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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450815

RESUMO

Liquid biopsy-based biomarkers have advantages in monitoring the dynamics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), a bone-predominant metastatic disease. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and clinical outcomes of mCRPC patients, but little is known about the prognostic value of CTC-clusters. In 227 longitudinally collected blood samples from 64 mCRPC patients, CTCs and CTC-clusters were enumerated using the CellSearch platform. The associations of CTC and CTC-cluster counts with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), individually and jointly, were evaluated by Cox models. CTCs and CTC-clusters were detected in 24 (37.5%) and 8 (12.5%) of 64 baseline samples, and in 119 (52.4%) and 27 (11.9%) of 227 longitudinal samples, respectively. CTC counts were associated with both PFS and OS, but CTC-clusters were only independently associated with an increased risk of death. Among patients with unfavorable CTCs (≥5), the presence of CTC-clusters signified a worse survival (log-rank p = 0.0185). mCRPC patients with both unfavorable CTCs and CTC-clusters had the highest risk for death (adjusted hazard ratio 19.84, p = 0.0072), as compared to those with <5 CTCs. Analyses using longitudinal data yielded similar results. In conclusion, CTC-clusters provided additional prognostic information for further stratifying death risk among patients with unfavorable CTCs.

2.
Eur Urol ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303244

RESUMO

Grade group 4 and 5 (GG-45) prostate cancer (PCa) patients are at the highest risk of lethal outcomes, yet lack genomic risk stratification for prognosis and treatment selection. Here, we assess whether transcriptomic interactions between tumor immune content score (ICS) and the Decipher genomic classifier can identify most lethal subsets of GG-45 PCa. We utilized whole transcriptome data from 8071 tumor tissue (6071 prostatectomy and 2000 treatment-naïve biopsy samples) to derive four immunogenomic subtypes using ICS and Decipher. When compared across all grade groups, GG-45 samples had the highest proportion of most aggressive subtype-ICSHigh/DecipherHigh. Subsequent analyses within the GG-45 patient samples (n = 1420) revealed that the ICSHigh/DecipherHigh subtype was associated with increased genomic radiosensitivity. Additionally, in a multivariable model (n = 335), ICSHigh/DecipherHigh subtype had a significantly higher risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.76-10.6; p ≤ 0.0001) and PCa-specific mortality (HR = 10.6; 95% CI, 4.18-26.94; p ≤ 0.0001) as compared with ICSLow/DecipherLow. The novel immunogenomic subtypes establish a very strong synergistic interaction between ICS and Decipher in identifying GG-45 patients who experience the most lethal outcomes. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this analysis, we identified a novel interaction between the total immune content of prostate tumors and genomic classifier to identify the most lethal subset of patients with grade groups 4 and 5. Our results will aid in the subtyping of aggressive prostate cancer patients who may benefit from combined immune-radiotherapy modalities.

3.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1656-1665, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151773

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Few studies have explored the relationship between body habitus and breast cancer outcomes in Caribbean women of African ancestry. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a retrospective cohort of 224 female Haitian patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: BMI was obtained from the medical records and categorized as normal weight (< 25 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥ 30 kg/m2). DFS was defined as time from surgical resection to disease recurrence, death, or censoring. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated, and the association between BMI and DFS was evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models to control for multiple confounders. Exploratory analyses were conducted on weight changes during adjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients (37.1%) were normal weight, 66 (29.5%) were overweight, and 75 (33.5%) were obese. There were no statistical differences in baseline characteristics or treatments received by BMI group. Twenty-six patients died and 73 had disease recurrence. Median DFS was 41.1 months. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed no significant DFS differences by BMI categories. After controlling for confounders, normal weight patients, when compared with overweight and obese patients, had adjusted hazard ratios of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.49 to 1.49) and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.52 to 1.55), respectively. Overall, mean weight loss of 2% of body weight was noted over the course of adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients who were postmenopausal (P = .007) and obese (P = .05) lost more weight than other groups. However, chemotherapy-related weight changes did not have an impact on DFS. CONCLUSION: Baseline BMI and weight changes during adjuvant chemotherapy did not have an impact on DFS in this cohort. Future prospective studies in similar Caribbean breast cancer cohorts are needed to verify study findings.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation against routine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing led to a decrease in prostate cancer screening, but the heterogeneity of its impact by race/ethnicity remains unclear. METHODS: The proportion of 40-74 year-old men who self-reported receiving a routine PSA test in the past year was estimated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS; 2012-2018). Odds ratios (ORs) of undergoing screening by race/ethnicity were estimated, adjusting for healthcare-related factors. Prostate cancer incidence rates and rate ratios (IRRs) by race/ethnicity were estimated using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry data (2004-2017). RESULTS: PSA testing frequencies were 32.3% (95% CI = 31.7 to 32.8%) among non-Hispanic White (NHW), 30.3% (95% CI = 28.3 to 32.3%) among non-Hispanic Black (NHB), 21.8% (95% CI = 19.9 to 23.7%) among Hispanic, and 17.7% (95% CI = 14.1 to 21.3%) among Asian/Pacific Islander men in 2012. The absolute screening frequency declined by 9.5% from 2012 to 2018, with a larger decline among NHB (11.6%) than NHW men (9.3%). The relative annual decrease was greater among NHB (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.84 to 0.88) than NHW men (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.89 to 0.90; Pheterogeneity =0.005), driven by a larger decline among NHB men ages 40-54 y. The NHB: NHW IRR for total prostate cancer increased from 1.73 (95% CI = 1.69 to 1.76) in 2011 to 1.87 (95% CI = 1.83 to 1.92) in 2012 and has remained elevated, driven by differences in localized tumor incidence. Metastatic disease incidence is rising across all racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of prostate cancer screening varies by race/ethnicity, and there was a modestly steeper decline in PSA testing among younger NHB men relative to NHW men since 2012. The NHB: NHW IRR for localized prostate cancer modestly increased following 2012.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232371

RESUMO

As the genomic profile across cancers varies from person to person, patient prognosis and treatment may differ based on the mutational signature of each tumour. Thus, it is critical to understand genomic drivers of cancer and identify potential mutational commonalities across tumors originating at diverse anatomical sites. Large-scale cancer genomics initiatives, such as TCGA, ICGC and GENIE have enabled the analysis of thousands of tumour genomes. Our goal was to identify new cancer-causing mutations that may be common across tumour sites using mutational and gene expression profiles. Genomic and transcriptomic data from breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers were aggregated and analysed using differential gene expression methods to identify the effect of specific mutations on the expression of multiple genes. Mutated genes associated with the most differentially expressed genes were considered to be novel candidates for driver mutations, and were validated through literature mining, pathway analysis and clinical data investigation. Our driver selection method successfully identified 116 probable novel cancer-causing genes, with 4 discovered in patients having no alterations in any known driver genes: MXRA5, OBSCN, RYR1, and TG. The candidate genes previously not officially classified as cancer-causing showed enrichment in cancer pathways and in cancer diseases. They also matched expectations pertaining to properties of cancer genes, for instance, showing larger gene and protein lengths, and having mutation patterns suggesting oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties. Our approach allows for the identification of novel putative driver genes that are common across cancer sites using an unbiased approach without any a priori knowledge on pathways or gene interactions and is therefore an agnostic approach to the identification of putative common driver genes acting at multiple cancer sites.

6.
Prostate ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In prostate cancer (PCa), lack of androgen receptor (AR) regulated TMPRSS2-ETS-related gene (ERG) gene fusion (ERGnegative ) status has been associated with African American race; however, the implications of ERG status for the location of dominant tumors within the prostate remains understudied. METHODS: An African American-enriched multiinstitutional cohort of 726 PCa patients consisting of both African American men (AAM; n = 254) and European American men (EAM; n = 472) was used in the analyses. Methods of categorical analysis were used. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression differences between anterior and posterior tumor lesions were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests with multiple comparison corrections. RESULTS: Anti-ERG immunohistochemistry staining showed that the association between ERG status and anterior tumors is independent of race and is consistently robust for both AAM (ERGnegative 81.4% vs. ERGpositive 18.6%; p = .005) and EAM (ERGnegative 60.4% vs. ERGpositive 39.6%; p < .001). In a multivariable model, anterior tumors were more likely to be IHC-ERGnegative (odds ratio [OR]: 3.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.14-4.78; p < .001). IHC-ERGnegative were also more likely to have high-grade tumors (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.06-2.82; p = .02). In the exploratory genomic analysis, mRNA expression of location-dependent genes is highly influenced by ERG status and African American race. However, tumor location did not impact the expression of AR or the major canonical AR-target genes (KLK3, AMACR, and MYC). CONCLUSIONS: ERGnegative tumor status is the strongest predictor of anterior prostate tumors, regardless of race. Furthermore, AR expression and canonical AR signaling do not impact tumor location.

7.
Environ Res ; : 110397, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130166

RESUMO

Population growth, demographic transitions and urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) will increase non-communicable disease (NCD) burden. We studied the association between neighborhood greenness and NCDs in a multi-country cross-sectional study. Among 1178 participants, in adjusted models, a 0.11 unit NDVI increase was associated with lower BMI (ß: -1.01, 95% CI: -1.35, -0.67), and lower odds of overweight/obesity (aOR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.85), diabetes (aOR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.96), and having ≥3 allostatic load components compared to none (aOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.85). Except for diabetes, these remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. We observed no association between NDVI and hypertension or cholesterol. Our findings are consistent with health benefits of neighborhood greenness reported in other countries, suggesting greening strategies could be considered as part of broader public health interventions for NCDs.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087394

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Decisions regarding the geographical placement of healthcare services require consideration of trade-offs between equity and efficiency, but few empirical assessments are available. We applied a novel geospatial framework to study these trade-offs in four African countries. METHODS: Geolocation data on population density (a surrogate for efficiency), health centres and cancer referral centres in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Rwanda were obtained from online databases. Travel time to the closest facility (a surrogate for equity) was estimated with 1 km resolution using the Access Mod 5 least cost distance algorithm. We studied associations between district-level average population density and travel time to closest facility for each country using Pearson's correlation, and spatial autocorrelation using the Global Moran's I statistic. Geographical clusters of districts with inefficient resource allocation were identified using the bivariate local indicator of spatial autocorrelation. RESULTS: Population density was inversely associated with travel time for all countries and levels of the health system (Pearson's correlation range, health centres: -0.89 to -0.71; cancer referral centres: -0.92 to -0.43), favouring efficiency. For health centres, negative spatial autocorrelation (geographical clustering of dissimilar values of population density and travel time) was weaker in Rwanda (-0.310) and Tanzania (-0.292), countries with explicit policies supporting equitable access to rural healthcare, relative to Kenya (-0.579) and Malawi (-0.543). Stronger spatial autocorrelation was observed for cancer referral centres (Rwanda: -0.341; Tanzania: -0.259; Kenya: -0.595; Malawi: -0.666). Significant geographical clusters of sparsely populated districts with long travel times to care were identified across countries. CONCLUSION: Negative spatial correlations suggested that the geographical distribution of health services favoured efficiency over equity, but spatial autocorrelation measures revealed more equitable geographical distribution of facilities in certain countries. These findings suggest that even when prioritising efficiency, thoughtful decisions regarding geographical allocation could increase equitable physical access to services.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037017

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of immune-oncologic mechanisms of racial disparities in prostate cancer remains understudied. Limited research exists to evaluate the molecular underpinnings of immune differences in African American men (AAM) and European American men (EAM) prostate tumor microenvironment (TME). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 1,173 radiation-naïve radical prostatectomy samples with whole transcriptome data from the Decipher GRID registry were used. Transcriptomic expressions of 1,260 immune-specific genes were selected to assess immune-oncologic differences between AAM and EAM prostate tumors. Race-specific differential expression of genes was assessed using a rank test, and intergene correlational matrix and gene set enrichment was used for pathway analysis. RESULTS: AAM prostate tumors have significant enrichment of major immune-oncologic pathways, including proinflammatory cytokines, IFNα, IFNγ, TNFα signaling, ILs, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. AAM TME has higher total immune content score (ICSHIGH) compared with 0 (37.8% vs. 21.9%, P = 0.003). AAM tumors also have lower DNA damage repair and are genomically radiosensitive as compared with EAM. IFITM3 (IFN-inducible transmembrane protein 3) was one of the major proinflammatory genes overexpressed in AAM that predicted increased risk of biochemical recurrence selectively for AAM in both discovery [HRAAM = 2.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-4.34; P = 0.01] and validation (HRAAM = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.52-3.86; P = 0.0001) but not in EAM. CONCLUSIONS: Prostate tumors of AAM manifest a unique immune repertoire and have significant enrichment of proinflammatory immune pathways that are associated with poorer outcomes. Observed immune-oncologic differences can aid in a genomically adaptive approach to treating prostate cancer in AAM.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 1870-1875, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004408

RESUMO

The 2010 report of the President's Cancer Panel concluded that the burden of cancer from chemical exposures is substantial, while the programs for testing and regulation of carcinogens remain inadequate. New research on the role of early life exposures and the ability of chemicals to act via multiple biological pathways, including immunosuppression, inflammation, and endocrine disruption as well as mutagenesis, further supports the potential for chemicals and chemical mixtures to influence disease. Epidemiologic observations, such as higher leukemia incidence in children living near roadways and industrial sources of air pollution, and new in vitro technologies that decode carcinogenesis at the molecular level, illustrate the diverse evidence that primary prevention of some cancers may be achieved by reducing harmful chemical exposures. The path forward requires cross-disciplinary approaches, increased environmental research investment, system-wide collaboration to develop safer economic alternatives, and community engagement to support evidence-informed action. Engagement by cancer researchers to integrate environmental risk factors into prevention initiatives holds tremendous promise for reducing the rates of disease.See all articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Environmental Carcinogenesis: Pathways to Prevention."

13.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(4): pkaa029, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676552

RESUMO

Background: Use of risk-reducing Salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) substantially reduces the risk of ovarian and breast cancer for women who carry a BRCA1/2 mutation. It is important to adjust for RRSO use in the estimation of BRCA1/2 penetrance of breast and ovarian cancer. Methods: We searched PubMed for penetrance estimates of breast and ovarian cancer from studies that genotyped individual patients and explicitly adjusted for RRSO use by censoring follow-up at the age of RRSO. We meta-analyzed penetrance estimates from 7 identified studies. We implemented the resulting penetrance estimates in a Mendelian risk prediction model as iplemented in the software package BRCAPRO, which we applied to estimate carrier probabilities in 2 BRCA cohorts. Results: Penetrance estimates by age 70 years for breast cancer were 64.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 59.5% to 69.4%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 61.0% (95% CI = 48.1% to 72.5%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers, and for ovarian cancer they were 48.3% (95% CI = 38.8% to 57.9%) and 20.0% (95% CI = 13.3% to 29.0%), respectively. When integrated into BRCAPRO, our estimates led to good calibration and different estimates of carrier probabilities for some individuals when evaluating the models in 2 cohorts. Conclusions: The report updates penetrance estimates for BRCA1/2-associated cancer. We report higher estimates than previously reported, which did not adjust for RRSO. Differential use of RRSO may partially explain heterogeneity in the currently available penetrance estimates. For some individuals, using our estimates in BRCAPRO may result in changes in estimated carrier probabilities, which warrants validation in future studies.

14.
Environ Epidemiol ; 4(2): e091, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656487

RESUMO

Background: Growing evidence suggests that neighborhood contextual environment could influence risk factors and, therefore, incidence of lethal prostate cancer. We studied the association between neighborhood greenness and lethal prostate cancer incidence and assessed mediation by vigorous physical activity. Methods: A total of 47,958 participants were followed in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1986 to 2014. Neighborhood greenness exposure was estimated using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with 1 km resolution, assigned to home or work addresses at start of follow-up. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using sequentially adjusted Cox models with individual and contextual prostate cancer risk factors as covariates. Analyses were compared among those whose addresses were constant over follow-up and stratified by population density and address type. Results: We observed 898 cases over 1,054,743 person-years. An interquartile range increase in NDVI was associated with 5% lower rate of lethal prostate cancer (aHR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.88, 1.03), with stronger associations in nonmovers (aHR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85, 1.01). Inverse associations were observed among men in high (aHR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.82, 0.99) but not low (aHR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.95, 1.29, P het = 0.086) population density areas, and those reporting from work (aHR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.75, 1.01) but not home (aHR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91, 1.17, P het = 0.10) addresses. There was no evidence of mediation by vigorous physical activity. Conclusion: We report inverse associations between neighborhood greenness and lethal prostate cancer when restricting to nonmovers and in high population density areas. Replication could confirm findings and clarify mechanisms.

15.
Cancer Res ; 80(13): 2956-2966, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393663

RESUMO

Although prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for African men, the vast majority of known disease associations have been detected in European study cohorts. Furthermore, most genome-wide association studies have used genotyping arrays that are hindered by SNP ascertainment bias. To overcome these disparities in genomic medicine, the Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Network has developed a genotyping array that is optimized for African populations. The MADCaP Array contains more than 1.5 million markers and an imputation backbone that successfully tags over 94% of common genetic variants in African populations. This array also has a high density of markers in genomic regions associated with cancer susceptibility, including 8q24. We assessed the effectiveness of the MADCaP Array by genotyping 399 prostate cancer cases and 403 controls from seven urban study sites in sub-Saharan Africa. Samples from Ghana and Nigeria clustered together, whereas samples from Senegal and South Africa yielded distinct ancestry clusters. Using the MADCaP array, we identified cancer-associated loci that have large allele frequency differences across African populations. Polygenic risk scores for prostate cancer were higher in Nigeria than in Senegal. In summary, individual and population-level differences in prostate cancer risk were revealed using a novel genotyping array. SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents an Africa-specific genotyping array, which enables investigators to identify novel disease associations and to fine-map genetic loci that are associated with prostate and other cancers.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Loci Gênicos , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias da Próstata/classificação , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
16.
Environ Epidemiol ; 4(2): e087, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337472

RESUMO

Background: Black men with prostate cancer (CaP) experience excess mortality compared with White men. Residential greenness, a health promoting contextual factor, could explain racial disparities in mortality among men with CaP. Methods: We identified Pennsylvania Cancer Registry cases diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2015. Totally, 128,568 participants were followed until death or 1 January 2018, whichever occurred first. Residential exposure at diagnosis was characterized using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with 250 m resolution. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox models, adjusting for area-level socioeconomic status, geographic healthcare access, and segregation. To determine whether increasing residential greenness could reduce racial disparities, we compared standardized 10-year mortality Black-White risk differences under a hypothetical intervention fixing NDVI to the 75th percentile of NDVI experienced by White men. Results: We observed 29,978 deaths over 916,590 person-years. Comparing men in the highest to lowest NDVI quintile, all-cause (adjusted HR [aHR]: 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84, 0.92, P trend < 0.0001), prostate-specific (aHR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.99, P trend= 0.0021), and cardiovascular-specific (aHR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.90, P trend < 0.0001) mortality were lower. Inverse associations between an interquartile range increase in NDVI and cardiovascular-specific mortality were observed in White (aHR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.93) but not Black men (aHR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.06; P het = 0.067). Hypothetical interventions to increase NDVI led to nonsignificant reductions in all-cause (-5.3%) and prostate-specific (-23.2%), but not cardiovascular-specific mortality disparities (+50.5%). Discussion: Residential greenness was associated with lower mortality among men with CaP, but findings suggest that increasing residential greenness would have limited impact on racial disparities in mortality.

17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(8): 1915-1923, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Between 30%-40% of patients with prostate cancer experience disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Existing clinical models for recurrence risk prediction do not account for population-based variation in the tumor phenotype, despite recent evidence suggesting the presence of a unique, more aggressive prostate cancer phenotype in African American (AA) patients. We investigated the capacity of digitally measured, population-specific phenotypes of the intratumoral stroma to create improved models for prediction of recurrence following radical prostatectomy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This study included 334 radical prostatectomy patients subdivided into training (VT, n = 127), validation 1 (V1, n = 62), and validation 2 (V2, n = 145). Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides from resected prostates were digitized, and 242 quantitative descriptors of the intratumoral stroma were calculated using a computational algorithm. Machine learning and elastic net Cox regression models were constructed using VT to predict biochemical recurrence-free survival based on these features. Performance of these models was assessed using V1 and V2, both overall and in population-specific cohorts. RESULTS: An AA-specific, automated stromal signature, AAstro, was prognostic of recurrence risk in both independent validation datasets [V1,AA: AUC = 0.87, HR = 4.71 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-13.4), P = 0.003; V2,AA: AUC = 0.77, HR = 5.7 (95% CI, 1.48-21.90), P = 0.01]. AAstro outperformed clinical standard Kattan and CAPRA-S nomograms, and the underlying stromal descriptors were strongly associated with IHC measurements of specific tumor biomarker expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that considering population-specific information and stromal morphology has the potential to substantially improve accuracy of prognosis and risk stratification in AA patients with prostate cancer.

18.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(2): 19, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066732

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a fatal plasma cell dyscrasia with a median overall survival of 5 to 10 years. MM progresses from the more common but often subclinical precursor states of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) to overt MM. There are large racial disparities in all stages of the disease. Compared with Whites, Blacks have an increased MGUS and MM risk and higher mortality rate, and have not experienced the same survival gains over time. The roots of this disparity are likely multifactorial in nature. Comparisons of Black and White MGUS and MM patients suggest that differences in risk factors, biology, and clinical characteristics exist by race or ancestry, which may explain some of the observed disparity in MM. However, poor accrual of Black MGUS and MM patients in clinical and epidemiological studies has limited our understanding of this disparity and hindered its elimination. Disparities in MM survival also exist but appear to stem from inferior treatment utilization and access rather than underlying pathogenesis. Innovative and multidisciplinary approaches are urgently needed to enhance our understanding of disparities that exist at each stage of the MM disease continuum and facilitate their elimination.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mieloma Múltiplo/etnologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Humanos
19.
Cancer Med ; 9(7): 2379-2389, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical studies suggest that metformin and statins may delay prostate cancer (PCa) metastases; however, data in humans are limited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first human study aimed to quantify the individual and joint effects of statin and metformin use among patients with high-risk PCa. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study identified patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Exposure to metformin and statins was ascertained from Medicare Prescription Drug Event files. The association with all-cause and PCa mortality were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard model with competing causes of death, where propensity scores were used to adjusted imbalances in covariates across groups. RESULTS: Based on 12 700 patients with high-risk PCa, statin alone or in combination with metformin was significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 0.89; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.83, 0.96; and HR: 0.75; 95% CI, 0.67-0.83, respectively) and PCa mortality (HR, 0.80; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.92) and 0.64; 95% CI, d 0.51-0.81, respectively. The effects were more pronounced in post-diagnostic users: combination use of metformin/statins was associated with a 32% reduction in all-cause mortality (95% CI, 0.57-0.80), and 54% reduction in PCa mortality (95% CI, 0.30-0.69). No significant association of metformin alone was observed with either all-cause mortality or PCa mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Statin use alone or in combination with metformin was associated with lower all-cause and PCa mortality among high-risk patients, particularly in post-diagnostic settings; further studies are warranted.

20.
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