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1.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321878

RESUMO

Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development during the pre-and post-flowering stages are susceptible to high temperature and drought. We report the field-based characterization of multiple morpho-physiological and reproductive stress resilience traits in 11 interspecific chromosome substitution (CS) lines isogenic to each other and the inbred G. hirsutum line TM-1. Significant genetic variability was detected (p < 0.001) in multiple traits in CS lines carrying chromosomes and chromosome segments from CS-B (G. barbadense) and CS-T (G. tomentosum). Line CS-T15sh had a positive effect on photosynthesis (13%), stomatal conductance (33%), and transpiration (24%), and a canopy 6.8 °C cooler than TM-1. The average pollen germination was approximately 8% greater among the CS-B than CS-T lines. Based on the stress response index, three CS lines are identified as heat- and drought-tolerant (CS-T07, CS-B15sh, and CS-B18). The three lines demonstrated enhanced photosynthesis (14%), stomatal conductance (29%), transpiration (13%), and pollen germination (23.6%) compared to TM-1 under field conditions, i.e., traits that would expectedly enhance performance in stressful environments. The generated phenotypic data and stress-tolerance indices on novel CS lines, along with phenotypic methods, would help in developing new cultivars with improved resilience to the effects of global warming.

2.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 1029-1037, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589664

RESUMO

Coal mining can be deleterious to the soil physical and chemical makeup, but also to the soil microbial community. Effectively, the removal of nearly all organic matter from the upper soil horizons reduces the effectiveness of any soil to support vegetation, and up until recently, microbial community parameters were not considered in the successful reclamation of overburden. Thus, our study proposes to measure the uncultivated bacterial community using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) high-throughput sequencing in a chronosequence of reclaimed overburden in Mississippi. The study sites comprised samplings of pasture and wooded reclamation sites consisting of 1 to 13 yr post reclamation time, as well as reference sites. Overall, the primary driver of bacterial community dynamics was vegetative cover, although time also influenced dynamics. Richness estimations for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed that recently reclaimed (∼1 yr) and Pasture sites were more OTU rich with levels of >1400 compared with reference site levels of ∼1000. Diversity levels also followed a similar trend. Community structure typically differed between time points and vegetative cover; however, membership was similar between sites and reference, indicating that new communities still shared some membership from the previous community. Overall, physicochemical properties trended toward more positive for soil health as time progressed, but bacterial community recovery was still not structurally recovered, although richness and diversity values exceeded reference. Overall, this study demonstrated that mine reclamation using pasture and/or wood restoration can reestablish the bacterial community to approximate reference conditions, but vegetation is still the dominating environmental factor dictating microbial community.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Carvão Mineral , Mississippi , RNA Ribossômico 16S
3.
J Environ Qual ; 48(3): 594-602, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180443

RESUMO

Water movement over and through soil is largely driven by topography and soil management across landscapes. This research tested the hypothesis that the water movement determines the potential for P and Ca redistribution and pH variance across landscapes. This hypothesis was evaluated by using digital elevation model-derived terrain attributes in fields after 55 yr of broiler litter applications on pastures in Smith County, Mississippi. Results show that soils receiving broiler litter had mean Mehlich-3 P levels of 1221.8 mg kg at 0- to 15-cm depth and 618.6 mg kg at 15- to 30-cm depth, and Ca with mean values of 768.3 and 645.0 mg kg at 0- to 15-cm and 15- to 30-cm soil depths, respectively. Across fields, soils in areas of predicted convergent flow contained higher P, Ca, and lower pH values in the upper 0 to 15 cm, suggesting contributions via surface overland flow from areas with higher elevation and lower slope gradient. On the other hand, soils in areas with lesser slope and higher elevation also contained high levels of P, Ca, and pH for the subsurface soil depth, suggesting that vertical flow of water on this landscape is a mechanism for movement of P and Ca deeper in the profile. The incorporation of topographic characteristics across fields offers promising results that may be incorporated into improved P indices and management, making them more robust indicators of P mobilization to waterways.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Animais , Cálcio , Galinhas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Esterco , Mississippi
4.
J Environ Qual ; 46(2): 339-347, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28380557

RESUMO

The inability to incorporate broiler litter (BL) into permanent hayfields and pastures leads to nutrient accumulation near the soil surface and increases the potential transport of nutrients in runoff. This study was conducted on Marietta silt loam soil to determine the effect of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum and lignite on P, N, C, and microbial concentrations in runoff. Treatments were (i) control (unfertilized) and (ii) BL at 13.4 Mg ha alone or (iii) treated with either FGD gypsum or lignite applied at 20% (w/w) (2.68 Mg ha). Rainfall simulators were used to produce a 5.6 cm h storm event sufficient in duration to cause 15 min of continuous runoff. Repeated rains were applied at 3-d intervals to determine how long FGD gypsum and lignite are effective in reducing loss of litter-derived N, P, and C from soil. Application of BL increased N, P, and C concentrations in runoff as compared to the control. Addition of FGD gypsum reduced ( < 0.05) water-soluble P and dissolved organic C concentrations in runoff by 39 and 16%, respectively, as compared to BL alone. Lignite reduced runoff total N and NH-N concentrations by 38 and 70%, respectively, as compared to BL alone. Addition of FGD gypsum or lignite failed to significantly reduce microbial loads in runoff, although both treatments reduced microbial concentration by >20%. Thus, BL treated with FGD and lignite can be considered as cost-effective management practices in the mitigation of P, N, and C and possibly microbial concentration in runoff.


Assuntos
Esterco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Microbiologia da Água , Animais , Galinhas , Fósforo , Chuva , Solo , Poluição da Água
5.
J Environ Qual ; 39(5): 1829-40, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21043289

RESUMO

Swine (Sus scofa domestica) lagoon effluent is a valuable resource. In the U.S. Mid-South it is applied from April to September to fertilize grass hay in spray-irrigated fields. Lagoon levels of nutrients and bacteria, and soil levels of nutrients have been documented, but little was known of effluent bacterial levels in soil. The present study examined levels of selected effluent bacteria and nutrients in soils inside and outside spray fields after >15 yr of effluent irrigation. Samples were collected February to March 2009 from contiguous soils spanning adjacent irrigated and nonirrigated areas. Separate soil cores for bacterial and nutrient tests were collected in pairs <10 cm apart. Five cores each were collected at 15-m intervals and combined, respectively, to comprise inside and outside samples from each of 20 soils (four each from five farms/spray fields). Analyses of data combined across all soils showed higher pH and Mehlich-3-extracrable (M3-) P, Mg, K, Na, Cu, and Zn inside than outside spray fields, while total N, total C, M3-Ca, and M3-Mn did not differ. Bacterial levels were higher inside than outside spray fields for heterotrophic plate counts, thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus spp., and Clostridium perfringens, but levels of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were not different. Cultural presence/absence tests for three pathogens (Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp.) detected only Listeria spp., which did not differ inside (23% positive samples) and outside (28% positive). Molecular tests detected all three pathogens at low levels that were not different inside and outside. We found no evidence of cumulative buildup of Campylobacter spp., Listeria spp., or Salmonela s. in spray field soils.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Suínos
6.
J Environ Qual ; 38(1): 218-29, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19141812

RESUMO

Runoff water following a rain event is one possible source of environmental contamination after a manure application. This greenhouse study used a rainfall simulator to determine bacterial-associated runoff from troughs of common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] that were treated with P-based, N-based, and N plus lime rates of poultry (Gallus gallus) litter, recommended inorganic fertilizer, and control. Total heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, as well as antibiotic resistance profiles for the staphylococci and enterococci isolates were all monitored in runoff waters. Analysis following five rainfall events indicated that staphylococci, enterococci, and clostridia levels were related to manure application rate. Runoff release of staphylococci, enterococci, and C. perfringens were approximately 3 to 6 log10 greater in litter vs. control treatment. In addition, traditional indicators such as thermotolerant and total coliforms performed poorly as fecal indicators. Some isolated enterococci demonstrated increased antibiotic resistance to polymixin b and/or select aminoglyocosides, while many staphylococci were susceptible to most antimicrobials tested. Results indicated poultry litter application can lead to microbial runoff following simulated rain events. Future studies should focus on the use of staphylococci, enterococci, and C. perfringens as indicators.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/microbiologia , Esterco/microbiologia , Chuva , Poluição da Água/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Plant Physiol ; 161(5): 581-90, 2004 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15202715

RESUMO

Increases in both atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on the Earth's surface are features of current climate change patterns. An experiment was conducted in sunlit, controlled environment chambers known as Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Research (SPAR) units to determine interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and UV-B radiation on leaf and canopy photosynthetic characteristics of cotton. Six treatments were comprised of two CO2 levels of 360 (ambient) and 720 (elevated) microL L(-1) and three levels of 0 (control), 8, and 16 kJ m(-2) d(-1) biologically effective UV-B radiation. Treatments were imposed for 66 days from crop emergence through three weeks after the first flower stage. Plants grown in elevated [CO2] had significantly greater leaf area, higher leaf and canopy net photosynthetic rates (PN), lower dark respiration rate (Rd), and lower light compensation point (LCP) than plants grown in ambient [CO2]. There was no difference in CO2 compensation point (gamma), maximum rate of Rubisco activity (Vcmax), or light-saturated rate of electron transport (Jmax) between ambient and elevated CO2 treatments. When plants were grown in 8 kJ m(-2) d(-1) UV-B radiation, most of the measured photosynthetic parameters did not differ from control plants. High UV-B (16 kJ) radiation, however, caused 47-50% smaller leaf area, 38-44% lower leaf PN, 72-74% lower Vcmax, and 61-66% lower Jmax compared to the control. There were no interactive effects of [CO2] and UV-B radiation on most of the photosynthetic parameters measured. From the results, it is concluded that decreased canopy photosynthesis due to enhanced UV-B radiation in cotton is associated with both smaller leaf area and lower leaf PN, and loss of Rubisco activity and electron transport are two major factors in UV-B inhibition of leaf PN.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Gossypium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Meios de Cultura , Escuridão , Gossypium/metabolismo , Luz , Modelos Lineares , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
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