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1.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(4)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698287

RESUMO

Project Vigilancia de Embarazadas con Zika (VEZ), an intensified surveillance of pregnant women with symptoms of the Zika virus disease (ZVD) in Colombia, aimed to evaluate the relationship between symptoms of ZVD during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes. During May-November 2016, pregnant women in three Colombian cities who were reported with symptoms of ZVD to the national surveillance system, or with symptoms of ZVD visiting participating clinics, were enrolled in Project VEZ. Data from maternal and pediatric (up to two years of age) medical records were abstracted. Available maternal specimens were tested for the presence of the Zika virus ribonucleic acid and/or anti-Zika virus immunoglobulin antibodies. Of 1213 enrolled pregnant women with symptoms of ZVD, 1180 had a known pregnancy outcome. Results of the Zika virus laboratory testing were available for 569 (48.2%) pregnancies with a known pregnancy outcome though testing timing varied and was often distal to the timing of symptoms; 254 (21.5% of the whole cohort; 44.6% of those with testing results) were confirmed or presumptive positive for the Zika virus infection. Of pregnancies with a known outcome, 50 (4.2%) fetuses/infants had Zika-associated brain or eye defects, which included microcephaly at birth. Early childhood adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes were more common among those with Zika-associated birth defects than among those without and more common among those with laboratory evidence of a Zika virus infection compared with the full cohort. The proportion of fetuses/infants with any Zika-associated brain or eye defect was consistent with the proportion seen in other studies. Enhancements to Colombia's existing national surveillance enabled the assessment of adverse outcomes associated with ZVD in pregnancy.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2914-2918, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586059

RESUMO

We describe a fatal case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in an adult with onset 22 days after a second dose of mRNA coronavirus disease vaccine. Serologic and clinical findings indicated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection occurred before vaccination. The immunopathology of this syndrome, regardless of vaccination status, remains poorly understood.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome , Vacinação
3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(3): ofab092, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386544

RESUMO

Background: Human adenovirus (HAdV) infections can lead to high mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, with rare reports of donor-derived infection. Methods: Two renal transplant recipients with HAdV-11 infection who received kidneys from the same donor are described. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed. Results: WGS showed 100% nucleotide sequence identity for the 2 HAdV-11 isolates. The patients presented with distinct clinical syndromes, and both were treated with brincidofovir. Conclusions: Donor-derived HAdV infection is presumed to be low; however, disseminated HAdV in SOT recipients can be severe, and clinicians should be aware of the clinical course and treatment options.

4.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, and hospital course among persons <21 years of age with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated death. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of suspected SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths in the United States in persons <21 years of age during February 12 to July 31, 2020. All states and territories were invited to participate. We abstracted demographic and clinical data, including laboratory and treatment details, from medical records. RESULTS: We included 112 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths from 25 participating jurisdictions. The median age was 17 years (IQR 8.5-19 years). Most decedents were male (71, 63%), 31 (28%) were Black (non-Hispanic) persons, and 52 (46%) were Hispanic persons. Ninety-six decedents (86%) had at least 1 underlying condition; obesity (42%), asthma (29%), and developmental disorders (22%) were most commonly documented. Among 69 hospitalized decedents, common complications included mechanical ventilation (75%) and acute respiratory failure (82%). The sixteen (14%) decedents who met multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) criteria were similar in age, sex, and race and/or ethnicity to decedents without MIS-C; 11 of 16 (69%) had at least 1 underlying condition. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths among persons <21 years of age occurred predominantly among Black (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic persons, male patients, and older adolescents. The most commonly reported underlying conditions were obesity, asthma, and developmental disorders. Decedents with coronavirus disease 2019 were more likely than those with MIS-C to have underlying medical conditions.

5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1517-1519, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704045

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shares common clinicopathologic features with other severe pulmonary illnesses. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients in Arizona, USA, suspected of dying from infection with SARS-CoV-2. Differential diagnoses and possible co-infections should be considered for cases of respiratory distress during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus , Arizona , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Infect Dis ; 223(5): 752-764, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to produce substantial morbidity and mortality. To understand the reasons for the wide-spectrum complications and severe outcomes of COVID-19, we aimed to identify cellular targets of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tropism and replication in various tissues. METHODS: We evaluated RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded autopsy tissues from 64 case patients (age range, 1 month to 84 years; 21 COVID-19 confirmed, 43 suspected COVID-19) by SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For cellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and viral characterization, we performed in situ hybridization (ISH), subgenomic RNA RT-PCR, and whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was identified by RT-PCR in 32 case patients (21 COVID-19 confirmed, 11 suspected). ISH was positive in 20 and subgenomic RNA RT-PCR was positive in 17 of 32 RT-PCR-positive case patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was localized by ISH in hyaline membranes, pneumocytes, and macrophages of lungs; epithelial cells of airways; and endothelial cells and vessel walls of brain stem, leptomeninges, lung, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas. The D614G variant was detected in 9 RT-PCR-positive case patients. CONCLUSIONS: We identified cellular targets of SARS-CoV-2 tropism and replication in the lungs and airways and demonstrated its direct infection in vascular endothelium. This work provides important insights into COVID-19 pathogenesis and mechanisms of severe outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Endotélio Vascular/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , COVID-19/complicações , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Lactente , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Tropismo Viral , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 59(2): 169-171, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475191

RESUMO

Abrin is a toxin of public health concern due to its lethality, lack of antidote, and potential for use as a bioterrorism agent. Possible routes of exposure include ingestion, inhalation, and injection. Onset of symptoms is often delayed, even in severe cases. In fatal cases, death occurs from multi-organ failure. We describe the clinical course, laboratory, and pathologic findings in a case of fatal human poisoning associated with abrin injection. The Abrus precatorius seeds in this case were obtained via the internet. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Laboratory Response Network detected abrine in the urine confirming abrin exposure in this fatal poisoning.


Assuntos
Abrina/envenenamento , Adulto , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino
9.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 79(11): 1239-1243, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020816

RESUMO

Powassan virus (POWV) is a flavivirus of the tick-borne encephalitis serogroup that causes a rare and potentially life-threatening neuroinvasive disease. Viral transmission occurs during zoonotic spillover from mammals by the bite of an infected tick in endemic regions of North America. The number of reported POWV cases has recently increased in the United States. We report a fatal case of POWV meningoencephalomyelitis in Northern Wisconsin following a documented tick bite. Histologic examination of the brain demonstrated widespread intraparenchymal and perivascular lymphohistocytic infiltration, microglial nodule formation, and marked neuronal degeneration, most severely involving the substantia nigra, anterior horn of spinal cord and cerebellum. Although no viral inclusions were seen in routine light microscopy, electron microscopy identified multiple neurons containing cytoplasmic clusters of virus particles ∼50 nm in diameter. POWV infection was confirmed using immunohistochemical analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This report demonstrates in detail regional central nervous system involvement and ultrastructural characteristics of Powassan viral particles by transmission electron microscopy, while highlighting the utility of evaluating fixed autopsy tissues in cases of unexplained meningoencephalomyelitis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/patologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Wisconsin
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(38): 1364-1368, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970661

RESUMO

As of September 21, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had resulted in 6,786,352 cases and 199,024 deaths in the United States.* Health care personnel (HCP) are essential workers at risk for exposure to patients or infectious materials (1). The impact of COVID-19 on U.S. HCP was first described using national case surveillance data in April 2020 (2). Since then, the number of reported HCP with COVID-19 has increased tenfold. This update describes demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, hospitalizations, and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, stratified by vital status, among 100,570 HCP with COVID-19 reported to CDC during February 12-July 16, 2020. HCP occupation type and job setting are newly reported. HCP status was available for 571,708 (22%) of 2,633,585 cases reported to CDC. Most HCP with COVID-19 were female (79%), aged 16-44 years (57%), not hospitalized (92%), and lacked all 10 underlying medical conditions specified on the case report form† (56%). Of HCP with COVID-19, 641 died. Compared with nonfatal COVID-19 HCP cases, a higher percentage of fatal cases occurred in males (38% versus 22%), persons aged ≥65 years (44% versus 4%), non-Hispanic Asians (Asians) (20% versus 9%), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) (32% versus 25%), and persons with any of the 10 underlying medical conditions specified on the case report form (92% versus 41%). From a subset of jurisdictions reporting occupation type or job setting for HCP with COVID-19, nurses were the most frequently identified single occupation type (30%), and nursing and residential care facilities were the most common job setting (67%). Ensuring access to personal protective equipment (PPE) and training, and practices such as universal use of face masks at work, wearing masks in the community, and observing social distancing remain critical strategies to protect HCP and those they serve.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(12): 1219-1232, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since August, 2019, US public health officials have been investigating a national outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). A spectrum of histological patterns consistent with acute to subacute lung injury has been seen in biopsies; however, autopsy findings have not been systematically characterised. We describe the pathological findings in autopsy and biopsy tissues submitted to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the evaluation of suspected EVALI. METHODS: Between Aug 1, 2019, and Nov 30, 2019, we examined lung biopsy (n=10 individuals) and autopsy (n=13 individuals) tissue samples received by the CDC, submitted by 16 US states, from individuals with: a history of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use; respiratory, gastrointestinal, or constitutional symptoms; and either pulmonary infiltrates or opacities on chest imaging, or sudden death from an undetermined cause. We also reviewed medical records, evaluated histopathology, and performed infectious disease testing when indicated by histopathology and clinical history. FINDINGS: 21 cases met surveillance case definitions for EVALI, with a further two cases of clinically suspected EVALI evaluated. All ten lung biopsies showed histological evidence of acute to subacute lung injury, including diffuse alveolar damage or organising pneumonia. These patterns were also seen in nine of 13 (69%) autopsy cases, most frequently diffuse alveolar damage (eight autopsies), but also acute and organising fibrinous pneumonia (one autopsy). Additional pulmonary pathology not necessarily consistent with EVALI was seen in the remaining autopsies, including bronchopneumonia, bronchoaspiration, and chronic interstitial lung disease. Three of the five autopsy cases with no evidence of, or a plausible alternative cause for acute lung injury, had been classified as confirmed or probable EVALI according to surveillance case definitions. INTERPRETATION: Acute to subacute lung injury patterns were seen in all ten biopsies and most autopsy lung tissues from individuals with suspected EVALI. Acute to subacute lung injury can have numerous causes; however, if it is identified in an individual with a history of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use, and no alternative cause is apparent, a diagnosis of EVALI should be strongly considered. A review of autopsy tissue pathology in suspected EVALI deaths can also identify alternative diagnoses, which can enhance the specificity of public health surveillance efforts. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Vaping/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Autopsia , Biópsia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Vaping/efeitos adversos
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9): 2005-2015, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437316

RESUMO

An ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Characterization of the histopathology and cellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 in the tissues of patients with fatal COVID-19 is critical to further understand its pathogenesis and transmission and for public health prevention measures. We report clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings in tissues from 8 fatal laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the United States. All cases except 1 were in residents of long-term care facilities. In these patients, SARS-CoV-2 infected epithelium of the upper and lower airways with diffuse alveolar damage as the predominant pulmonary pathology. SARS-CoV-2 was detectable by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy in conducting airways, pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages, and a hilar lymph node but was not identified in other extrapulmonary tissues. Respiratory viral co-infections were identified in 3 cases; 3 cases had evidence of bacterial co-infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Idoso , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
N Engl J Med ; 382(17): 1589-1598, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As of January 7, 2020, a total of 2558 hospitalized patients with nonfatal cases and 60 patients with fatal cases of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). METHODS: In a national study, we compared the characteristics of patients with fatal cases of EVALI with those of patients with nonfatal cases to improve the ability of clinicians to identify patients at increased risk for death from the condition. Health departments reported cases of EVALI to the CDC and included, when available, data from medical-record abstractions and patient interviews. Analyses included all the patients with fatal or nonfatal cases of EVALI that were reported to the CDC as of January 7, 2020. We also present three case reports of patients who died from EVALI to illustrate the clinical characteristics common among such patients. RESULTS: Most of the patients with fatal or nonfatal cases of EVALI were male (32 of 60 [53%] and 1666 of 2498 [67%], respectively). The proportion of patients with fatal or nonfatal cases was higher among those who were non-Hispanic white (39 of 49 [80%] and 1104 of 1818 [61%], respectively) than among those in other race or ethnic groups. The proportion of patients with fatal cases was higher among those 35 years of age or older (44 of 60 [73%]) than among those younger than 35 years, but the proportion with nonfatal cases was lower among those 35 years of age or older (551 of 2514 [22%]). Among the patients who had an available medical history, a higher proportion of those with fatal cases than those with nonfatal cases had a history of asthma (13 of 57 [23%] vs. 102 of 1297 [8%]), cardiac disease (26 of 55 [47%] vs. 115 of 1169 [10%]), or a mental health condition (32 of 49 [65%] vs. 575 of 1398 [41%]). A total of 26 of 50 patients (52%) with fatal cases had obesity. Half the patients with fatal cases (25 of 54 [46%]) were seen in an outpatient setting before hospitalization or death. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic conditions, including cardiac and respiratory diseases and mental health conditions, were common among hospitalized patients with EVALI.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/complicações , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidade do Paciente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(43): 985-989, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671085

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration, state and local health departments, and other public health and clinical stakeholders are investigating a national outbreak of electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette), or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). As of October 22, 2019, 49 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and the U.S. Virgin Islands have reported 1,604 cases of EVALI to CDC, including 34 (2.1%) EVALI-associated deaths in 24 states. Based on data collected as of October 15, 2019, this report updates data on patient characteristics and substances used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2) and describes characteristics of EVALI-associated deaths. The median age of EVALI patients who survived was 23 years, and the median age of EVALI patients who died was 45 years. Among 867 (54%) EVALI patients with available data on use of specific e-cigarette, or vaping, products in the 3 months preceding symptom onset, 86% reported any use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products, 64% reported any use of nicotine-containing products, and 52% reported use of both. Exclusive use of THC-containing products was reported by 34% of patients and exclusive use of nicotine-containing products by 11%, and for 2% of patients, no use of either THC- or nicotine-containing products was reported. Among 19 EVALI patients who died and for whom substance use data were available, 84% reported any use of THC-containing products, including 63% who reported exclusive use of THC-containing products; 37% reported any use of nicotine-containing products, including 16% who reported exclusive use of nicotine-containing products. To date, no single compound or ingredient used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products has emerged as the cause of EVALI, and there might be more than one cause. Because most patients reported using THC-containing products before symptom onset, CDC recommends that persons should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC. In addition, because the specific compound or ingredient causing lung injury is not yet known, and while the investigation continues, persons should consider refraining from the use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1081-1086, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751322

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders are investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). CDC has published recommendations for health care providers regarding EVALI (2-4). Recently, researchers from Utah and New York published proposed diagnosis and treatment algorithms for EVALI (5,6). EVALI remains a diagnosis of exclusion because, at present, no specific test or marker exists for its diagnosis, and evaluation should be guided by clinical judgment. Because patients with EVALI can experience symptoms similar to those associated with influenza or other respiratory infections (e.g., fever, cough, headache, myalgias, or fatigue), it might be difficult to differentiate EVALI from influenza or community-acquired pneumonia on initial assessment; EVALI might also co-occur with respiratory infections. This report summarizes recommendations for health care providers managing patients with suspected or known EVALI when respiratory infections such as influenza are more prevalent in the community than they have been in recent months (7). Recommendations include 1) asking patients with respiratory, gastrointestinal, or constitutional symptoms about the use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products; 2) evaluating those suspected to have EVALI with pulse oximetry and obtaining chest imaging, as clinically indicated; 3) considering outpatient management for clinically stable EVALI patients who meet certain criteria; 4) testing patients for influenza, particularly during influenza season, and administering antimicrobials, including antivirals, in accordance with established guidelines; 5) using caution when considering prescribing corticosteroids for outpatients, because this treatment modality has not been well studied among outpatients, and corticosteroids could worsen respiratory infections; 6) recommending evidence-based treatment strategies, including behavioral counseling, to help patients discontinue using e-cigarette, or vaping, products; and 7) emphasizing the importance of annual influenza vaccination for all persons aged ≥6 months, including patients who use e-cigarette, or vaping products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(41): 919-927, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633675

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical partners are investigating a multistate outbreak of lung injury associated with the use of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), or vaping, products. In late August, CDC released recommendations for health care providers regarding e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI) based on limited data from the first reported cases (1,2). This report summarizes national surveillance data describing clinical features of more recently reported cases and interim recommendations based on these data for U.S. health care providers caring for patients with suspected or known EVALI. It provides interim guidance for 1) initial clinical evaluation; 2) suggested criteria for hospital admission and treatment; 3) patient follow-up; 4) special considerations for groups at high risk; and 5) clinical and public health recommendations. Health care providers evaluating patients suspected to have EVALI should ask about the use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products in a nonjudgmental and thorough manner. Patients suspected to have EVALI should have a chest radiograph (CXR), and hospital admission is recommended for patients who have decreased blood oxygen (O2) saturation (<95%) on room air or who are in respiratory distress. Health care providers should consider empiric use of a combination of antibiotics, antivirals, or steroids based upon clinical context. Evidence-based tobacco product cessation strategies, including behavioral counseling, are recommended to help patients discontinue use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products. To reduce the risk of recurrence, patients who have been treated for EVALI should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products. CDC recommends that persons should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). At present, CDC recommends persons consider refraining from using e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain nicotine. Irrespective of the ongoing investigation, e-cigarette, or vaping, products should never be used by youths, young adults, or women who are pregnant. Persons who do not currently use tobacco products should not start using e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(36): 787-790, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513561

RESUMO

On September 6, 2019, this report was posted as an MMWR Early Release on the MMWR website (https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr). As of August 27, 2019, 215 possible cases of severe pulmonary disease associated with the use of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products (e.g., devices, liquids, refill pods, and cartridges) had been reported to CDC by 25 state health departments. E-cigarettes are devices that produce an aerosol by heating a liquid containing various chemicals, including nicotine, flavorings, and other additives (e.g., propellants, solvents, and oils). Users inhale the aerosol, including any additives, into their lungs. Aerosols produced by e-cigarettes can contain harmful or potentially harmful substances, including heavy metals such as lead, volatile organic compounds, ultrafine particles, cancer-causing chemicals, or other agents such as chemicals used for cleaning the device (1). E-cigarettes also can be used to deliver tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive component of cannabis, or other drugs; for example, "dabbing" involves superheating substances that contain high concentrations of THC and other plant compounds (e.g., cannabidiol) with the intent of inhaling the aerosol. E-cigarette users could potentially add other substances to the devices. This report summarizes available information and provides interim case definitions and guidance for reporting possible cases of severe pulmonary disease. The guidance in this report reflects data available as of September 6, 2019; guidance will be updated as additional information becomes available.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 25(3): E19-E26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889179

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Since 2007, 2 doses of varicella vaccine have been routinely recommended, with a catch-up second dose recommended for those who received only 1 prior dose. OBJECTIVE: To examine varicella vaccination coverage with 2 or more doses and the proportions of adolescents with evidence of immunity to varicella (≥2 doses of vaccine or varicella history) during 2007-2014. To assess timing of second-dose receipt, factors associated with 2 or more vaccine doses, and missed second-dose opportunities during 2014. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We used data from the 2007-2014 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen), which collects information on adolescents aged 13 to 17 years in the United States. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2014, varicella vaccination coverage with 2 or more doses increased from 8.3% to 66.9% in 13- to 15-year-olds and from 3.6% to 56.7% in 16- to 17-year-olds. The proportions with evidence of immunity also increased from 68.0% to 84.1% (13- to 15-year-olds) and 78.6% to 83.4% (16- to 17-year-olds). In 2014, 13.4% of 13- to 15-year-olds and 3.2% of 16- to 17-year-olds had received their second dose at 4 to 6 years of age. Factors most significantly associated with lower coverage with 2 or more doses were not having an 11- to 12-year well-child visit, not receiving an adolescent vaccine, and residence in a state with no 2-dose immunization school entry requirement. Seventy-seven percent of 1-dose vaccinated adolescents had 1 or more missed opportunities to receive their second dose; if were they not missed, 2-dose coverage would have increased from 79.5% to 94.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of varicella vaccination coverage with 2 or more doses and the proportion of adolescents with evidence of immunity increased from 2007 to 2014, though 16% lacked evidence of immunity in 2014. Although catch-up campaigns have succeeded, missed vaccination opportunities persist.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Varicela/uso terapêutico , Varicela/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização/normas , Vacinação/normas , Adolescente , Varicela/tratamento farmacológico , Vacina contra Varicela/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Varicela/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 3/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 3/patogenicidade , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(3): 450-458, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In fall 2017, 3 solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients from a common donor developed encephalitis within 1 week of transplantation, prompting suspicion of transplant-transmitted infection. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) infection was identified during testing of endomyocardial tissue from the heart recipient. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of the organ donor and transplant recipients and tested serum, whole blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissue from the donor and recipients for evidence of EEEV infection by multiple assays. We investigated blood transfusion as a possible source of organ donor infection by testing remaining components and serum specimens from blood donors. We reviewed data from the pretransplant organ donor evaluation and local EEEV surveillance. RESULTS: We found laboratory evidence of recent EEEV infection in all organ recipients and the common donor. Serum collected from the organ donor upon hospital admission tested negative, but subsequent samples obtained prior to organ recovery were positive for EEEV RNA. There was no evidence of EEEV infection among donors of the 8 blood products transfused into the organ donor or in products derived from these donations. Veterinary and mosquito surveillance showed recent EEEV activity in counties nearby the organ donor's county of residence. Neuroinvasive EEEV infection directly contributed to the death of 1 organ recipient and likely contributed to death in another. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation demonstrated EEEV transmission through SOT. Mosquito-borne transmission of EEEV to the organ donor was the likely source of infection. Clinicians should be aware of EEEV as a cause of transplant-associated encephalitis.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Equina/transmissão , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Animais , Culicidae/virologia , Vírus da Encefalite Equina do Leste , Encefalomielite Equina/sangue , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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