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1.
Proteins ; 89(12): 1752-1769, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387010

RESUMO

The assessment of CASP models for utility in molecular replacement is a measure of their use in a valuable real-world application. In CASP7, the metric for molecular replacement assessment involved full likelihood-based molecular replacement searches; however, this restricted the assessable targets to crystal structures with only one copy of the target in the asymmetric unit, and to those where the search found the correct pose. In CASP10, full molecular replacement searches were replaced by likelihood-based rigid-body refinement of models superimposed on the target using the LGA algorithm, with the metric being the refined log-likelihood-gain (LLG) score. This enabled multi-copy targets and very poor models to be evaluated, but a significant further issue remained: the requirement of diffraction data for assessment. We introduce here the relative-expected-LLG (reLLG), which is independent of diffraction data. This reLLG is also independent of any crystal form, and can be calculated regardless of the source of the target, be it X-ray, NMR or cryo-EM. We calibrate the reLLG against the LLG for targets in CASP14, showing that it is a robust measure of both model and group ranking. Like the LLG, the reLLG shows that accurate coordinate error estimates add substantial value to predicted models. We find that refinement by CASP groups can often convert an inadequate initial model into a successful MR search model. Consistent with findings from others, we show that the AlphaFold2 models are sufficiently good, and reliably so, to surpass other current model generation strategies for attempting molecular replacement phasing.

2.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 77(Pt 7): 880-893, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196615

RESUMO

SAD phasing can be challenging when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. In such cases, having an accurate estimate of the substructure content can determine whether or not the substructure of anomalous scatterer positions can successfully be determined. Here, a likelihood-based target function is proposed to accurately estimate the strength of the anomalous scattering contribution directly from the measured intensities, determining a complex correlation parameter relating the Bijvoet mates as a function of resolution. This gives a novel measure of the intrinsic anomalous signal. The SAD likelihood target function also accounts for correlated errors in the measurement of intensities from Bijvoet mates, which can arise from the effects of radiation damage. When the anomalous signal is assumed to come primarily from a substructure comprising one anomalous scatterer with a known value of f'' and when the protein composition of the crystal is estimated correctly, the refined complex correlation parameters can be interpreted in terms of the atomic content of the primary anomalous scatterer before the substructure is known. The maximum-likelihood estimation of substructure content was tested on a curated database of 357 SAD cases with useful anomalous signal. The prior estimates of substructure content are highly correlated to the content determined by phasing calculations, with a correlation coefficient (on a log-log basis) of 0.72.

3.
Science ; 373(6557): 871-876, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282049

RESUMO

DeepMind presented notably accurate predictions at the recent 14th Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP14) conference. We explored network architectures that incorporate related ideas and obtained the best performance with a three-track network in which information at the one-dimensional (1D) sequence level, the 2D distance map level, and the 3D coordinate level is successively transformed and integrated. The three-track network produces structure predictions with accuracies approaching those of DeepMind in CASP14, enables the rapid solution of challenging x-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy structure modeling problems, and provides insights into the functions of proteins of currently unknown structure. The network also enables rapid generation of accurate protein-protein complex models from sequence information alone, short-circuiting traditional approaches that require modeling of individual subunits followed by docking. We make the method available to the scientific community to speed biological research.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas/química , Proteínas ADAM/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Simulação por Computador , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Redes Neurais de Computação , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Proteínas/fisiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química , Esfingosina N-Aciltransferase/química
4.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 645123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816576

RESUMO

The angiotensin peptides that control blood pressure are released from the non-inhibitory plasma serpin, angiotensinogen, on cleavage of its extended N-terminal tail by the specific aspartyl-protease, renin. Angiotensinogen had previously been assumed to be a passive substrate, but we describe here how recent studies reveal an inherent conformational mechanism that is critical to the cleavage and release of the angiotensin peptides and consequently to the control of blood pressure. A series of crystallographic structures of angiotensinogen and its derivative forms, together with its complexes with renin show in molecular detail how the interaction with renin triggers a profound shift of the amino-terminal tail of angiotensinogen with modulation occurring at several levels. The tail of angiotensinogen is restrained by a labile disulfide bond, with changes in its redox status affecting angiotensin release, as demonstrably so in the hypertensive complication of pregnancy, pre-eclampsia. The shift of the tail also enhances the binding of renin through a tail-in-mouth allosteric mechanism. The N-terminus is now seen to insert into a pocket equivalent to the hormone-binding site on other serpins, with helix H of angiotensinogen unwinding to form key interactions with renin. The findings explain the precise species specificity of the interaction with renin and with variant carbohydrate linkages. Overall, the studies provide new insights into the physiological regulation of angiotensin release, with an ability to respond to local tissue and temperature changes, and with the opening of strategies for the development of novel agents for the treatment of hypertension.

5.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 77(Pt 4): 438-446, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825704

RESUMO

When building atomic models into weak and/or low-resolution density, a common strategy is to restrain their conformation to that of a higher resolution model of the same or similar sequence. When doing so, it is important to avoid over-restraining to the reference model in the face of disagreement with the experimental data. The most common strategy for this is the use of `top-out' potentials. These act like simple harmonic restraints within a defined range, but gradually weaken when the deviation between the model and reference grows beyond that range. In each current implementation the rate at which the potential flattens at large deviations follows a fixed form, although the form chosen varies among implementations. A restraint potential with a tuneable rate of flattening would provide greater flexibility to encode the confidence in any given restraint. Here, two new such potentials are described: a Cartesian distance restraint derived from a recent generalization of common loss functions and a periodic torsion restraint based on a renormalization of the von Mises distribution. Further, their implementation as user-adjustable/switchable restraints in ISOLDE is described and their use in some real-world examples is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Modelos Moleculares , Ácidos Nucleicos/química , Proteínas/química , Conformação Molecular
7.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 77(Pt 2): 131-141, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559603

RESUMO

Detection of translational noncrystallographic symmetry (TNCS) can be critical for success in crystallographic phasing, particularly when molecular-replacement models are poor or anomalous phasing information is weak. If the correct TNCS is detected then expected intensity factors for each reflection can be refined, so that the maximum-likelihood functions underlying molecular replacement and single-wavelength anomalous dispersion use appropriate structure-factor normalization and variance terms. Here, an analysis of a curated database of protein structures from the Protein Data Bank to investigate how TNCS manifests in the Patterson function is described. These studies informed an algorithm for the detection of TNCS, which includes a method for detecting the number of vectors involved in any commensurate modulation (the TNCS order). The algorithm generates a ranked list of possible TNCS associations in the asymmetric unit for exploration during structure solution.


Assuntos
Cristalografia por Raios X , Proteínas/química , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica
8.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 77(Pt 1): 1-10, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404520

RESUMO

Crystallographic phasing strategies increasingly require the exploration and ranking of many hypotheses about the number, types and positions of atoms, molecules and/or molecular fragments in the unit cell, each with only a small chance of being correct. Accelerating this move has been improvements in phasing methods, which are now able to extract phase information from the placement of very small fragments of structure, from weak experimental phasing signal or from combinations of molecular replacement and experimental phasing information. Describing phasing in terms of a directed acyclic graph allows graph-management software to track and manage the path to structure solution. The crystallographic software supporting the graph data structure must be strictly modular so that nodes in the graph are efficiently generated by the encapsulated functionality. To this end, the development of new software, Phasertng, which uses directed acyclic graphs natively for input/output, has been initiated. In Phasertng, the codebase of Phaser has been rebuilt, with an emphasis on modularity, on scripting, on speed and on continuing algorithm development. As a first application of phasertng, its advantages are demonstrated in the context of phasertng.xtricorder, a tool to analyse and triage merged data in preparation for molecular replacement or experimental phasing. The description of the phasing strategy with directed acyclic graphs is a generalization that extends beyond the functionality of Phasertng, as it can incorporate results from bioinformatics and other crystallographic tools, and will facilitate multifaceted search strategies, dynamic ranking of alternative search pathways and the exploitation of machine learning to further improve phasing strategies.


Assuntos
Cristalografia por Raios X , Software , Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Proteínas/química
9.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 76(Pt 10): 912-925, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021493

RESUMO

Density modification uses expectations about features of a map such as a flat solvent and expected distributions of density in the region of the macromolecule to improve individual Fourier terms representing the map. This process transfers information from one part of a map to another and can improve the accuracy of a map. Here, the assumptions behind density modification for maps from electron cryomicroscopy are examined and a procedure is presented that allows the incorporation of model-based information. Density modification works best in cases where unfiltered, unmasked maps with clear boundaries between the macromolecule and solvent are visible, and where there is substantial noise in the map, both in the region of the macromolecule and the solvent. It also is most effective if the characteristics of the map are relatively constant within regions of the macromolecule and the solvent. Model-based information can be used to improve density modification, but model bias can in principle occur. Here, model bias is reduced by using ensemble models that allow an estimation of model uncertainty. A test of model bias is presented that suggests that even if the expected density in a region of a map is specified incorrectly by using an incorrect model, the incorrect expectations do not strongly affect the final map.


Assuntos
Apoferritinas/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Humanos , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Conformação Proteica , Solventes/química
10.
Nat Methods ; 17(9): 923-927, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807957

RESUMO

A density-modification procedure for improving maps from single-particle electron cryogenic microscopy (cryo-EM) is presented. The theoretical basis of the method is identical to that of maximum-likelihood density modification, previously used to improve maps from macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Key differences from applications in crystallography are that the errors in Fourier coefficients are largely in the phases in crystallography but in both phases and amplitudes in cryo-EM, and that half-maps with independent errors are available in cryo-EM. These differences lead to a distinct approach for combination of information from starting maps with information obtained in the density-modification process. The density-modification procedure was applied to a set of 104 datasets and improved map-model correlation and increased the visibility of details in many of the maps. The procedure requires two unmasked half-maps and a sequence file or other source of information on the volume of the macromolecule that has been imaged.


Assuntos
Apoferritinas/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Software , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Conformação Proteica
12.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 76(Pt 3): 238-247, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133988

RESUMO

The information gained by making a measurement, termed the Kullback-Leibler divergence, assesses how much more precisely the true quantity is known after the measurement was made (the posterior probability distribution) than before (the prior probability distribution). It provides an upper bound for the contribution that an observation can make to the total likelihood score in likelihood-based crystallographic algorithms. This makes information gain a natural criterion for deciding which data can legitimately be omitted from likelihood calculations. Many existing methods use an approximation for the effects of measurement error that breaks down for very weak and poorly measured data. For such methods a different (higher) information threshold is appropriate compared with methods that account well for even large measurement errors. Concerns are raised about a current trend to deposit data that have been corrected for anisotropy, sharpened and pruned without including the original unaltered measurements. If not checked, this trend will have serious consequences for the reuse of deposited data by those who hope to repeat calculations using improved new methods.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Difração de Raios X/métodos , Anisotropia , Funções Verossimilhança
13.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 76(Pt 1): 19-27, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909740

RESUMO

Good prior estimates of the effective root-mean-square deviation (r.m.s.d.) between the atomic coordinates of the model and the target optimize the signal in molecular replacement, thereby increasing the success rate in difficult cases. Previous studies using protein structures solved by X-ray crystallography as models showed that optimal error estimates (refined after structure solution) were correlated with the sequence identity between the model and target, and with the number of residues in the model. Here, this work has been extended to find additional correlations between parameters of the model and the target and hence improved prior estimates of the coordinate error. Using a graph database, a curated set of 6030 molecular-replacement calculations using models that had been solved by X-ray crystallography was analysed to consider about 120 model and target parameters. Improved estimates were achieved by replacing the sequence identity with the Gonnet score for sequence similarity, as well as by considering the resolution of the target structure and the MolProbity score of the model. This approach was extended by analysing 12 610 additional molecular-replacement calculations where the model was determined by NMR. The median r.m.s.d. between pairs of models in an ensemble was found to be correlated with the estimated r.m.s.d. to the target. For models solved by NMR, the overall coordinate error estimates were larger than for structures determined by X-ray crystallography, and were more highly correlated with the number of residues.


Assuntos
Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
14.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 75(Pt 10): 861-877, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588918

RESUMO

Diffraction (X-ray, neutron and electron) and electron cryo-microscopy are powerful methods to determine three-dimensional macromolecular structures, which are required to understand biological processes and to develop new therapeutics against diseases. The overall structure-solution workflow is similar for these techniques, but nuances exist because the properties of the reduced experimental data are different. Software tools for structure determination should therefore be tailored for each method. Phenix is a comprehensive software package for macromolecular structure determination that handles data from any of these techniques. Tasks performed with Phenix include data-quality assessment, map improvement, model building, the validation/rebuilding/refinement cycle and deposition. Each tool caters to the type of experimental data. The design of Phenix emphasizes the automation of procedures, where possible, to minimize repetitive and time-consuming manual tasks, while default parameters are chosen to encourage best practice. A graphical user interface provides access to many command-line features of Phenix and streamlines the transition between programs, project tracking and re-running of previous tasks.


Assuntos
Automação/métodos , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Design de Software , Validação de Programas de Computador , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular
15.
EMBO J ; 38(21): e102177, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531998

RESUMO

AMPylation is an inactivating modification that alters the activity of the major endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone BiP to match the burden of unfolded proteins. A single ER-localised Fic protein, FICD (HYPE), catalyses both AMPylation and deAMPylation of BiP. However, the basis for the switch in FICD's activity is unknown. We report on the transition of FICD from a dimeric enzyme, that deAMPylates BiP, to a monomer with potent AMPylation activity. Mutations in the dimer interface, or of residues along an inhibitory pathway linking the dimer interface to the enzyme's active site, favour BiP AMPylation in vitro and in cells. Mechanistically, monomerisation relieves a repressive effect allosterically propagated from the dimer interface to the inhibitory Glu234, thereby permitting AMPylation-competent binding of MgATP. Moreover, a reciprocal signal, propagated from the nucleotide-binding site, provides a mechanism for coupling the oligomeric state and enzymatic activity of FICD to the energy status of the ER.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/química , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Conformação Proteica
16.
Proteins ; 87(12): 1249-1262, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365160

RESUMO

Performance in the model refinement category of the 13th round of Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP13) is assessed, showing that some groups consistently improve most starting models whereas the majority of participants continue to degrade the starting model on average. Using the ranking formula developed for CASP12, it is shown that only 7 of 32 groups perform better than a "naïve predictor" who just submits the starting model. Common features in their approaches include a dependence on physics-based force fields to judge alternative conformations and the use of molecular dynamics to relax models to local minima, usually with some restraints to prevent excessively large movements. In addition to the traditional CASP metrics that focus largely on the quality of the overall fold, alternative metrics are evaluated, including comparisons of the main-chain and side-chain torsion angles, and the utility of the models for solving crystal structures by the molecular replacement method. It is proposed that the introduction of these metrics, as well as consideration of the accuracy of coordinate error estimates, would improve the discrimination between good and very good models.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas/ultraestrutura , Software , Algoritmos , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/genética
17.
Proteins ; 87(12): 1113-1127, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407380

RESUMO

Performance in the template-based modeling (TBM) category of CASP13 is assessed here, using a variety of metrics. Performance of the predictor groups that participated is ranked using the primary ranking score that was developed by the assessors for CASP12. This reveals that the best results are obtained by groups that include contact predictions or inter-residue distance predictions derived from deep multiple sequence alignments. In cases where there is a good homolog in the wwPDB (TBM-easy category), the best results are obtained by modifying a template. However, for cases with poorer homologs (TBM-hard), very good results can be obtained without using an explicit template, by deep learning algorithms trained on the wwPDB. Alternative metrics are introduced, to allow testing of aspects of structural models that are not addressed by traditional CASP metrics. These include comparisons to the main-chain and side-chain torsion angles of the target, and the utility of models for solving crystal structures by the molecular replacement method. The alternative metrics are poorly correlated with the traditional metrics, and it is proposed that modeling has reached a sufficient level of maturity that the best models should be expected to satisfy this wider range of criteria.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas/química , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Modelos Moleculares , Análise de Sequência de Proteína/métodos
18.
Blood ; 134(23): 2070-2081, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217188

RESUMO

To identify novel causes of hereditary thrombocytopenia, we performed a genetic association analysis of whole-genome sequencing data from 13 037 individuals enrolled in the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) BioResource, including 233 cases with isolated thrombocytopenia. We found an association between rare variants in the transcription factor-encoding gene IKZF5 and thrombocytopenia. We report 5 causal missense variants in or near IKZF5 zinc fingers, of which 2 occurred de novo and 3 co-segregated in 3 pedigrees. A canonical DNA-zinc finger binding model predicts that 3 of the variants alter DNA recognition. Expression studies showed that chromatin binding was disrupted in mutant compared with wild-type IKZF5, and electron microscopy revealed a reduced quantity of α granules in normally sized platelets. Proplatelet formation was reduced in megakaryocytes from 7 cases relative to 6 controls. Comparison of RNA-sequencing data from platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and CD4+ T cells from 3 cases and 14 healthy controls showed 1194 differentially expressed genes in platelets but only 4 differentially expressed genes in each of the other blood cell types. In conclusion, IKZF5 is a novel transcriptional regulator of megakaryopoiesis and the eighth transcription factor associated with dominant thrombocytopenia in humans.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Trombocitopenia , Trombopoese/genética , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Plaquetas/ultraestrutura , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromatina/ultraestrutura , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/genética , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/metabolismo , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/patologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/metabolismo , Masculino , Trombocitopenia/genética , Trombocitopenia/metabolismo , Trombocitopenia/patologia
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