to the SUN cohort, participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire to calculate dietary adherence scores. These scores were used as independent variables in linear regression models (a model for each dietary pattern) to assess their association with the 6-year change in STICS-m as the dependent variable. Linear mixed models were also fitted to compare trajectories of STICS-m scores. All models were adjusted for relevant confounding factors. RESULTS: Adjusted differences showed advantages in the 6-year change in STICS-m score of 0.25 (95% CI 0.04-0.45) for an increase of 1-SD (9 points) in the AHEI-2010 and of 0.27 (95% CI 0.05-0.48) for an increase of 1-SD (1.5 points) in the MIND diet. The MDP, DASH, and PVD scores yielded positive differences in their point estimates for an increase in 1-SD, but results were not statistically significant. The MIND diet appeared to modify changes in cognitive function over time. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a beneficial association between the MIND diet and cognitive function and suggested a benefit for the AHEI-2010 pattern. Results for the MDP, DASH, and PVD were inconclusive.

4.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 137, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explored the association between inactive time and measures of adiposity, clinical parameters, obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome components. It further examined the impact of reallocating inactive time to time in bed, light physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on cardio-metabolic risk factors, including measures of adiposity and body composition, biochemical parameters and blood pressure in older adults. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2189 Caucasian men and women (age 55-75 years, BMI 27-40 Kg/m2) from the PREDIMED-Plus study (http://www.predimedplus.com/). All participants had ≥3 components of the metabolic syndrome. Inactive time, physical activity and time in bed were objectively determined using triaxial accelerometers GENEActiv during 7 days (ActivInsights Ltd., Kimbolton, United Kingdom). Multiple adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used. Isotemporal substitution regression modelling was performed to assess the relationship of replacing the amount of time spent in one activity for another, on each outcome, including measures of adiposity and body composition, biochemical parameters and blood pressure in older adults. RESULTS: Inactive time was associated with indicators of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Reallocating 30 min per day of inactive time to 30 min per day of time in bed was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (all p-values < 0.05). Reallocating 30 min per day of inactive time with 30 min per day of LPA or MVPA was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, total fat, visceral adipose tissue, HbA1c, glucose, triglycerides, and higher body muscle mass and HDL cholesterol (all p-values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inactive time was associated with a poor cardio-metabolic profile. Isotemporal substitution of inactive time with MVPA and LPA or time in bed could have beneficial impact on cardio-metabolic health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870) with number 89898870 and registration date of 24 July 2014, retrospectively registered.

5.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 139, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of certain foods is associated with long-term weight gains and abdominal fat accumulation in healthy, middle-aged and young, non-obese participants. Whether the same foods might be associated with changes in adiposity in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk is less known. OBJECTIVE: Using yearly repeated measurements of both food habits and adiposity parameters, we aimed to investigate how changes in the consumption of specific foods were associated with concurrent changes in weight or waist circumference (WC) in the PREDIMED trial. DESIGN: We followed-up 7009 participants aged 55-70 years at high cardiovascular risk for a median time of 4.8 years. A validated 137-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used for dietary assessment with yearly repeated measurements. We longitudinally assessed associations between yearly changes in food consumption (serving/d) and concurrent changes in weight (kg) or WC (cm). RESULTS: Yearly increments in weight were observed with increased consumption (kg per each additional increase in 1 serving/d) for refined grains (0.32 kg/serving/d), red meat (0.24), potatoes (0.23), alcoholic beverages (0.18), processed meat (0.15), white bread (0.07) and sweets (0.04); whereas inverse associations were detected for increased consumption of low-fat yogurt (- 0.18), and low-fat milk (- 0.06). Annual WC gain (cm per each additional increase in 1 serving/d) occurred with increased consumption of snacks, fast-foods and pre-prepared dishes (0.28), processed meat (0.18), alcoholic beverages (0.13), and sweets (0.08); whereas increased consumption of vegetables (- 0.23), and nuts (- 0.17), were associated with reductions in WC. CONCLUSIONS: In this assessment conducted in high-risk subjects using yearly repeated measurements of food habits and adiposity, some ultra-processed foods, refined carbohydrates (including white bread), potatoes, red meats and alcohol were associated with higher weight and WC gain, whereas increases in consumption of low-fat dairy products and plant foods were associated with less gain in weight and WC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at controlled-trials.com with International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35739639. Registration date: 5 October 2005.

6.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 94, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from recent clinical studies suggest that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers that are indicative of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be replicated in blood, e.g. amyloid-beta peptides (Aß42 and Aß40) and neurofilament light chain (NFL). Such data proposes that blood is a rich source of potential biomarkers reflecting central nervous system pathophysiology and should be fully explored for biomarkers that show promise in CSF. Recently, soluble fragments of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) protein in CSF have been reported to be increased in prodromal AD and also in individuals with TREM2 rare genetic variants that increase the likelihood of developing dementia. METHODS: In this study, we measured the levels of plasma sTREM2 and plasma NFL using the MesoScale Discovery and single molecule array platforms, respectively, in 48 confirmed TREM2 rare variant carriers and 49 non-carriers. RESULTS: Our results indicate that there are no changes in plasma sTREM2 and NFL concentrations between TREM2 rare variant carriers and non-carriers. Furthermore, plasma sTREM2 is not different between healthy controls, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. CONCLUSION: Concentrations of plasma sTREM2 do not mimic the recent changes found in CSF sTREM2.

7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 151, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) requires the identification of new predictor biomarkers. Biomarkers potentially modifiable with lifestyle changes deserve a special interest. Our aims were to analyze: (a) The associations of lysine, 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) or pipecolic acid with the risk of T2D or CVD in the PREDIMED trial; (b) the effect of the dietary intervention on 1-year changes in these metabolites, and (c) whether the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions can modify the effects of these metabolites on CVD or T2D risk. METHODS: Two unstratified case-cohort studies nested within the PREDIMED trial were used. For CVD analyses, we selected 696 non-cases and 221 incident CVD cases; for T2D, we included 610 non-cases and 243 type 2 diabetes incident cases. Metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. RESULTS: In weighted Cox regression models, we found that baseline lysine (HR+1 SD increase = 1.26; 95% CI 1.06-1.51) and 2-AAA (HR+1 SD increase = 1.28; 95% CI 1.05-1.55) were both associated with a higher risk of T2D, but not with CVD. A significant interaction (p = 0.032) between baseline lysine and T2D on the risk of CVD was observed: subjects with prevalent T2D and high levels of lysine exhibited the highest risk of CVD. The intervention with MedDiet did not have a significant effect on 1-year changes of the metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide an independent prospective replication of the association of 2-AAA with future risk of T2D. We show an association of lysine with subsequent CVD risk, which is apparently diabetes-dependent. No evidence of effects of MedDiet intervention on lysine, 2-AAA or pipecolic acid changes was found. Trial registration ISRCTN35739639; registration date: 05/10/2005; recruitment start date 01/10/2003.

8.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1486-1499, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613346

RESUMO

Importance: High-quality dietary patterns may help prevent chronic disease, but limited data exist from randomized trials about the effects of nutritional and behavioral interventions on dietary changes. Objective: To assess the effect of a nutritional and physical activity education program on dietary quality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary exploratory interim analysis of an ongoing randomized trial. In 23 research centers in Spain, 6874 men and women aged 55 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome and no cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the trial between September 2013 and December 2016, with final data collection in March 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to an intervention group that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promoted physical activity, and provided behavioral support (n = 3406) or to a control group that encouraged an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet (n = 3468). All participants received allotments of extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/mo) and nuts (125 g/mo) for free. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 12-month change in adherence based on the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (er-MedDiet) score (range, 0-17; higher scores indicate greater adherence; minimal clinically important difference, 1 point). Results: Among 6874 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [4.9] years; 3406 [52%] men), 6583 (96%) completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the main analysis. The mean (SD) er-MedDiet score was 8.5 (2.6) at baseline and 13.2 (2.7) at 12 months in the intervention group (increase, 4.7 [95% CI, 4.6-4.8]) and 8.6 (2.7) at baseline and 11.1 (2.8) at 12 months in the control group (increase, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.3-2.6]) (between-group difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary analysis of an ongoing trial, an intervention that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and physical activity, compared with advice to follow an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, resulted in a significantly greater increase in diet adherence after 12 months. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular effects is needed. Trial Registration: isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN89898870.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
9.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(5): 415-420, sept.-oct. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4462

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the Spanish version of the modified Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (STICS-m) with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and predict its ability to detect the development of dementia. Method: 106 participants in a dietary intervention trial underwent face-to-face evaluation with the MMSE, and phone interview with the STICS-m. The correlation between STICS-m and MMSE was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of consistency. Secondly, 932 participants over 55 years old from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" cohort were evaluated with the STICS-m and data on dementia diagnosis were gathered (median follow-up time of 6.5 years). A logistic regression model evaluated the association between STICS-m score or 2-year changes in STICS-m score and risk of developing dementia, adjusting for ApoE, age and years of university education. Results: The ICC between the MMSE and the STICS-m was 0.31 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.13-0.48). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the development of dementia for each additional point in the baseline STICS-m score was 0.85 (95%CI: 0.72-1.02; p=0.084). When considering the 2-year change in the STICS-m score as exposure, the OR for the development of dementia was 0.79 (95%CI: 0.67-0.93; p=0.006). Conclusions: The weak correlation between the STICS-m and the MMSE reflects moderate-low concurrent validity. Even so, the STICS-m can be regarded as an useful tool in the epidemiological setting since increasing scores appear to be able to predict a lower risk of developing dementia


Objetivo: Estudiar la correlación de la Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status modificada en español (STICS-m) con el Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) y predecir la capacidad de la primera para detectar el desarrollo de demencia. Método: Ciento seis sujetos de un estudio de intervención dietética fueron evaluados personalmente con el MMSE y por teléfono con la STICS-m. La correlación entre ambos se midió con el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI) de consistencia. Además, 932 participantes mayores de 55 años de la cohorte "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" fueron evaluados con la STICS-m. Durante una mediana de seguimiento de 6,5 años, se recogió información sobre el desarrollo de demencia. Mediante regresión logística se estudió la asociación entre la puntuación de la STICS-m o el cambio a 2 años en la puntuación y el riesgo de desarrollar demencia, ajustando por apolipoproteína E, edad y años de educación universitaria. Resultados: El CCI entre el MMSE y la STICS-m fue de 0,31 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 0,13-0,48). La odds ratio (OR) ajustada para el desarrollo de demencia para cada punto adicional en la puntuación basal de la STICS-m fue de 0,85 (IC95%: 0,72-1,02; p=0,084). Al considerar el cambio en la puntuación a los 2 años como variable independiente, la OR fue de 0,79 (IC95%: 0,67-0,93; p=0,006). Conclusiones: La correlación débil entre la STICS-m y el MMSE refleja solo una moderada-baja validez concurrente. Aun así, la STICS-m puede considerarse útil en el contexto epidemiológico, ya que aumentos en la puntuación parecen predecir un menor riesgo de desarrollar demencia

10.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight/obesity and related manifestations such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide. High energy density diets, usually with low nutrient density, are among the main causes. Some high-quality dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been linked to the prevention and better control of MetS. However, it is needed to show that nutritional interventions promoting the MedDiet are able to improve nutrient intake. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of improving MedDiet adherence on nutrient density after 1 year of follow-up at the PREDIMED-Plus trial. METHODS: We assessed 5777 men (55-75 years) and women (60-75 years) with overweight or obesity and MetS at baseline from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Dietary changes and MedDiet adherence were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. The primary outcome was the change in nutrient density (measured as nutrient intake per 1000 kcal). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to analyse longitudinal changes in adherence to the MedDiet and concurrent changes in nutrient density. RESULTS: During 1-year follow-up, participants showed improvements in nutrient density for all micronutrients assessed. The density of carbohydrates (- 9.0%), saturated fatty acids (- 10.4%) and total energy intake (- 6.3%) decreased. These changes were more pronounced in the subset of participants with higher improvements in MedDiet adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The PREDIMED-Plus dietary intervention, based on MedDiet recommendations for older adults, maybe a feasible strategy to improve nutrient density in Spanish population at high risk of cardiovascular disease with overweight or obesity.

11.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385063

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the association between the consumption of non-soy legumes and different subtypes of non-soy legumes and serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia in elderly individuals with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus study. We included 6329 participants with information on non-soy legume consumption and SUA levels. Non-soy legume consumption was estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models and Cox regression models were used to assess the associations between tertiles of non-soy legume consumption, different subtypes of non-soy legume consumption and SUA levels or hyperuricemia prevalence, respectively. RESULTS: Individuals in the highest tertile (T3) of total non-soy legume, lentil and pea consumption, had 0.14 mg/dL, 0.19 mg/dL and 0.12 mg/dL lower SUA levels, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile (T1), which was considered the reference one. Chickpea and dry bean consumption showed no association. In multivariable models, participants located in the top tertile of total non-soy legumes [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01, lentils (PR: 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01), dry beans (PR: 0.91; 95% C: 0.84-0.99; p trend = 0.03) and peas (PR: 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01)] presented a lower prevalence of hyperuricemia (vs. the bottom tertile). Chickpea consumption was not associated with hyperuricemia prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of elderly subjects with metabolic syndrome, we observed that despite being a purine-rich food, non-soy legumes were inversely associated with SUA levels and hyperuricemia prevalence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN89898870. Registration date: 24 July 2014.

12.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395816

RESUMO

Chrysohoou et al. fifteen years ago, showed in an elegant analysis nested within the ATTICAstudy [1] that a dietary score reflecting adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) wasinversely associated with plasma biomarkers of low-grade inflammation [...].

13.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(10): 1040-1049, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glutamate, glutamine are involved in energy metabolism, and have been related to cardiometabolic disorders. However, their roles in the development of type-2 diabetes (T2D) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Mediterranean diet on associations between glutamine, glutamate, glutamine-to-glutamate ratio, and risk of new-onset T2D in a Spanish population at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study was built within the PREDIMED trial using a case-cohort design including 892 participants with 251 incident T2D cases and 641 non-cases. Participants (mean age 66.3 years; female 62.8%) were non diabetic and at high risk for CVD at baseline. Plasma levels of glutamine and glutamate were measured at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Higher glutamate levels at baseline were associated with increased risk of T2D with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.78 (95% CI, 1.43-5.41, P for trend = 0.0002). In contrast, baseline levels of glutamine (HR: 0.64, 95% CI, 0.36-1.12; P for trend = 0.04) and glutamine-to-glutamate ratio (HR: 0.31, 95% CI, 0.16-0.57; P for trend = 0.0001) were inversely associated with T2D risk when comparing extreme quartiles. The two Mediterranean diets (MedDiet + EVOO and MedDiet + mixed nuts) did not alter levels of glutamine and glutamate after intervention for 1 year. However, MedDiet mitigated the positive association between higher baseline plasma glutamate and T2D risk (P for interaction = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Higher levels of glutamate and lower levels of glutamine were associated with increased risk of T2D in a Spanish population at high risk for CVD. Mediterranean diet might mitigate the association between the imbalance of glutamine and glutamate and T2D risk. This trial is registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com, ISRCTN35739639.

14.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(17): e1900140, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291050

RESUMO

SCOPE: The relationship between red wine (RW) consumption and metabolism is poorly understood. It is aimed to assess the systemic metabolomic profiles in relation to frequent RW consumption as well as the ability of a set of metabolites to discriminate RW consumers. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional analysis of 1157 participants is carried out. Subjects are divided as non-RW consumers versus RW consumers (>1 glass per day RW [100 mL per day]). Plasma metabolomics analysis is performed using LC-MS. Associations between 386 identified metabolites and RW consumption are assessed using elastic net regression analysis taking into consideration baseline significant covariates. Ten-cross-validation (CV) is performed and receiver operating characteristic curves are constructed in each of the validation datasets based on weighted models. A subset of 13 metabolites is consistently selected and RW consumers versus nonconsumers are discriminated. Based on the multi-metabolite model weighted with the regression coefficients of metabolites, the area under the curve is 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80-0.86). These metabolites mainly consisted of lipid species, some organic acids, and alkaloids. CONCLUSIONS: A multi-metabolite model identified in a Mediterranean population appears useful to discriminate between frequent RW consumers and nonconsumers. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of these metabolites in health and disease.

15.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072000

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the association of a wide range of metabolites with total and subtypes of coffee consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of plasma metabolites with total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee consumption. We also assessed the ability of metabolites to discriminate between coffee consumption categories. This is a cross-sectional analysis of 1664 participants from the PREDIMED study. Metabolites were semiquantitatively profiled using a multiplatform approach. Consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee and decaffeinated coffee was assessed by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We assessed associations between 387 metabolite levels with total, caffeinated, or decaffeinated coffee consumption (≥50 mL coffee/day) using elastic net regression analysis. Ten-fold cross-validation analyses were used to estimate the discriminative accuracy of metabolites for total and subtypes of coffee. We identified different sets of metabolites associated with total coffee, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption. These metabolites consisted of lipid species (e.g., sphingomyelin, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine) or were derived from glycolysis (alpha-glycerophosphate) and polyphenol metabolism (hippurate). Other metabolites included caffeine, 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil, cotinine, kynurenic acid, glycocholate, lactate, and allantoin. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.60 (95% CI 0.56-0.64), 0.78 (95% CI 0.75-0.81) and 0.52 (95% CI 0.49-0.55), in the multimetabolite model, for total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee consumption, respectively. Our comprehensive metabolic analysis did not result in a new, reliable potential set of metabolites for coffee consumption.


Assuntos
Café , Metabolômica , Idoso , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 10(5): 974-984, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a progressive age-related skeletal muscle disorder associated with increased likelihood of adverse outcomes. Muscle wasting is often accompanied by an increase in body fat, leading to 'sarcopenic obesity'. The aim of the present study was to analyse the association of lifestyle variables such as diet, dietary components, physical activity (PA), body composition, and inflammatory markers, with the risk of sarcopenic obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis based on baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus study was performed. A total of 1535 participants (48% women) with overweight/obesity (body mass index: 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 ; age: 65.2 ± 4.9 years old) and metabolic syndrome were categorized according to sex-specific tertiles (T) of the sarcopenic index (SI) as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Anthropometrical measurements, biochemical markers, dietary intake, and PA information were collected. Linear regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between variables. RESULTS: Subjects in the first SI tertile were older, less physically active, showed higher frequency of abdominal obesity and diabetes, and consumed higher saturated fat and less vitamin C than subjects from the other two tertiles (all P < 0.05). Multiple adjusted linear regression models evidenced significant positive associations across tertiles of SI with adherence to the Mediterranean dietary score (P-trend < 0.05), PA (P-trend < 0.0001), and the 30 s chair stand test (P-trend < 0.0001), whereas significant negative associations were found with an inadequate vitamin C consumption (P-trend < 0.05), visceral fat and leucocyte count (all P-trend < 0.0001), and some white cell subtypes (neutrophils and monocytes), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet count (all P-trend < 0.05). When models were additionally adjusted by potential mediators (inflammatory markers, diabetes, and waist circumference), no relevant changes were observed, only dietary variables lost significance. CONCLUSIONS: Diet and PA are important regulatory mediators of systemic inflammation, which is directly involved in the sarcopenic process. A healthy dietary pattern combined with exercise is a promising strategy to limit age-related sarcopenia.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2892, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814579

RESUMO

Studies examining associations between purine metabolites and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are limited. We prospectively examined associations between plasma levels of purine metabolites with T2D risk and the modifying effects of transcription factor-7-like-2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 polymorphism on these associations. This is a case-cohort design study within the PREDIMED study, with 251 incident T2D cases and a random sample of 694 participants (641 non-cases and 53 overlapping cases) without T2D at baseline (median follow-up: 3.8 years). Metabolites were semi-quantitatively profiled with LC-MS/MS. Cox regression analysis revealed that high plasma allantoin levels, including allantoin-to-uric acid ratio and high xanthine-to-hypoxanthine ratio were inversely and positively associated with T2D risk, respectively, independently of classical risk factors. Elevated plasma xanthine and inosine levels were associated with a higher T2D risk in homozygous carriers of the TCF7L2-rs7903146 T-allele. The potential mechanisms linking the aforementioned purine metabolites and T2D risk must be also further investigated.

18.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866565

RESUMO

There is limited evidence from epidemiological studies for the inflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties of fatty acids in blood cell membranes. Therefore, this study examined associations between baseline (n = 282) and 1-year (n = 143) changes in the levels of fatty acids in blood cell membranes with circulating inflammatory markers in older adults at high cardiovascular risk. The data for this cross-sectional analysis was obtained from a case-control study within the PREDIMED study. Linear regression with elastic net penalty was applied to test associations between measured fatty acids and inflammatory markers. Several fatty acids were associated with interferon-γ (IFNγ) and interleukins (ILs) IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 at baseline and additionally also with IL-1b at 1 year. Omega-6 fatty acids were consistently positively associated with pro-inflammatory IL-6 and IL-8 at baseline. Omega-3 fatty acids including C20:5n3 and C18:3n3 were negatively associated with IFN-γ at 1 year. It is interesting to note that the cis and trans forms of C16:1n7 at 1 year were oppositely associated with the inflammatory markers. C16:1n7trans was negatively associated with IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-1b, whereas C16:1n7cis was positively associated with IL-1b. This study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting potential differences in inflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties of fatty acids in blood cell membranes.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/citologia , Membrana Celular/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Inflamação/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células Sanguíneas/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(3): 626-634, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a complex metabolic disorder and is often associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test whether baseline metabolites can additionally improve the prediction of insulin resistance beyond classical risk factors. Furthermore, we examined whether a multimetabolite model predicting insulin resistance in nondiabetics can also predict incident T2D. METHODS: We used a case-cohort study nested within the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial in subsets of 700, 500, and 256 participants without T2D at baseline and 1 and 3 y. Fasting plasma metabolites were semiquantitatively profiled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We assessed associations between metabolite concentrations and the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) through the use of elastic net regression analysis. We subsequently examined associations between the baseline HOMA-IR-related multimetabolite model and T2D incidence through the use of weighted Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: We identified a set of baseline metabolites associated with HOMA-IR. One-year changes in metabolites were also significantly associated with HOMA-IR. The area under the curve was significantly greater for the model containing the classical risk factors and metabolites together compared with classical risk factors alone at baseline [0.81 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.84) compared with 0.69 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.73)] and during a 1-y period [0.69 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.72) compared with 0.57 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.62)]. The variance in HOMA-IR explained by the combination of metabolites and classical risk factors was also higher in all time periods. The estimated HRs for incident T2D in the multimetabolite score (model 3) predicting high HOMA-IR (median value or higher) or HOMA-IR (continuous) at baseline were 2.00 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.55) and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.72, 2.90), respectively, after adjustment for T2D risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The multimetabolite model identified in our study notably improved the predictive ability for HOMA-IR beyond classical risk factors and significantly predicted the risk of T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/química , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
20.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-9, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and artificially-sweetened beverages (ASB) have been inconsistently associated with declines in cognitive function. Because of their low caloric content and replacement of sugar, ASB are often seen as 'healthy' alternatives to SSB. OBJECTIVE: We longitudinally assessed the association between the consumption of SSB or ASB and cognitive function. DESIGN: A subsample of the 'Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra' (SUN) cohort of university graduates aged over 55 years old was evaluated with the Spanish Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (STICS-m) at two-time points, separated by 6 years. Consumption of SSB and ASB was appraised using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models were fitted, adjusting for potential confounders, including cardiometabolic variables, with the change in the STICS-m score at year 6 as the dependent variable. RESULTS: A significant association between the consumption of SSB and changes in cognitive function as measured by the STICS-m was observed in the total sample, with a change of -0.43 (95% CI -0.85, -0.02, p = 0.04) in those that consumed >1 beverage/month compared to never/seldom consumers. The association was not significant for the consumption of ASB, but point estimates showed negative values, suggesting declines in cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Only the consumption of SSB, but not ASB, was significantly associated with a decline in cognitive function after 6 years. Further longitudinal studies are needed to explore the relationship between these beverages and cognitive function and the potential mechanisms through which they might be harmful.

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