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Front Vet Sci ; 5: 149, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30023360


Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that governs the reproductive axis upstream to GnRH. We wanted to study whether kisspeptin modulates plasma LH and FSH levels and ovarian follicular dynamics in buffaloes and whether kisspeptin can be used for fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI). We carried out these studies in comparison with buserelin, a potent GnRH agonist. Kisspeptin dose-dependently increased plasma LH levels. However, the kisspeptin-induced increase in LH was short-lived as the peak reached in 15-30 min returned to basal values by 1-2 h. The kisspeptin-induced increase in LH level was less compared to buserelin-induced increase in LH level which sustained over time. Kisspeptin did not enhance FSH release while buserelin resulted in a gradual increase over time. LH response to repeated injections of kisspeptin was greater than that induced by buserelin. While buserelin induced an increase in the number of follicles, kisspeptin induced an increase in the growth rate of the follicle. In adult cycling animals, while both the drugs increased plasma LH levels, the increase was greater in buserelin group compared to kisspeptin group. In contrast to the findings in pre-pubertal animals, kisspeptin induced an increase in both the number as well as the size of follicles compared to buserelin. Our studies on oestrus synchronization, using either kisspeptin-PGF2α-kisspeptin protocol or buserelin-PGF2α-buserelin Ovsynch protocol on day 0, 7, and 9, respectively, revealed that kisspeptin increased the number of follicles at wave emergence and the diameter of dominant follicle after 2nd dose of drug, the oestrus response rate and duration of oestrus, compared to buserelin. However, conception rate was not significantly different among the groups. From our studies, it appears that Kp and Buserelin differentially modulate follicular dynamics depending on the reproductive age of the animals.However, studies in a larger herd are required to confirm whether kisspeptin can be used for oestrous synchronization in buffaloes.

J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 2(3): 260-70, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25755442


Tuberculosis remains one of the 'Captains of the Men of Death' even today, particularly in the developing world. Its frequency is increased 14-fold in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) and liver cirrhosis, more so in those with decompensated disease, probably due to the cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, and case-fatality rates are high. The diagnosis of tuberculosis, particularly the interpretation of the Mantoux test, is also fraught with difficulties in CLD, especially after previous BCG vaccination. However, the greatest challenge in the patient with CLD or liver cirrhosis and tuberculosis is managing their therapy since the best first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs are hepatotoxic and baseline liver function is often deranged. Frequency of hepatotoxicity is increased in those with liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C, possibly related to increased viral loads and may be decreased following antiviral therapy. If hepatotoxicity develops in those with liver cirrhosis, particularly decompensated cirrhosis, the risk of severe liver failure is markedly increased. Currently, there are no established guidelines for anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) in CLD and liver cirrhosis although the need for such guidelines is self-evident. It is proposed that ATT should include no more than 2 hepatotoxic drugs (RIF and INH) in patients with CLD or liver cirrhosis and stable liver function [Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) ≤7], only a single hepatotoxic drug (RIF or INH) in those with advanced liver dysfunction (CTP 8-10) and no hepatotoxic drugs with very advanced liver dysfunction (CTP ≥11). A standard protocol should be followed for monitoring ATT-related hepatotoxicity and for stop rules and reintroduction rules in all these patients, on the lines proposed here. It is hoped that these proposals will introduce uniformity and result in streamlining the management of these difficult patients.

J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 1(1): 41-4, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25755310


Celiac disease affects the proximal small intestine and is caused by a local immune response to dietary gluten. Celiac disease usually presents with chronic diarrhea; however, presentations with elevated hepatic transaminase levels in blood or with iron-deficiency anemia have been described. Celiac disease has been reported to be associated with autoimmune liver diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can also initiate autoimmune disease process. Therefore, HCV infection and celiac disease may occur together. Here, we describe 4 cases of celiac disease associated with chronic hepatitis C. This small case series indicates that chronic HCV infection and celiac disease are not causally associated.

Skin Res Technol ; 15(2): 187-94, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19622129


BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Oral therapy with antihypertensive agents is generally associated with severe GI side effects and low patient compliance. Therefore, development of a method of drug delivery that maintains the proper drug level for a prolonged period without adverse effects is required. Thus, transdermal delivery has all the necessities that are required for delivery of classical antihypertensive agents. However, the different approaches to enhance the transport of atenolol through intact skin have not resulted in a remarkable improvement. METHODS: The effect of the drug concentration and a binary system (water-ethanol) on the atenolol flux was investigated. Further, the effects of chemical enhancers (menthol, oleic acid, polyethylene glycol 400, sodium lauryl sulphate, di methyl formamide and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) at different concentrations and their combined effects with iontophoresis were examined. RESULTS: Among the binary systems, the highest flux was obtained when 75% v/v ethanol in water was used. Atenolol flux enhanced significantly (P<0.001) at the 5% w/v concentration among all the enhancers studied. It was also observed that the combination of iontophoresis with oleic acid (5% w/v) showed the maximum benefit with a steady-state flux of 2.66 mumol/cm(2)/h. CONCLUSION: The combination of iontophoresis with permeation enhancers was found to be promising in delivering atenolol across the skin, and the highest permeation was attained when oleic acid was combined with iontophoresis. The in vitro flux value obtained (when oleic acid combined with iontophoresis) was 0.71 mg/cm(2)/h, which points to the fact that a therapeutically effective concentration can be attained with 1.2 cm(2) of skin contact area.

Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Atenolol/administração & dosagem , Iontoforese/métodos , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos da radiação , Pele/metabolismo , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Técnicas In Vitro , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Absorção Cutânea/fisiologia , Suínos
Heart Rhythm ; 3(7): 762-8, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16818202


BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are increasingly used for primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Defibrillators were introduced into clinical practice in 1980. Since that time, factors affecting long-term survival and the natural history of defibrillator patients have not been described. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify clinical predictors of long-term survival in patients receiving ICDs. METHODS: The prognostic value of several clinical variables on the likelihood of survival or appropriate ICD therapy in 1,382 consecutive patients receiving ICDs from 1980 to 2003 were evaluated. Data were collected at the time of device implantation, and follow-up was completed through March 2005. RESULTS: In 70 +/- 51 months of follow-up (range 0-282 months), 792 patients died and 421 patients received appropriate ICD therapy at least once. Age, left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, Charlson comorbidity index, and antiarrhythmic drug use correlated with mortality. beta-Blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use was associated with improved survival. Only NYHA functional class correlated with ICD therapy. Patients free of shocks for the first 5 years after ICD implantation had continued risk of arrhythmia recurrence. CONCLUSION: The heart failure characteristics of patients predicted ICD shock probability and survival better than the arrhythmia characteristics or the underlying heart disease. Antiarrhythmic drug use was associated with increased mortality. Beta-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use was associated with improved survival. A measurable arrhythmic risk even after prolonged shock-free intervals indicates the need for continued ICD therapy in all patients with appropriate ICD indications.

Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Taquicardia Ventricular/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taquicardia Ventricular/complicações , Taquicardia Ventricular/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento