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1.
Immunotherapy ; 13(17): 1379-1386, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743545

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that immune-related adverse events (irAEs), occurring even after the discontinuation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), may be associated with favorable disease outcomes, particularly in patients with melanoma and lung cancer. However, a few clinical cases have been described on the correlation between irAEs and ICIs efficacy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. This study reports the clinical case of a metastatic RCC patient who has experienced severe immune-related renal toxicity after 19 months of nivolumab use. Despite immunotherapy discontinuation, the patient has maintained clinical benefit and disease progression-free for 3 years. We examined the correlation between the occurrence and the severity of irAEs, treatment discontinuation and clinical benefits. The evidence on ICI retreatment following ICI discontinuation due to irAEs was also reviewed.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771680

RESUMO

In recent years, the treatment landscape of urothelial carcinoma has significantly changed due to the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which are the standard of care for second-line treatment and first-line platinum-ineligible patients with advanced disease. Despite the overall survival improvement, only a minority of patients benefit from this immunotherapy. Therefore, there is an unmet need to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers or models to select patients who will benefit from ICIs, especially in view of novel therapeutic agents. This review describes the prognostic and predictive role, and clinical readiness, of clinical and tumour factors, including new molecular classes, tumour mutational burden, mutational signatures, circulating tumour DNA, programmed death-ligand 1, inflammatory indices and clinical characteristics for patients with urothelial cancer treated with ICIs. A classification of these factors according to the levels of evidence and grades of recommendation currently indicates both a prognostic and predictive value for ctDNA and a prognostic relevance only for concomitant medications and patients' characteristics.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To combine peripheral blood indices and clinical factors in a prognostic score for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with radium-223 dichloride ([223Ra]RaCl2). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (donor), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), Gleason score (GS) group, number of bone metastases, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), line of therapy, previous chemotherapy, and the presence of lymphadenopathies were collected from seven Italian centers between 2013 and 2020. Lab and clinical data were assessed in correlation with the overall survival (OS). Inflammatory indices were then included separately in the multivariable analyses with the prognostic clinical factors. The model with the highest discriminative ability (c-index) was chosen to develop the BIO-Ra score. RESULTS: Five hundred and nineteen mCRPC patients (median OS: 19.9 months) were enrolled. Higher NLR, dNLR, PLR, and SII and lower LMR predicted worse OS (all with a p < 0.001). The multivariable model including NLR, ECOG PS, number of bone metastases, ALP, and PSA (c-index: 0.724) was chosen to develop the BIO-Ra score. Using the Schneeweiss scoring system, the BIO-Ra score identified three prognostic groups (36%, 27.3%, and 36.6% patients, respectively) with distinct median OS (31, 26.6, and 9.6 months, respectively; hazard ratio: 1.62, p = 0.008 for group 2 vs. 1 and 5.77, p < 0.001 for group 3 vs. 1). CONCLUSIONS: The BIO-Ra score represents an easy and widely applicable tool for the prognostic stratification of mCRPC patients treated with [223Ra]RaCl2 with no additional costs.

4.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261919

RESUMO

Advanced non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC) has a poor prognosis and clinical data on the therapeutic options currently available, including immunotherapy, are generally limited highlighting an unmet clinical need. Moreover, the onset of rare adverse events raises the need of a better therapeutic management of limited treatment options. We report the clinical case of a 63-year-old man with the diagnosis of metastatic mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, a rare nccRCC, with sarcomatoid differentiation who developed two episodes of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) to first-line sunitinib. It appeared after 5 months the start of the targeted therapy and reappeared at the reintroduction of the therapy. PRES is a rare and unusual adverse event to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) therapies, which is characterized by acute neurological disorders along with typical changes on neurological imaging, especially MRI. Moreover, this rare histotype of RCC experienced a long-term response to immunotherapy which is lasting more than 2 years. This clinical case is interesting for its rarity as a rare neurological adverse event developed twice in a rare type of RCC which also experienced an unusual long-term benefit to immunotherapy.

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 658327, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211840

RESUMO

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a very rare subtype of sarcoma, which frequently harbor chromosomal rearrangements, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements (almost 50% of the IMTs) and other kinase fusions such as ROS1. ROS1 fusions are present in about 10% of IMT, almost half of the ALK-negative IMT patients. Apart from radical surgery for resectable tumors, there is no standard-of-care therapy for advanced IMTs. Nonetheless, the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has shown promising efficacy in IMT patients with targetable genomic alterations. We report the case of a 24-year-old patient with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic IMT harboring ROS1 kinase fusion, who experienced a significant clinical and pathological response to crizotinib. This clinical case highlights the need to assess all patients with unresectable IMTs for chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutations and address them to targeted agents as well as clinical trials.

6.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211019642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046089

RESUMO

Background: Despite the survival advantage, not all metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients achieve a long-term benefit from immunotherapy. Moreover, the identification of prognostic biomarkers is still an unmet clinical need. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study investigated the prognostic role of peripheral-blood inflammatory indices and clinical factors to develop a novel prognostic score in mRCC patients receiving at least second-line nivolumab. The complete blood count before the first cycle of therapy was assessed by calculating neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI). Clinical factors included pre-treatment International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) score, line of therapy, and metastatic sites. Results: From October 2015 to November 2019, 571 mRCC patients received nivolumab as second- and further-line treatment in 69% and 31% of cases. In univariable and multivariable analyses all inflammatory indices, IMDC score, and bone metastases significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). The multivariable model with NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had the highest c-index (0.697) and was chosen for the developing of the score (Schneeweiss scoring system). After internal validation (bootstrap re-sampling), the final index (Meet-URO score) composed by NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had a c-index of 0.691. It identified five categories with distinctive OSs: group 1 (median OS - mOS = not reached), group 2 (mOS = 43.9 months), group 3 (mOS = 22.4 months), group 4 (mOS = 10.3 months), and group 5 (mOS = 3.2 months). Moreover, the Meet-URO score allowed for a fine risk-stratification across all three IMDC groups. Conclusion: The Meet-URO score allowed for the accurate stratification of pretreated mRCC patients receiving nivolumab and is easily applicable for clinical practice at no additional cost. Future steps include its external validation, the assessment of its predictivity, and its application to first-line combinations.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803958

RESUMO

First-line immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based therapy has deeply changed the treatment landscape and prognosis in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients with no targetable alterations. Nonetheless, a percentage of patients progressed on ICI as monotherapy or combinations. Open questions remain on patients' selection, the identification of biomarkers of primary resistance to immunotherapy and the treatment strategies to overcome secondary resistance to first-line immunotherapy. Local ablative approaches are the main therapeutic strategies in oligoprogressive disease, and their role is emerging in patients treated with immunotherapy. Many therapeutic strategies can be adapted in aNSCLC patients with systemic progression to personalize the treatment approach according to re-characterization of the tumors, previous ICI response, and type of progression. This review's aim is to highlight and discuss the current and potential therapeutic approaches beyond first-line ICI-based therapy in aNSCLC patients based on the pattern of disease progression (oligoprogression versus systemic progression).

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807876

RESUMO

In the scenario of systemic treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, one of the most relevant breakthroughs is represented by targeted therapies. Throughout the last years, inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), c-Ros oncogene 1 (ROS1), and V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) have been approved and are currently used in clinical practice. However, other promising molecular drivers are rapidly emerging as therapeutic targets. This review aims to cover the molecular alterations with a potential clinical impact in NSCLC, including amplifications or mutations of the mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET), fusions of rearranged during transfection (RET), rearrangements of the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase (NTRK) genes, mutations of the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), as well as amplifications or mutations of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Additionally, we summarized the current status of targeted agents under investigation for such alterations. This revision of the current literature on emerging molecular targets is needed as the evolving knowledge on novel actionable oncogenic drivers and targeted agents is expected to increase the proportion of patients who will benefit from tailored therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo
9.
Immunotherapy ; 13(8): 645-652, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823647

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved the treatment landscape of different tumors and one of the emerging issues is the reintroduction of immunotherapy after discontinuation. Scarce evidence is currently available and different definitions have been used. The case of a patient with pretreated advanced urothelial cancer, who responded to immunotherapy retreatment after long-term benefit from the previous course, is reported. Based on a review of the different clinical scenarios, a definition of immunotherapy retreatment was proposed, as rechallenge or reintroduction, based on the reasons of discontinuation of the previous course. Clinical factors potentially associated with clinical benefit from immunotherapy retreatment are discussed, even though ad hoc studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of the different immunotherapy retreatment strategies.

10.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800158

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) of prostate cancer represents an acknowledged predictor of resistant and more aggressive disease. NED can be functionally exploited in vivo using PET/CT imaging with somatostatin analogs radiolabeled with 68Ga. Many previous reports have shown that 18F-FDG PET/CT should also be used in cases such as guiding management, as NED is systematically associated with increased glycolysis. We hereby discuss the case of a metastatic prostate cancer patient in which 68Ga-Dotatoc PET/CT revealed the occurrence of NED with low FDG-avidity.

11.
J Clin Pathol ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144356

RESUMO

AIMS: According to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), around 9% of bladder carcinomas usually show abnormalities of the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) gene, but a few studies have been investigated them. We profiled MDM2 gene amplification in a series of urothelial carcinomas (UC) considering the molecular subtypes and expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). METHODS: 117 patients with muscle-invasive UC (pT2-3) without (N0) or with (N+) lymph-node metastases were revised. Only cases with availability of in toto specimens and follow-up were studied. Tissue microarray was built. p53, ER, RB1, GATA-3, CK20, CK5/6, CD44 and PD-L1 (clone sp263) immunoexpression was evaluated. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation was assessed by using the HER-2/neu, FGFR-3, CDKN2A and MDM2 probes. True (ratio 12q/CEP12 >2) MDM2 gene amplification was distinguished from polyploidy/gains (ratio <2, absolute copy number of MDM-2 >2). MDM2 and PD-L1 values were correlated to the TCGA molecular phenotypes. Statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: 6/50 (12%) cases (5 N0 and 1 N+) were amplified for MDM2 without matching to molecular phenotypes. Of 50, 14 (37%) cases expressed PD-L1 at 1% cut-off; 3/50 (9%) at >50% cut-off; of these, 2 cases on side of neoplasia among inflammatory cells. Only one out of six (17%) cases amplified for MDM2 showed expression (>50% cut-off) of PD-L1. MDM2 amplification was independent to all documented profiles (k test=0.3) and was prevalent in recurrent UC. CONCLUSION: MDM2 amplification has been seen in both PD-L1 positive and negative muscle-invasive bladder UC independently from the TCGA molecular phenotypes. MDM2 and PD-L1 might be assessed in order to predict a better response to combo/single targeted therapies.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142739

RESUMO

Over the last years has emerged the urgent need for the identification of reliable prognostic biomarkers able to potentially identify metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients most likely to benefit from Radium-223 (Ra-223) since baseline. In the present monocentric retrospective study, we analyzed the prognostic power of systemic inflammation biomarkers and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET)-derived parameters and their potential interplay in this clinical setting. The following baseline laboratory parameters were collected in 59 mCRPC patients treated with Ra-223: neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic inflammation index (SII), while maximum Standardized Uptake Value, Metabolic Tumor Volume (MTV), and Total Lesion Glycolysis (TLG) were calculated in the 48 of them submitted to baseline FDG-PET. At the univariate analysis, NLR, dNLR, MTV, and TLG were able to predict the overall survival (OS). However, only NLR and MTV were independent predictors of OS at the multivariate analysis. Additionally, the occurrence of both increased NLR and MTV at baseline identified mCRPC patients at higher risk for lower long-term survival after treatment with Ra-223. In conclusion, the degree of systemic inflammation, the quantification of the metabolically active tumor burden and their combination might represent potentially valuable tools for identifying mCRPC patients who are most likely to benefit from Ra-223. However, further studies are needed to reproduce these findings in larger settings.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927771

RESUMO

In stage II colon cancer management, surgery alone has shown a high cure rate (about 80%), and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy is still a matter of debate. Patients with high-risk features (T4, insufficient nodal sampling, grading, etc.) have a poorer prognosis and, usually, adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended. The purpose of the present study is to highlight and discuss what is still unclear and not completely defined from the previous trials regarding risk stratification and therapeutic benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. With all the limitations of generalizing, we make the effort of trying to quantify the relative contribution of each prognostic factor and the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer. Finally, we propose a decision algorithm with the aim of summarizing the current evidence and translating it to clinical practice.

14.
Immunotherapy ; 12(15): 1139-1148, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933369

RESUMO

Aim: Evaluating the incidence and course of COVID-19 in cancer patients treated with immunotherapy. Patients & methods: We reported the influenza-like illness events with diagnosis of COVID-19 within the patient cohort enrolled in the prospective observational multicenter INVIDIa-2 study in the single center of Parma. Results: Among 53 patients, eight experienced influenza-like illness during the influenza season 2019/2020, and three of them had diagnosis of COVID-19. They were males, elderly, with cardiovascular disease. Radiological features of COVID-19 pneumonitis were found in all of three cases, although the pharyngeal swab resulted positive in only two. Two of these three patients died due to respiratory failure. Conclusion: Cancer patients are at high risk of severe events from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Faringe/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Immunotherapy ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723023

RESUMO

Background: The abscopal effect consists of distant metastases response after local treatment based on systemic immune stimulation. It is a rare event observed in many tumors, especially with radiotherapy and immunotherapy. Clinical case: We report the long-term abscopal effect in a metastatic renal cell carcinoma patient with lung metastasectomy, after hypofractionated radiotherapy on lymph node metastasis. The patient was pretreated with pazopanib, which was discontinued early owing to toxicity before radiotherapy. Methodology: Immunohistological analyses of the primary tumor and metastases were performed. Discussion: We supposed that radiotherapy, and maybe tyrosine kinase inhibitors, could act as immune-primers for abscopal effect modifying the immune tumor microenvironment. Conclusion: Future studies are needed to optimize the combination of radiotherapy with systemic therapy for better long-term tumor control in selected patients.

16.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 21(4): 365-377.e5, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Second-line immunotherapy (IO) has shown an overall survival benefit. However, only 18% to 20% of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) will respond, with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 2 to 4 months. Thus, biomarkers to select those patients most likely to benefit from IO are greatly needed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 154 patients with aNSCLC who had received anti-programmed cell death 1 therapy as second line or further treatment. We assessed the absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts at baseline (T0) and the second (T1) and third (T2) cycles. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived-NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR), and their percentage of change at T1 and T2 compared with T0 were evaluated. The clinical characteristics and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level were also considered. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Significant biomarkers for PFS on multivariate analysis were combined in a prognostic score. RESULTS: For overall survival, the negative prognostic biomarkers were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) 2, NLR at T0, and dNLR at T1; the LMR at T0, T1, and T2 was identified as a positive prognostic biomarker. For PFS, the negative prognostic biomarkers were ECOG PS 2, liver metastases, NLR at T0, dNLR at T1 and T2, and ≥ 30% increase of NLR from T0 to T1; the positive prognostic biomarkers were heavy smoking, LDH, and LMR at T2. The ≥ 30% increase of LMR from T0 to T1 and T0 to T2 correlated with the overall response rate. A prognostic score (EPSILoN score; smoking, ECOG PS, liver metastases, LDH, NLR) identified 3 prognostic groups (median PFS, 10.2, 4.9, and 1.7 months, respectively; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The EPSILoN score combines 5 baseline clinical and blood biomarkers and can help to identify patients with aNSCLC who will most likely benefit from second-line IO. Further studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Leucócitos/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Immunotherapy ; 12(2): 151-159, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089035

RESUMO

Aim: INVIDIa was a retrospective, multicenter study, exploring the clinical efficacy of influenza vaccine in 300 cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy. Overall survival (OS) was immature at the initial report. Methods: We reported the final OS analysis from the original study population and within subgroups. Results: Both at the univariate and multivariate analysis, the occurrence of influenza syndrome (IS) was significantly related to better OS in the overall population (OR: 0.53 [95% CI: 0.32-0.88]; p = 0.01). In the lung cancer subgroup, receiving flu vaccine and/or developing IS was related to better OS (p = 0.04). Within elderly patients, the flu vaccine was the main variable for the relative OS advantage (p = 0.05). Conclusion: Receiving the flu vaccine and/or developing IS was related to better OS within the INVIDIa population.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/complicações , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Itália , Masculino , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Síndrome
18.
Anticancer Drugs ; 31(1): 80-84, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567307

RESUMO

Tenosynovial giant cell tumour (TGCT) is a group of rare soft tissues neoplasia affecting synovial joints, bursae and tendon sheaths and is classified as localized type or diffuse type. The diffuse type (TGCT-D), also known as 'pigmented villonodular (teno)synovitis' is characterized by local aggressivity, with invasion and destruction of adjacent soft-tissue structures, and high local recurrence rate. Radical surgery remains the standard therapy while adjuvant radiotherapy may help to control local spread. Malignant TGCT is characterized by high rate of local recurrences and distant metastasis. Few cases of malignant TGCT and very few evidences on systemic therapies are described in the literature, so, to date, no systemic treatment is approved for this rare disease. We report the case of a malignant TGCT patient treated with many different systemic therapies, including chemotherapy and tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, and performed a review of the literature on the systemic treatment options of this rare tumour.


Assuntos
Tumor de Células Gigantes de Bainha Tendinosa/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Tumor de Células Gigantes de Bainha Tendinosa/radioterapia , Tumor de Células Gigantes de Bainha Tendinosa/cirurgia , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Indazóis , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Sarcoma , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
19.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 20(2): 169-185, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608727

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent years, the treatment landscape of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has been improved using immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Nevertheless, the number of patients experiencing clinical benefit from immunotherapy is still limited, while others obtain more benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). The identification of prognostic and predictive factors would be crucial to better select patients most likely to benefit from immunotherapy among the other potentially available therapeutic options.Areas covered: This systematic review summarizes the current knowledge (2010-2019) on molecular prognostic and predictive biomarkers, assessed in peripheral blood and/or from tumor tissue, in mRCC patients treated with ICI.Expert opinion: Among all the biomarkers analyzed, PD-L1 expression on tumor tissue is the most studied. It has an unfavorable prognostic role for patients treated with TKI, which seems to be overcome by ICI-based combinations. Nevertheless, no clear predictive role of immunotherapy efficacy has been observed for PD-L1 in mRCC. Emerging evidence regarding pro-angiogenic or pro-immunogenic genomic and transcriptomic signatures suggests a potential predictive role in patients treated with ICI-based combinations. The rationale for TKI-ICI combinations is based on tumor microenvironment and genomic background, which represent the target of these two main therapeutic options for mRCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/genética , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
20.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 146: 102820, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785991

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) improved clinical outcome compared to chemotherapy in EGFR mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Nonetheless, acquired resistance develops within 10-14 months and 20-30% of EGFR-mutated patients do not respond to EGFR-TKI. In order to delay or overcome acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs, combination therapies of EGFR-TKIs with chemotherapy has been investigated with conflicting results. Early studies failed to show a survival benefit because of a lack of patient selection, but more recently clinical studies in EGFR mutated patients have shown promising results. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies of combination of EGFR-TKIs, including the third-generation TKI osimertinib, with chemotherapy in first- and second-line settings, using concurrent or intercalated treatment strategies. In the new era of third-generation EGFR-TKIs, new studies of this combination strategy are warranted.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Resultado do Tratamento
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