Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 241
Filtrar
1.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elderly patients (≥65yr) with advanced prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) conditions are often excluded from clinical trials of abiraterone acetate (AA) or enzalutamide (ENZ). Consequently, little is known about the effects of these medications on these vulnerable patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the short-term outcomes of AA and ENZ in patients with pre-existing CVDs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A population-based retrospective study. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare-linked database was used to identify prostate cancer patients using AA or ENZ. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary endpoint was 6-mo all-cause mortality, analyzed using modified Poisson regression modeling of relative risk (RR) adjusted for confounders and comorbidities. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Among eligible patients (2845 with AA and 1031 with ENZ), 67% had at least one pre-existing CVD. Compared with those without pre-existing CVDs, having one to two pre-existing CVDs was associated with 16% higher 6-mo mortality (RR=1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.36), and the risk increased further among those having three or more CVDs (RR=1.56, 95% CI: 1.29-1.88). Most of the differences in survival of patients with pre-existing CVD condition occurred within the first 6mo of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: After treatment with AA or ENZ, elderly prostate cancer patients with pre-existing CVDs experienced higher short-term mortality than otherwise similar patients without CVDs. Mortality associated with CVDs did not depend on having received AA versus ENZ. PATIENT SUMMARY: Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) experienced higher short-term mortality after abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide than those without pre-existing CVDs. It is recommended that a multidisciplinary team, including a cardiologist, evaluate patients having pre-existing CVDs in the process of making treatment decisions and monitoring potential side effects.

2.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2(4): 405-412, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor microenvironment and its interaction with neuroendocrine modulators contribute to prostate carcinogenesis and progression. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define the transcriptomic and clinical implications of neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in prostate cancer progression. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Genome-wide expression profiling of three localized prostate cancer (total n=18818) and five metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC; total n=495) cohorts was used to characterize NPY expression. All men underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Patients were grouped into those with low NPY and high NPY based on NPY expression. Associations between these groups and histological, genomic, and clinical outcomes including progression-free survival (PFS) and metastases-free survival (MFS) were examined. Combining ERG-fusion status with NPY expression, four groups were defined (lowNPY/ERG+, lowNPY/ERG-, highNPY/ERG+, and highNPY/ERG-). Cox proportional hazards modeled the time to distant metastasis after RP. Genomic risk scores for metastasis were calculated for prospective samples, based on a 22-gene signature. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Across cancers, NPY showed the highest expression in prostate cancer in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) PAN-Cancer cohort (n=9483, p<0.0001). In 17967 prospective samples, low NPY expression was associated with aggressive grade group 5 disease and a higher genomic risk (p<0.0001). In the retrospective (n=355) and TCGA (n=497) cohorts, low NPY was associated with shorter MFS and PFS, respectively (p=0.001 for both). In mCRPC cohorts, low NPY was associated with neuroendocrine development (p<0.01). NPY was highly correlated to ERG; thus, we defined four groups based on NPY expression and ERG fusion. The lowNPY/ERG+ subtype was associated with the highest genomic risk for metastasis (p<0.0001) and the highest rate of metastasis compared with all other subtypes (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.2 [1.22-4.03], p=0.008), while the highNPY/ERG- subtype was associated with the lowest genomic risk for metastasis (p<0.0001) and the lowest rate of metastasis (HR: 0.53 [0.35-0.81], p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Low NPY expression is associated with adverse genomic features and clinical correlates and outcomes. The lowNPY/ERG+ subtype was associated with the highest risk of developing metastasis. Prognostic subgrouping and tailored treatments by NPY expression and ERG fusion status warrant further study. PATIENT SUMMARY: The low neuropeptide Y prostate cancer subtype appears to be aggressive with a high risk of developing metastasis.

3.
Cancer ; 125(19): 3338-3346, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management for men aged ≤55 years with low-risk prostate cancer (LRPC) is debated given quality-of-life implications with definitive treatment versus the potential missed opportunity for cure with conservative management. The objective of this study was to define rates of conservative management for LRPC and associated short-term outcomes in young versus older men in the United States. METHODS: The nonpublic Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Prostate with Active Surveillance/Watchful Waiting (AS/WW) Database identified 50,302 men who were diagnosed with LRPC from 2010 through 2015. AS/WW rates in the United States were stratified by age (≤55 vs ≥56 years). Prostate cancer-specific mortality and overall mortality were defined by initial management type (AS/WW vs definitive treatment [referent]) and age. RESULTS: AS/WW utilization increased from 8.61% (2010) to 34.56% (2015) among men aged ≤55 years (P for trend <0.001) and from 15.99% to 43.81% among men aged ≥56 years (P for trend <.001). Among patients who had ≤2 positive biopsy cores, AS/WW rates increased from 12.90% to 48.78% for men aged ≤55 years and from 21.85% to 58.01% for men aged ≥56 years. Among patients who had ≥3 positive biopsy cores, AS/WW rates increased from 3.89% to 22.45% for men aged ≤55 years and from 10.05% to 28.49% for men aged ≥56 years (all P for trend <.001). Five-year prostate cancer-specific mortality rates were <0.30% across age and initial management type subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: AS/WW rates quadrupled for patients aged ≤55 years from 2010 to 2015, with favorable short-term outcomes. These findings demonstrate the short-term safety and increasing acceptance of AS/WW for both younger and older patients. However, there are still higher absolute rates of AS/WW in older patients (P < .001), suggesting some national ambivalence toward AS/WW in younger patients.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209999

RESUMO

BRCA1 BRCA2 mutational spectrum in the Middle East, North Africa, and Southern Europe is not well characterized. The unique history and cultural practices characterizing these regions, often involving consanguinity and inbreeding, plausibly led to the accumulation of population-specific founder pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs). To determine recurring BRCA PSVs in these locales, a search in PUBMED, EMBASE, BIC, and CIMBA was carried out combined with outreach to researchers from the relevant countries for unpublished data. We identified 232 PSVs in BRCA1 and 239 in BRCA2 in 25 of 33 countries surveyed. Common PSVs that were detected in four or more countries were c.5266dup (p.Gln1756Profs), c.181T>G (p.Cys61Gly), c.68_69del (p.Glu23Valfs), c.5030_5033del (p.Thr1677Ilefs), c.4327C>T (p.Arg1443Ter), c.5251C>T (p.Arg1751Ter), c.1016dup (p.Val340Glyfs), c.3700_3704del (p.Val1234Glnfs), c.4065_4068del (p.Asn1355Lysfs), c.1504_1508del (p.Leu502Alafs), c.843_846del (p.Ser282Tyrfs), c.798_799del (p.Ser267Lysfs), and c.3607C>T (p.Arg1203Ter) in BRCA1 and c.2808_2811del (p.Ala938Profs), c.5722_5723del (p.Leu1908Argfs), c.9097dup (p.Thr3033Asnfs), c.1310_1313del (p. p.Lys437Ilefs), and c.5946del (p.Ser1982Argfs) for BRCA2. Notably, some mutations (e.g., p.Asn257Lysfs (c.771_775del)) were observed in unrelated populations. Thus, seemingly genotyping recurring BRCA PSVs in specific populations may provide first pass BRCA genotyping platform.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.

7.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 799-811, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069578

RESUMO

An important premise of epidemiology is that individuals with the same disease share similar underlying etiologies and clinical outcomes. In the past few decades, our knowledge of disease pathogenesis has improved, and disease classification systems have evolved to the point where no complex disease processes are considered homogenous. As a result, pathology and epidemiology have been integrated into the single, unified field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE). Advancing integrative molecular and population-level health sciences and addressing the unique research challenges specific to the field of MPE necessitates assembling experts in diverse fields, including epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, computational biology, bioinformatics, genomics, immunology, and nutritional and environmental sciences. Integrating these seemingly divergent fields can lead to a greater understanding of pathogenic processes. The International MPE Meeting Series fosters discussion that addresses the specific research questions and challenges in this emerging field. The purpose of the meeting series is to: discuss novel methods to integrate pathology and epidemiology; discuss studies that provide pathogenic insights into population impact; and educate next-generation scientists. Herein, we share the proceedings of the Fourth International MPE Meeting, held in Boston, MA, USA, on 30 May-1 June, 2018. Major themes of this meeting included 'integrated genetic and molecular pathologic epidemiology', 'immunology-MPE', and 'novel disease phenotyping'. The key priority areas for future research identified by meeting attendees included integration of tumor immunology and cancer disparities into epidemiologic studies, further collaboration between computational and population-level scientists to gain new insight on exposure-disease associations, and future pooling projects of studies with comparable data.

8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(14): 4290-4299, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rb-pathway disruption is of great clinical interest, as it has been shown to predict outcomes in multiple cancers. We sought to develop a transcriptomic signature for detecting biallelic RB1 loss (RBS) that could be used to assess the clinical implications of RB1 loss on a pan-cancer scale. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We utilized data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (N = 995) to develop the first pan-cancer transcriptomic signature for predicting biallelic RB1 loss (RBS). Model accuracy was validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Pan-Cancer dataset (N = 11,007). RBS was then used to assess the clinical relevance of biallelic RB1 loss in TCGA Pan-Cancer and in an additional metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) cohort. RESULTS: RBS outperformed the leading existing signature for detecting RB1 biallelic loss across all cancer types in TCGA Pan-Cancer (AUC, 0.89 vs. 0.66). High RBS (RB1 biallelic loss) was associated with promoter hypermethylation (P = 0.008) and gene body hypomethylation (P = 0.002), suggesting RBS could detect epigenetic gene silencing. TCGA Pan-Cancer clinical analyses revealed that high RBS was associated with short progression-free (P < 0.00001), overall (P = 0.0004), and disease-specific (P < 0.00001) survival. On multivariable analyses, high RBS was predictive of shorter progression-free survival in TCGA Pan-Cancer (P = 0.03) and of shorter overall survival in mCRPC (P = 0.004) independently of the number of DNA alterations in RB1. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first validated tool to assess RB1 biallelic loss across cancer types based on gene expression. RBS can be useful for analyzing datasets with or without DNA-sequencing results to investigate the emerging prognostic and treatment implications of Rb-pathway disruption.See related commentary by Choudhury and Beltran, p. 4199.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Transcriptoma , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507552

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are susceptible to bias due to population stratification (PS). The most widely used method to correct bias due to PS is principal components (PCs) analysis (PCA), but there is no objective method to guide which PCs to include as covariates. Often, the ten PCs with the highest eigenvalues are included to adjust for PS. This selection is arbitrary, and patterns of local linkage disequilibrium may affect PCA corrections. To address these limitations, we estimate genomic propensity scores based on all statistically significant PCs selected by the Tracy-Widom (TW) statistic. We compare a principal components and propensity scores (PCAPS) approach to PCA and EMMAX using simulated GWAS data under no, moderate, and severe PS. PCAPS reduced spurious genetic associations regardless of the degree of PS, resulting in odds ratio (OR) estimates closer to the true OR. We illustrate our PCAPS method using GWAS data from a study of testicular germ cell tumors. PCAPS provided a more conservative adjustment than PCA. Advantages of the PCAPS approach include reduction of bias compared to PCA, consistent selection of propensity scores to adjust for PS, the potential ability to handle outliers, and ease of implementation using existing software packages.

12.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 11(12): 735-778, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530635

RESUMO

The recent pace, extent, and impact of paradigm-changing cancer prevention science has been remarkable. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) convened a 3-day summit, aligned with five research priorities: (i) Precancer Atlas (PCA). (ii) Cancer interception. (iii) Obesity-cancer linkage, a global epidemic of chronic low-grade inflammation. (iv) Implementation science. (v) Cancer disparities. Aligned with these priorities, AACR co-led the Lancet Commission to formally endorse and accelerate the NCI Cancer Moonshot program, facilitating new global collaborative efforts in cancer control. The expanding scope of creative impact is perhaps most startling-from NCI-funded built environments to AACR Team Science Awarded studies of Asian cancer genomes informing global primary prevention policies; cell-free epigenetic marks identifying incipient neoplastic site; practice-changing genomic subclasses in myeloproliferative neoplasia (including germline variant tightly linked to JAK2 V617F haplotype); universal germline genetic testing for pancreatic cancer; and repurposing drugs targeting immune- and stem-cell signals (e.g., IL-1ß, PD-1, RANK-L) to cancer interception. Microbiota-driven IL-17 can induce stemness and transformation in pancreatic precursors (identifying another repurposing opportunity). Notable progress also includes hosting an obesity special conference (connecting epidemiologic and molecular perspectives to inform cancer research and prevention strategies), co-leading concerted national implementation efforts in HPV vaccination, and charting the future elimination of cancer disparities by integrating new science tools, discoveries and perspectives into community-engaged research, including targeted counter attacks on e-cigarette ad exploitation of children, Hispanics and Blacks. Following this summit, two unprecedented funding initiatives were catalyzed to drive cancer prevention research: the NCI Cancer Moonshot (e.g., PCA and disparities); and the AACR-Stand Up To Cancer bold "Cancer Interception" initiative.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Congressos como Assunto , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Primária/tendências , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/tendências , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Científicas/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research reproducibility is vital for translation of epidemiologic findings. However, repeated studies of the same question may be undertaken without enhancing existing knowledge. To identify settings in which additional research is or is not warranted, we adapted research synthesis metrics to determine number of additional observational studies needed to change the inference from an existing meta-analysis. METHODS: The fail-safe number (FSN) estimates number of additional studies of average weight and null effect needed to drive a statistically significant meta-analysis to null (P≥0.05). We used conditional power to determine number of additional studies of average weight and equivalent heterogeneity to achieve 80% power in an updated meta-analysis to detect the observed summary estimate as statistically significant. We applied these metrics to a curated set of 98 meta-analyses on biomarkers and cancer risk. RESULTS: Both metrics were influenced by number of studies, heterogeneity, and summary estimate size in the existing meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis on H. pylori and gastric cancer with 15 studies (OR=2.29; 95% CI 1.71-3.05), FSN was 805 studies, supporting futility of further study. For the meta-analysis on dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and prostate cancer with 7 studies (OR=1.29; 95% CI 0.99-1.69), 5 more studies would be needed for 80% power, suggesting further study could change inferences. CONCLUSIONS: Along with traditional assessments, these metrics could be used by stakeholders to decide whether additional studies addressing the same question are needed. IMPACT: Systematic application of these metrics could lead to more judicious use of resources and acceleration from discovery to population-health impact.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of treatment delays on Prostate Cancer (PCa) specific outcomes remains ill-defined. This study investigates the effect of time to treatment on biochemical disease control after prostatectomy. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 1,807 patients who received a prostatectomy as a primary treatment at two large tertiary referral centers from 1987 - 2015. Multivariate cox model with restricted cubic spline were used to identify optimal time to receive treatment and estimate the risk of Biochemical recurrence. RESULTS: Median follow up time of the study was 46 (IQR 18 - 86) months. Time to treatment was subcategorized based on multivariate cubic spline cox model. In multivariate spline model, adjusted for all the pertinent pretreatment variables, inflection point in the risk of biochemical recurrence was observed around 3 month which further increased after 6 months. Based on spline model, time to treatment was then divided into 0-3 months (61.5%), >3-6 months (31.1%) and 6 months (7.4%). In the adjusted cox model, initial delays up to 6 months did not adversely affect the outcome, however, time to treatment >6 month had significantly higher risk of biochemical recurrence, Hazard Ratio = 1.84, 95% CI, 1.30 - 2.60, p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The initial delays up to 6 months in prostate cancer primary treatment may be sustainable without adversely affecting the outcome. However, significant delays beyond 6 months can unfavorably impact biochemical disease control. IMPACT: Time to treatment can aide clinicians in the decision making of PCa treatment recommendation and educate patients against unintentional treatment delays.

15.
Cancer Cell ; 34(4): 549-560.e9, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300578

RESUMO

Disparities in cancer care have been a long-standing challenge. We estimated the genetic ancestry of The Cancer Genome Atlas patients, and performed a pan-cancer analysis on the influence of genetic ancestry on genomic alterations. Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AA) with breast, head and neck, and endometrial cancers exhibit a higher level of chromosomal instability, while a lower level of chromosomal instability was observed in AAs with kidney cancers. The frequencies of TP53 mutations and amplification of CCNE1 were increased in AAs in the cancer types showing higher levels of chromosomal instability. We observed lower frequencies of genomic alterations affecting genes in the PI3K pathway in AA patients across cancers. Our result provides insight into genomic contribution to cancer disparities.

16.
Int J Urol ; 2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the epidemiology of bladder cancer in Africa to guide a targeted public health response and support research initiatives. METHODS: We systematically searched publicly available sources for population-based registry studies reporting the incidence of bladder cancer in Africa between January 1980 and June 2017. Crude incidence rates of bladder cancer were extracted. A Bayesian network meta-analysis model was used to estimate incidence rates. RESULTS: The search returned 1328 studies. A total of 22 studies carried out across 15 African countries met our pre-defined selection criteria. Heterogeneity across studies was high (I2  = 98.9%, P < 0.001). The pooled incidence of bladder cancer in Africa was 7.0 (95% credible interval 5.8-8.3) per 100 000 population in men and 1.8 (95% credible interval 1.2-2.6) per 100 000 in women. The incidence of bladder cancer was consistently higher in North Africa in both sexes. Among men, we estimated a pooled incidence of 10.1 (95% credible interval 7.9-11.9) per 100 000 in North Africa and 5.0 (95% credible interval 3.8-6.6) per 100 000 in sub-Saharan Africa. In women, the pooled incidence was 2.0 (95% credible interval 1.0-3.0) per 100 000 and 1.5 (95% credible interval 0.9-2.0) per 100 000 in North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, respectively. Incidence rates increased significantly among men from 5.6 (95% credible interval 4.2-7.2) in the 1990s to 8.5 (95% credible interval 6.9-10.1) per 100 000 in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests a growing incidence of bladder cancer in Africa in recent years, particularly among men and in North Africa. This study also highlights the lack of quality data sources and collection of essential clinical and epidemiological data in several African countries, and this hinders public health planning.

17.
J Glob Oncol ; (4): 1-11, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241262

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Noncommunicable diseases, prominently cancer, have become the second leading cause of death in the adult population of Ethiopia. A population-based cancer registry has been used in Addis Ababa (the capital city) since 2011. Availability of up-to-date estimates on cancer incidence is important in guiding the national cancer control program in Ethiopia. METHODS: We obtained primary data on 8,539 patients from the Addis Ababa population-based cancer registry and supplemented by data on 1,648 cancer cases collected from six Ethiopian regions. We estimated the number of the commonest forms of cancer diagnosed among males and females in Ethiopia and computed crude and age-standardized incidence rates. RESULTS: For 2015 in Ethiopia, we estimated that 21,563 (95% CI, 17,416 to 25,660) and 42,722 (95% CI, 37,412 to 48,040) incident cancer cases were diagnosed in males and females, respectively. The most common adult cancers were: cancers of the breast and cervix, colorectal cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, and cancers of the prostate, thyroid, lung, stomach, and liver. Leukemia was the leading cancer diagnosis in the pediatric age group (age 0 to 14 years). Breast cancer was by far the commonest cancer, constituting 33% of the cancers in women and 23% of all cancers identified from the Addis Ababa cancer registry. It was also the commonest cancer in four of the six Ethiopian regions included in the analysis. Colorectal cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were the commonest malignancies in men. CONCLUSION: Cancer, and more prominently breast cancer, poses a substantial public health threat in Ethiopia. The fight against cancer calls for expansion of population-based registry sites to improve quantifying the cancer burden in Ethiopia and requires both increased investment and application of existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the Ethiopian population.

18.
J Glob Oncol ; (4): 1-12, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260756

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Health research in low- and middle-income countries can generate novel scientific knowledge and improve clinical care, fostering population health improvements to prevent premature death. Project management is a critical part of the success of this research, applying knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to accomplish required goals. Here, we describe the development and implementation of tools to support a multifaceted study of prostate cancer in Africa, focusing on building strategic and operational capacity. METHODS: Applying a learning organizational framework, we developed and implemented a project management toolkit (PMT) that includes a management process flowchart, a cyclical center-specific schedule of activities, periodic reporting and communication, and center-specific monitoring and evaluation metrics. RESULTS: The PMT was successfully deployed during year one of the project with effective component implementation occurring through periodic cycles of dissemination and feedback to local center project managers. A specific evaluation was conducted 1 year after study initiation to obtain enrollment data, evaluate individual quality control management plans, and undertake risk log assessments and follow-up. Pilot data obtained identified areas in which centers required mentoring, strengthening, and capacity development. Strategies were implemented to improve project goals and operational capacity through local problem solving, conducting quality control checks and following compliancy with study aims. Moving forward, centers will perform quarterly evaluations and initiate strengthening measures as required. CONCLUSION: The PMT has fostered the development of both strategic and operational capacity across project centers. Investment in project management resources is essential to ensuring high-quality, impactful health research in low- and middle-income countries.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 712, 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the Caribbean, including the islands of Trinidad and Tobago (TT). The population of TT consists of over 1.3 million people with diverse ancestral and sociocultural backgrounds, both of which may influence cancer incidence and mortality. The objective of this study was to examine incidence and mortality patterns and trends in TT. METHODS: Cancer surveillance data on 29,512 incident cancer cases reported to the Dr. Elizabeth Quamina Cancer Registry (population-based cancer registry of TT) between 1995 and 2009 were analyzed. Age-standardized rates, overall and by sex, ancestry, and geography, were reported. RESULTS: The highest incidence and mortality rates were observed for cancers related to reproductive organs in women, namely, breast, cervical, and uterine cancers, and prostate, lung and colorectal cancers among men. Average incidence rates were highest in areas covered by the Tobago Regional Health Authority (TRHA) (188 per 100,000), while average mortality rates were highest in areas covered by the North West Regional Health Authority (108 per 100,000). Nationals of African ancestry exhibited the highest rates of cancer incidence (243 per 100,000) and mortality (156 per 100,000) compared to their counterparts who were of East Indian (incidence, 125 per 100,000; mortality, 66 per 100,000) or mixed ancestry (incidence, 119 per 100,000; mortality, 66 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the need for national investment to improve the understanding of the epidemiology of cancer in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ultimately guide much needed cancer prevention and control initiatives in the near future.

20.
Cancer Discov ; 8(7): 803-811, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907587

RESUMO

Prevention and early detection is critical for reducing the population cancer burden. Two approaches have been used: Population approaches change social norms (e.g., smoking bans) or impose incentives (e.g., cigarette taxes); high-risk strategies intervene upon individuals with elevated cancer risk (e.g., smoking cessation). Knowledge about carcinogenesis mechanisms, extreme exposures, and inherited susceptibility provides opportunities to develop precision prevention and early-detection (PPED) strategies. PPED aims to understand the basis of risk, identify groups that optimally benefit from interventions, characterize heterogeneity in intervention responses, optimize intervention timing, and minimize toxicities. We propose a framework around which PPED strategies can be developed. Currently available cancer prevention and early-detection approaches have the potential to reduce a large proportion of the cancer burden in the population. However, even if fully implemented, existing methods cannot fully eliminate the cancer burden. New PPED approaches that exploit the growing knowledge of molecular and biological cancer mechanisms should be developed and implemented. Cancer Discov; 8(7); 803-11. ©2018 AACR.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA