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1.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132192

RESUMO

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at the pharyngeal, urogenital, and anorectal sites is recommended for men who have sex with men (MSM). Combining the three individual-site samples into a single pooled sample could result in significant cost savings, provided there is no significant sensitivity reduction. The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity of pooled samples for detecting chlamydia and gonorrhea in asymptomatic MSM using a nucleic acid amplification test. Asymptomatic MSM who tested positive for chlamydia or gonorrhoea were invited to participate. Paired samples were obtained from participants prior to administration of treatment. To form the pooled sample, the anorectal swab was agitated in the urine specimen transport tube and then discarded. The pharyngeal swab and 2 ml of urine sample were then added to the tube. The difference in sensitivity between testing of pooled samples and individual-site testing was calculated against an expanded gold standard, where an individual is considered positive if either pooled-sample or individual-site testing returns a positive result. All samples were tested using the Aptima Combo 2 assay. A total of 162 MSM were enrolled in the study. Sensitivities of pooled-sample testing were 86% (94/109; 95% confidence interval [CI], 79 to 92%]) for chlamydia and 91% (73/80; 95% CI, 83 to 96%) for gonorrhea. The sensitivity reduction was significant for chlamydia (P = 0.02) but not for gonorrhea (P = 0.34). Pooling caused 22 infections (15 chlamydia and 7 gonorrhoea) to be missed, and the majority were single-site infections (19/22). Pooling urogenital and extragenital samples from asymptomatic MSM reduced the sensitivity of detection by approximately 10% for chlamydia but not for gonorrhea.

2.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(2): 244-248, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958047

RESUMO

Introduction. Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted organism with high levels of resistance to the recommended first-line therapy, azithromycin. The ResistancePlus MG test concurrently detects M. genitalium, and the presence of macrolide-resistance mutations (MRM). European, UK and Australian guidelines recommend a diagnostic test that reports MRM to optimize treatment through resistance-guided therapy. Hence, for samples collected for use on other platforms, reflex testing using the ResistancePlus MG test would be beneficial.Aim. To validate the ResistancePlus MG assay using samples collected in Aptima buffer for testing on the Hologic Panther.Methodology. Positive (n=99) and negative (n=229) clinical samples collected in Aptima buffer were extracted on the MagNA Pure 96 (Roche Diagnostics), and tested with the ResistancePlus MG test on the LightCycler 480 II (Roche Diagnostics). Results were compared to matched samples collected using standard sample collection (urine or swab resuspended in PBS), with positive percent agreement (PPA), negative percent agreement (NPA) and Cohen's Kappa statistic.Results. The ResistancePlus MG test had high performance with a 200 µl input volume (PPA/NPA for M. genitalium detection, 92.9 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 85.5-96.9]/100 % [95 % CI: 97.9-100], MRM detection, 96.9 % [95 % CI: 88.2-99.5]/85.7 % [95 % CI: 66.4-95.3]) and for 1 ml input volume (PPA/NPA for M. genitalium detection, 95.9%/96.6%, MRM detection, 98.4%/90.3%). Samples remained positive after storage at room temperature beyond the manufacturer-recommended storage of <60 days (mean storage time for 1 ml extraction: 129 days).Conclusion. Samples collected using Aptima collection kits are suitable for reflex testing using the ResistancePlus MG test, allowing detection of macrolide resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Austrália , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/instrumentação , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrolide-resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) exceeds 50% in many regions and quinolone-resistance is increasing. We recently reported that resistance-guided therapy (RGT) using doxycycline followed by sitafloxacin or 2.5g-azithromycin cured 92% and 95% of macrolide-resistant and macrolide-susceptible infections, respectively. We now present the data on RGT using doxycycline-moxifloxacin, the regimen recommended in international guidelines, and extend the data on the efficacy of doxyxycline-2.5g azithromycin and subsequent de novo macrolide-resistance. METHODS: Patients attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2017-2018 with STI-related syndromes were treated with doxycycline for 7 days and recalled if positive for MG. Macrolide-susceptible cases then received 2.5g azithromycin (1g, then 500mg daily for 3 days) and resistant cases received moxifloxacin (400 mg daily, 7 days). Test of cure (TOC) was recommended 14-28 days post-completion of antimicrobials. Adherence and adverse effects were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 383 patients (81 females/106 heterosexual males/196 men-who-have-sex-with-men) were included. Microbial cure following doxycycline-azithromycin was 95.4% (95% CI 89.7-98.0) and doxycycline-moxifloxacin was 92.0%(88.1-94.6). De novo macrolide-resistance was detected in 4.6% of cases. Combining doxycycline-azithromycin data with our prior RGT study (n=186) yielded a pooled cure of 95.7% (91.6-97.8). ParC mutations implicated in moxifloxacin failure were present in 15-22% of macrolide-resistant cases at baseline. CONCLUSION: These findings support the inclusion of moxifloxacin in resistance-guided strategies and extend the evidence for use of 2.5g azithromycin, and presumptive use of doxycycline. These data provide an evidence-base for current UK, Australian and European guidelines for the treatment of MG, an STI which is increasingly challenging to cure.

4.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(7): 516-521, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A mathematical model suggested that a significant proportion of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea cases are acquired via oropharynx-to-oropharynx transmission (ie, tongue-kissing), but to date, no empirical study has investigated this. This study aimed to examine the association between kissing and oropharyngeal gonorrhoea among gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: MSM attending a public sexual health centre in Melbourne, Australia, between March 2016 and February 2017 were invited to participate in a brief survey that collected data on their number of male partners in the last 3 months, in three distinct categories: kissing-only (ie, no sex including no oral and/or anal sex), sex-only (ie, any sex without kissing), and kissing-with-sex (ie, kissing with any sex). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between oropharyngeal gonorrhoea positivity by nucleic acid amplification tests and the three distinct partner categories. RESULTS: A total of 3677 men completed the survey and were tested for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. Their median age was 30 (IQR 25-37) and 6.2% (n=229) had oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. Men had a mean number of 4.3 kissing-only, 1.4 sex-only, and 5.0 kissing-with-sex partners in the last 3 months. Kissing-only and kissing-with-sex were associated with oropharyngeal gonorrhoea, but sex-only was not. The adjusted odds for having oropharyngeal gonorrhoea were 1.46-fold (95% CI 1.04 to 2.06) for men with ≥4 kissing-only partners and 1.81-fold (95% CI 1.17 to 2.79) for men with ≥4 kissing-with-sex partners. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that kissing may be associated with transmission of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea in MSM, irrespective of whether sex also occurs.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Gonorreia/transmissão , Orofaringe/patologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(4): 229-233, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men living with human immunodeficiency virus have a high risk of anal cancer. We estimate the likely benefit of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among participants of the Anal Cancer Examination study. METHODS: Anal swabs were collected for the detection and genotyping of anal HPV DNA by linear array (Roche Diagnostics) in this 2-year multicenter prospective cohort. We calculated the proportion of men, stratified by age, without detectable vaccine type-specific DNA. RESULTS: Overall, 255 men, with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range, 44-56 years) contributed 488.9 person-years of follow-up. After 2 years of follow-up, 149 (58%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52-65) had at least 1 high-risk HPV (HRHPV), and 71 (28%, 95% CI, 22-34) had HPV types 16/18 detected. Assuming that DNA-negative men would receive vaccine protection, vaccination at baseline could potentially prevent HRHPV infection in 10.2% of men (95% CI, 6.8-14.6, 26 of 255) 2 years later from incident HRHPV covered by the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine, and 29.4% of men (95% CI, 23.9-35.4, 75/255) from incident HRHPV covered by the nonavalent vaccine. CONCLUSION: Though there is high prevalence of anal HPV in men who have sex with men living with human immunodeficiency virus, there was also a high incidence of HRHPV vaccine types in the 2-year follow-up, indicating potential for prevention if these men were not previously infected with HPV vaccine types and were vaccinated at their baseline visit.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(4): 719-727, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882306

RESUMO

During 2016-2017, we tested asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM) in Melbourne, Australia, for Mycoplasma genitalium and macrolide resistance mutations in urine and anorectal swab specimens by using PCR. We compared M. genitalium detection rates for those asymptomatic men to those for MSM with proctitis and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) over the same period. Of 1,001 asymptomatic MSM, 95 had M. genitalium; 84.2% were macrolide resistant, and 17% were co-infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis. Rectal positivity for M. genitalium was 7.0% and urine positivity was 2.7%. M. genitalium was not more commonly detected in the rectums of MSM (n = 355, 5.6%) with symptoms of proctitis over the same period but was more commonly detected in MSM (n = 1,019, 8.1%) with NGU. M. genitalium is common and predominantly macrolide-resistant in asymptomatic MSM. M. genitalium is not associated with proctitis in this population.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Avaliação de Sintomas
7.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(2): 73-79, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited published data describing clinical features and therapeutic response in women meeting the criteria for presumptive treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease associated with Mycoplasma genitalium (MG-PID). The MG-PID has been reported to respond poorly to standard PID treatment regimens and while moxifloxacin is recommended in several treatment guidelines, published data to support its use are scant. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of women at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2006 and 2017, who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for presumptive treatment of PID, and had MG detected as the sole pathogen. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of MG-PID were compared to cases of chlamydial PID (CT-PID) by multivariable analysis. Microbiological and clinical cure following moxifloxacin and standard PID treatment was determined for women with MG-PID who returned for test of cure between 14 and 120 days. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients with MG-PID were compared with 92 women with CT-PID. The MG-PID was associated with increased lower abdominal tenderness (adjusted odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-4.60), but a lesser vaginal polymorphonuclear response compared to CT-PID by multivariable analysis. Of the 92 women with MG-PID, 54/92 (59%) received moxifloxacin (10-14 days) and 37/54 had a test of cure between 14 and 120 days; 27/37 (73%) cases had a median of 7 days of a standard regimen containing doxycycline and metronidazole +/- azithromycin before moxifloxacin. Microbial cure following moxifloxacin was 95% (95% CI, 82-99%) and did not differ from standard therapy (P = 0.948), however clinical cure was significantly higher following moxifloxacin (89%; 95% CI, 75-97%; P = 0.004)] although adverse effects were more common. CONCLUSIONS: Women meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for presumptive treatment of MG-PID did not significantly differ to those with CT-PID. Moxifloxacin was associated with higher rates of symptom resolution in women with PID, and although microbial cure was high, it did not differ between regimens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/microbiologia , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sexual , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(4): 307-313, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reports of rising herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genital infections relative to HSV-2 have been published up to 2006 in Australia. These changes have been attributed to declining childhood immunity to HSV-1. We described the temporal trends of HSV-1 and HSV-2 up to 2017 in Melbourne, Australia, to determine if the earlier trend is continuing. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of 4517 patients who were diagnosed with first episode of anogenital HSV infection at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, between January 2004 and December 2017. HSV-1 and HSV-2 were calculated as a proportion of all first episode of anogenital HSV infections. The change in the proportions of HSV-1 and HSV-2 over time was assessed by a χ2 trend test. Risk factors associated with HSV-1 were examined using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: The proportion of first episode of anogenital herpes due to HSV-1 increased significantly over time in women (from 45% to 61%; ptrend<0.001) and heterosexual men (from 38% to 41%; ptrend=0.01) but not in men who have sex with men (MSM) (ptrend=0.21). After adjusting for condom use, partner number and age, the annual increase remained significant only in women (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.13, p<0.001). In MSM, HSV-1 caused up to two-thirds of anogenital herpes in most years and HSV-1 was more likely to be diagnosed at an anal site than genital site (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.32, p<0.001). Younger age (<28 years) was an independent risk factor for HSV-1 in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of first-episode anogenital herpes due to HSV-1 has been rising in women since 2004. HSV-1 has become the leading cause of anogenital herpes in younger populations, women and MSM.


Assuntos
Herpes Genital/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Herpes Genital/diagnóstico , Herpes Genital/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(4): 554-560, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873691

RESUMO

Background: Rising macrolide and quinolone resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium necessitate new treatment approaches. We evaluated outcomes of sequential antimicrobial therapy for M. genitalium guided by a macrolide-resistance assay. Methods: In mid-2016, Melbourne Sexual Health Centre switched from azithromycin to doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days) for nongonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, and proctitis. Cases were tested for M. genitalium and macrolide-resistance mutations (MRMs) by polymerase chain reaction. Directly after doxycycline, MRM-negative infections received 2.5 g azithromycin (1 g, then 500 mg daily for 3 days), and MRM-positive infections received sitafloxacin (100 mg twice daily for 7 days). Assessment of test of cure and reinfection risk occurred 14-90 days after the second antibiotic. Results: Of 244 evaluable M. genitalium infections (52 women, 68 heterosexual men, 124 men who have sex with men) diagnosed from 20 June 2016 to 15 May 2017, MRMs were detected in 167 (68.4% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 62.2%-74.2%]). Treatment with doxycycline decreased bacterial load by a mean 2.60 log10 (n = 56; P < .0001). Microbiologic cure occurred in 73 of 77 MRM-negative infections (94.8% [95% CI, 87.2%-98.6%]) and in 154 of 167 MRM-positive infections (92.2% [95% CI, 87.1%-95.8%]). Selection of macrolide resistance occurred in only 2 of 76 (2.6% [95% CI, .3%-9.2%]) macrolide-susceptible infections. Conclusions: In the context of high levels of antimicrobial resistance, switching from azithromycin to doxycycline for presumptive treatment of M. genitalium, followed by resistance-guided therapy, cured ≥92% of infections, with infrequent selection of macrolide resistance.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209779, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-consensual removal of condoms, colloquially referred to as 'stealthing', is the removal of a condom during sex by a sexual partner when consent has been given for sex with a condom only. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine how commonly women and men who have sex with men (MSM) attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre had experienced stealthing, and analysed situational factors associated with the event. Responses were linked to demographic information extracted from patient files. RESULTS: 1189 of 2883 women (41.2%), and 1063 of 3439 MSM (30.9%) attending the clinic during the study period completed the survey. Thirty-two percent of women (95% CI: 29%,35%) and 19% of MSM (95% CI: 17%,22%) reported having ever experienced stealthing. Women who had been stealthed were more likely to be a current sex worker (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.87, 95% CI: 2.01,4.11, p <0.001). MSM who had experienced stealthing were more likely to report anxiety or depression (AOR 2.13, 95% CI: 1.25,3.60, p = 0.005). Both female and male participants who had experienced stealthing were three times less likely to consider it to be sexual assault than participants who had not experienced it (OR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.22,0.4 and OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.21,0.45 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of women and MSM attending a sexual health service reported having experienced stealthing. While further investigation is needed into the prevalence of stealthing in the general community, clinicians should be aware of this practice and consider integrating this question into their sexual health consultation. Understanding situational factors would assist in the development of preventive strategies, particularly female sex workers and MSM.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Sexual , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sex Transm Dis ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV have a high risk of anal cancer. We estimate the likely benefit of HPV vaccination amongst participants of the Anal Cancer Examination (ACE) study. METHODS: Anal swabs were collected for the detection and genotyping of anal HPV DNA by Linear Array (Roche Diagnostics) in this two-year multicentre prospective cohort. We calculated the proportion of men, stratified by age, without detectable vaccine-type-specific DNA. RESULTS: Overall, 255 men, with a median age of 50 years (IQR 44-56) contributed 488.9 person-years of follow-up. After two years of follow up, 149 (58%, 95% CI:52-65) had at least one high-risk HPV (HRHPV), and 71 (28%, 95% CI:22-34) had HPV types 16/18 detected. Assuming that DNA negative men would receive vaccine-protection, vaccination at baseline could potentially prevent HRHPV infection in 10.2% of men (95% CI:6.8-14.6, 26/255) two years later from incident HRHPV covered by the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine, and 29.4% of men (95% CI:23.9-35.4, 75/255) from incident HRHPV covered by the nonavalent vaccine. CONCLUSION: Though there is high prevalence of anal HPV in MSM living with HIV, there was also a high incidence of HRHPV vaccine types in the two-year follow up indicating potential for prevention if these men were not previously infected with HPV vaccine types and were vaccinated at their baseline visit.

12.
Sex Health ; 15(4): 342-349, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973330

RESUMO

Background Mathematical models have demonstrated that the majority of gonococcal transmission is from oropharynx to oropharynx (i.e. kissing) among men who have sex with men (MSM). The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the number of partners within specific time periods and gonorrhoea and chlamydia positivity. METHODS: This was a retrospective data analysis of MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2007 and 2016. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses, with generalised estimating equations (GEE), were performed to determine if the number of partners within specified time periods was associated with site-specific gonorrhoea and chlamydia positivity. RESULTS: There were 45933 consultations which included 15197 MSM. Oropharyngeal gonorrhoea positivity was associated with the number of partners in the past 3 months, but not the number of partners 4-12 months ago; men who had ≥6 partners in the past 3 months had significantly higher odds of acquiring oropharyngeal gonorrhoea (aOR 1.93; 95% CI 1.61-2.31), but this was not the case for men who had ≥6 partners 4-12 months ago. Anorectal gonorrhoea and chlamydia and urethral chlamydia were associated with the number of partners in both time periods after adjusting for age and condom use. CONCLUSIONS: The association of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea with the number of recent partners, but not partners from an earlier period, unlike anorectal gonorrhoea and anorectal and urethral chlamydia, could be explained by a shorter duration of oropharyngeal gonococcal infection. Annual screening for gonorrhoea may be insufficient to materially reduce oropharyngeal prevalence.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/metabolismo , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças da Boca/microbiologia , Doenças Faríngeas/microbiologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sexual , Saúde Sexual , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sex Health ; 15(4): 350-357, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966584

RESUMO

Background The number of sexual partners is one of the most important risk factors for sexually transmissible infections (STIs), including HIV. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between declining to report the number of partners using computer-assisted self-interviewing (CASI) and HIV or STI positivity at a public sexual health centre in Melbourne, Australia, in 2016. METHODS: Individuals were categorised into three risk populations: women, men who have sex with women only (MSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between declining to report the number of sexual partners in the past 12 months and HIV or STI positivity for women and MSW, with generalised estimating equations (GEE) used for estimation in MSM to address repeated-measures within individuals. RESULTS: In all, 18085 individuals (5579 women, 6013 MSW, 6493 MSM) were included in the final analysis. There was no association between chlamydia positivity and declining to respond among women and MSW. MSM who declined to respond were more likely to be chlamydia positive (adjusted odds ratio1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.43). Known HIV-positive MSM and MSM newly diagnosed with HIV had 3.31-fold (95% CI 2.48-4.42) and 2.82-fold (95% CI 1.84-4.32) greater odds respectively of declining to respond compared with HIV-negative MSM. Gonorrhoea and syphilis positivity in MSM were not associated with declining to respond. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between declining to report the number of partners and chlamydia positivity among women and MSW. However, MSM who declined to report the number of partners were slightly more likely to have chlamydia and substantially more likely to be HIV positive.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Adulto , Austrália , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Saúde Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 78(4): 406-412, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing the frequency of HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) maximizes the preventive effect of antiretroviral therapy, by reducing time to diagnosis and treatment. SETTING: Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether access to testing, without seeing a clinician would increase testing frequency. MSM attending for HIV testing between July 2014 and April 2015 were randomized in 1:1 ratio to the intervention arm (access to HIV and syphilis testing at 300 pathology centers, without requiring consultations) or the control arm (consultation at every test), without blinding. The primary outcome was the incidence of HIV testing over 12 months. RESULTS: Of 443 men referred, 422 were randomized, 3 HIV positives at baseline were excluded, and 419 were analyzed. Of 208 control, 202 (97.1%) and 200 (94.8%) of 211 intervention group members were followed to 12 months. The intervention group had 453 tests in 205.6 person-years, incidence rate was 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0 to 2.4) tests per year. The control group had 432 tests during 204.0 person-years, incidence rate was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.9 to 2.3) tests per year, and incidence rate ratio was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.89 to 1.2; P = 0.63). The annual rate of consultations was as follows: intervention, 1.61 (95% CI: 1.44 to 1.79); controls, 2.12 (95% CI: 1.92 to 2.33); rate ratio, 0.76 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.88; P = 0.0001). There was no difference in quality of life scores (P = 0.61). CONCLUSIONS: MSM permitted HIV and syphilis testing outside of clinical consultations did not test more frequently than controls but had 24% fewer consultations, reducing service demand. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12614000760673.


Assuntos
Serviços de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(3): 186-188, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420447

RESUMO

We examined the proportion of anogenital warts in men who have sex with men attending a sexual health center. Anal warts were most common in younger men who have sex with men (5.8% for age <21 years) and became less common with age (2.8% in age >50 years), but penile warts occurred at approximately the same proportion (~1.5%) over all age groups.


Assuntos
Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Sexual , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(8): 506-510, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Receptive condomless anal sex is a known risk factor for anorectal chlamydia, but it remains unclear whether oroanal sex practices also contribute. We aimed to determine whether oroanal sex ("rimming"), fingering, or the use of saliva as anal lubricant are risk factors for anorectal chlamydia among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre from July 2014 to June 2015. Routinely collected computer-assisted self-interview data included demographics, number of sexual partners, and condom use. We added questions on receptive rimming, receptive fingering or penis "dipping," and the use of a partner's saliva as anal lubricant. RESULTS: A total of 1691 MSM completed the questionnaire and tested for anorectal chlamydia. In univariable analyses, anorectal chlamydia was associated with using a partner's saliva as lubricant (odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-3.09), receptive rimming (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.04-2.45), and receptive fingering or dipping (OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.06-3.43). In multivariable analysis, anorectal chlamydia was not associated with these sexual practices, after adjusting for number of sexual partners, HIV status, known contact with chlamydia, and condom use. However, collinearity between sexual practices likely obscured associations with anorectal chlamydia, and further analyses suggested weak associations between these sexual practices and anorectal chlamydia. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a partner's saliva during receptive anal sex practices such as rimming, fingering, or penis dipping were weak risk factor for anorectal chlamydia in MSM. This contrasts with our previously reported findings that the use of saliva as anal lubricant is more strongly associated with anorectal gonorrhea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Doenças Retais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Canal Anal/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Lubrificantes , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/microbiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(8): 522-526, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report clinical characteristics of proctitis caused solely by Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) compared with chlamydia and gonococcus. We determined the proportions cured with first-line (azithromycin) and second-line antimicrobials (moxifloxacin, pristinamycin). METHODS: A total of 166 patients attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre from 2012 to 2016 with symptoms of proctitis were tested for MG, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, clinical symptoms, and signs were recorded. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression was used to test for significant differences in symptoms and signs for the pathogens detected. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of men had MG (95% confidence interval, 12-24), 21% had chlamydia (15-27), and 40% had gonococcal monoinfection (32-48), whereas 22% had MG coinfection (16-29). Relative to men with MG monoinfection, those with chlamydial monoinfection reported more anal pain (adjusted prevalence odds ratio (aPOR), 4.68 [1.41-14.19]), whereas men with gonococcal monoinfection reported more anal pain (aPOR, 6.75 [2.21-20.55]) and tenesmus (aPOR, 15.44 [1.62-146.90]), but less anal itch (aPOR, 0.32 [0.11-0.93]). The microbiological cure for MG using azithromycin was low at 35% (22-50), whereas moxifloxacin subsequently cured 92% (64-100) and pristinamycin cured 79% (54-94) of infections. CONCLUSIONS: M. genitalium was almost as common as chlamydia in men presenting to a sexual health center with symptoms of proctitis. Men with anorectal MG monoinfection were less likely to have symptoms and signs compared with those with chlamydia or gonococcus monoinfection. Cure for men with symptomatic anorectal MG by azithromycin was low. We suggest routine testing for MG in cases of proctitis, with test of cure after treatment being essential.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Proctite/microbiologia , Doenças Retais/microbiologia , Adulto , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Moxifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Pristinamicina/uso terapêutico , Proctite/tratamento farmacológico , Proctite/epidemiologia , Doenças Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Retais/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(6): 429-434, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In August 2015, a nurse-led express human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing service "Test-And-Go" (TAG) for asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM) was implemented in a large public sexual health center in Melbourne, Australia. We aimed to compare the clients' characteristics between the TAG and routine walk-in service among asymptomatic MSM. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, between August 5, 2015, and June 1, 2016. General estimating equation logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between the use of TAG service and clients' demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and HIV/STI positivity. Clients' consultation and waiting times for both services were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 3520 consultations, 784 (22.3%) were TAG services and 2736 (77.7%) were routine walk-in services for asymptomatic MSM. Asymptomatic MSM were more likely to use the TAG service if they were born in Australia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.56), and had more than 6 male partners in the last 12 months (adjusted odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58). Age, HIV status, condomless anal sex and HIV/STI positivity did not differ between the two services. The TAG service had a shorter median waiting time (8.4 minutes vs 52.9 minutes; p < 0.001) and consultation time (8.9 minutes vs 17.6 minutes; p < 0.001) than the routine walk-in service. CONCLUSIONS: Although country of birth and sexual behaviors differed between clients attending the 2 services, there were no differences in HIV and STI positivity. Importantly, the TAG service required less waiting and consultation time and hence created additional clinic capacity at the general clinic to see clients who are at higher risk.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Serviços de Diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual , Saúde Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(2): 328-335, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350154

RESUMO

High levels of macrolide resistance and increasing fluoroquinolone resistance are found in Mycoplasma genitalium in many countries. We evaluated pristinamycin for macrolide-resistant M. genitalium in a sexual health center in Australia. Microbiologic cure was determined by M. genitalium-specific 16S PCR 14-90 days after treatment began. Of 114 persons treated with pristinamycin, infection was cured in 85 (75%). This percentage did not change when pristinamycin was given at daily doses of 2 g or 4 g or at 3 g combined with 200 mg doxycycline. In infections with higher pretreatment bacterial load, treatment was twice as likely to fail for each 1 log10 increase in bacterial load. Gastrointestinal side effects occurred in 7% of patients. Pristinamycin at maximum oral dose, or combined with doxycycline, cured 75% of macrolide-resistant M. genitalium infections. Pristinamycin is well-tolerated and remains an option where fluoroquinolones have failed or cannot be used.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Pristinamicina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626294

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There has been a steady increase in gonorrhoea cases among females in Australian major cities but the reasons remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with gonorrhoea among females attending a sexual health centre in Melbourne. METHODS: Analysis of retrospective electronic patient records of females aged 16 to 80 years old attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia between 1st January 2008 and 20th March 2015. East and South-East Asian countries were considered as higher-prevalence countries for gonorrhoea. Logistic regression with a generalised estimating equation was used to identify the risk factors associated with gonorrhoea among females. RESULTS: Gonorrhoea positivity by culture among females increased from 0.3% in 2008 to 1.2% in 2015 (ptrend =0.004). The rise in positivity was greatest in females reporting sex in a higher-prevalence country (0% to 7.4%, p trend =0.026) but only moderate (0.2% to 0.4%, ptrend =0.049) in those reporting sex in Australia and/or in lower-prevalence countries. There was no association between gonorrhoea positivity and age, country of birth, number of male partners, condomless sex, or injecting drug use behaviours in the multivariable analysis. Gonorrhoea positivity by culture was significantly associated with presenting as a contact of gonorrhoea (aOR: 74.79; 95% CI: 44.07-126.93) or having sex with someone from a higher-prevalence country (aOR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.15-5.25) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a recent four-fold increase in gonorrhoea among females attending a sexual health centre in Melbourne. Females who have sex with a partner from a country with higher-prevalence gonorrhoea (i.e. East and South-East Asian countries) are at higher risk of acquiring gonorrhoea. Public health interventions such as safe sex messages targeting travellers are required.

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