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1.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 127: 102050, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540334

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious airborne disease with nearly 25% of the world's population infected with it. Challenges such as multi drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), extensive drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) and in rare cases totally drug resistant TB (TDR-TB) emphasizes the critical and urgent need in developing novel TB drugs. Moreover, the prolonged and multi drug treatment regime suffers a major drawback due to high toxicity and vulnerability in TB patients. This calls for intensified research efforts in identifying novel molecular scaffolds which can combat these issues with minimal side effects. In this pursuit, researchers have screened many bio-active molecules among which coumarin have been identified as promising candidates for TB drug discovery and development. Coumarins are naturally occurring compounds known for their low toxicity and varied biological activity. The biological spectrum of coumarin has intrigued medicinal researchers to investigate coumarin scaffolds for their relevance as anti-TB drugs. In this review we focus on the recent developments of coumarin and its critical aspects of structural design required to exhibit anti-tubercular (anti-TB) activity. The information provided will help medicinal chemists to design and identify newer molecular analogs for TB treatment and also broadens the scope of exploring future generation potent yet safer coumarin based anti-TB agents.

2.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; : e2000181, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945576

RESUMO

In our continuing efforts to develop therapeutically active coumarin-based compounds, a series of new C4-C4' biscoumarin-pyrimidine conjugates (1a-l) was synthesized via SN 2 reaction of substituted 4-bromomethyl coumarin with thymine. All compounds were characterized using spectroscopic techniques, that is, attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR), CHN elemental analysis, and 1 H and 13 C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). In addition, the structure of compound 1d (1,3-bis[(7-chloro-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)methyl]-5-methylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) was established through X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1a-l were screened for in vitro anticancer activity against C6 rat glioma cells. Among the screened compounds, 1,3-bis[(6-chloro-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)methyl]-5-methylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (1c) was identified as the best antiproliferative candidate, exhibiting an IC50 value of 4.85 µM. All the compounds (1a-l) were found to be nontoxic toward healthy human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), indicating their selective nature. In addition, the most active compound (1c) displayed strong binding interactions with the drug carrier protein, human serum albumin, and exhibited good solution stability at biological pH conditions. Fluorescence, UV-visible spectrophotometry and molecular modeling methodologies were employed for studying the interaction mechanism of compound 1c with protein.

3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 241: 118613, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610216

RESUMO

Two major health crisis of today's world are antimicrobial drug resistance and type II diabetes. To tackle them, there is an immediate requirement for the development of new and safer drugs and the present work is one such quest for novel and efficient drug candidates. We have developed three trace metal coordination compounds tethered with a reduced salen ligand {H2(hpdbal)2-an} (L), namely, a manganese-salan complex, [MnII(H2O)2{(hpdbal)2-an}] (1), a nickel-salan complex, [NiII{(hpdbal)2-an}] (2) and a copper-salan complex, [CuII{(hpdbal)2-an}] (3). The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and electron-paramagnetic resonance techniques. The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against seven pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) and antidiabetic activity by mimicking diabetic environment on the immortal human liver cancer cells, HepG2. Complexes 1 and 2 were additionally tested for their reactivity and stability in biological media mimic conditions. The nickel(II) salan complex (2) exhibited noteworthy antifungal activity against Candida albicans and the manganese(II) salan complex (1) induced increased glucose uptake by the insulin resistant cells. Both compounds were found to be stable when solution pH conditions were varied from 3 to 9. They exhibited strong affinity of binding towards a carrier protein, bovine serum albumin which was evaluated with the aid of multi-spectroscopic techniques.

4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 231: 118123, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058916

RESUMO

There is an urgent need to eliminate the era of superbugs through design and development of novel and sustainable drugs. Transition metal complexes can be one of the hopes for tackling drug resistant pathogens. In this view, we have developed a manganese complex appended with an ON donor ligand which has shown excellent activity against one of the prominent fungal species. The Mn (II) complex, [MnII(OH2)2(Hhpdbal-sbdt)2] (1) was synthesized using a Schiff base ligand derived from an azo aldehyde and S-benzyldithiocarbazate. The complex was characterized with the help of analytical techniques such as elemental analysis, FT-IR, EDAX, EPR and TGA. The solution behavior in physiological conditions and in biological media was preliminarily evaluated by studying the behavior of complex in varied pH conditions and in the presence of protein, BSA. The effect of the compound on few drug resistant pathogenic species of bacteria and fungi and on the uptake of glucose by insulin resistant cells was evaluated using whole cell inhibition assay and NBDG assay respectively. The study gave a noteworthy result with respect to the manganese compound's biological activity, with an inhibitory activity of 93% towards a fungi species, Cryptococcus neoformans and with a relatively good glucose uptake inducing capacity. The manganese complex, which maintains its stability over a wide range of pH conditions and interacts with serum protein, BSA in a facile manner can be an excellent drug candidate and eventually be added to the library of compounds being screened for in vivo activity studies.

5.
Bioorg Chem ; 92: 103212, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465968

RESUMO

A series of novel coumarin-cyclic imide conjugates (1a-1j) were designed and synthesized to evaluate their glucose uptake activity by insulin resistant liver hepatocyte carcinoma (HepG2) cells through 2-NBDG uptake assay. Compounds (1a-1j) were characterised using various analytical methods such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, GC-MS, elemental and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Compounds (1a-1j) exhibited 85.21 - 65.80% of glucose uptake and showed low level of cytotoxicity towards human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) indicating good selectivity and safety profile. Compound 1f was identified as a hit candidate exhibiting 85.21% of glucose uptake which was comparable with standard antidiabetic drug Metformin (93.25% glucose uptake). Solution stability study under physiological pH conditions ≈ (3.4 - 8.7), indicates that compound 1f is sufficiently stable at varied pH conditions and thereby compatible with bio-physiological environments. Interaction of 1f with human serum albumin (HSA) were also studied which quantifies that compound 1f binds with HSA efficiently through facile binding reaction in solution. Fluorescence, UV-vis spectrophotometry and molecular modeling methodologies were employed for studying the interaction mechanism of compound 1f with protein.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Imidas/farmacologia , Albumina Sérica/química , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Imidas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 51: 176-190, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466929

RESUMO

In our ongoing efforts to develop novel trace metal complexes with therapeutically interesting properties, a neutral mono nuclear oxidomethoxidovanadium(V) complex, [VVO(OCH3)(hpdbal-sbdt)] (1) and a µ-O bridged dinuclear oxidovanadium(V) complex, [{VVO(hpdbal-sbdt)}2µ-O] (2) [H2hpdbal-sbdt (I) is a tridentate and dibasic ONS2- donor ligand obtained through the Schiff base reaction of 2-hydroxy-5-(phenyldiazenyl)benzaldehyde (Hhpdbal) and S-benzyldithiocarbazate (Hsbdt)] have been synthesized and characterized by various analytical techniques such as TGA, EDS, ATR-IR, UV-Vis, CV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 51V NMR. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of 1 confirms the coordination of phenolate oxygen, imine nitrogen and thioenolate sulfur of the ligand to the vanadium center with a distorted tetragonal-pyramidal geometry. The compound 2 triggered apoptotic and reproductive death of the cancer cells in vitro with 76% and 62% growth inhibition of human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human lung carcinoma cells (A549) respectively. The compound 2 was found to be sufficiently stable over a wide window of physiological pH. The complex 2 was studied further for its interaction with a drug carrier protein BSA with the aid of spectroscopic techniques viz. fluorescence, temperature controlled UV-vis and deconvoluted IR techniques.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Compostos de Vanádio/química , Compostos de Vanádio/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 123: 335-349, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981891

RESUMO

In the efforts to develop a biocompatible transition metal complex as a drug alike for some of the prevailing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases (CDs), a novel binuclear NiII compound [{NiII(hpdbal-sbdt)}2] (2) has been synthesized by the reaction of Ni(OAc)2.4H2O and H2hpdbal-sbdt (1) [1 is a dibasic tridentate ONS2- donor Schiff base ligand obtained by the condensation of 2-hydroxy-5-(phenyldiazenyl)benzaldehyde (Hhpdbal) and S-benzyldithiocarbazate (Hsbdt)]. Both ligand 1 and compound 2 were structurally characterized in the solid and solution state using various spectroscopic techniques like ATIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, TGA, FESEM, EDS and CHNS analysis. The antidiabetic activity of H2hpdbal-sbdt (1) and [{NiII(hpdbal-sbdt)}2] (2) were assessed using 2-NBDG uptake assay. The assay results showed 85% and 95% of fluorescent glucose uptake by insulin resistant HePG2 cells treated with compounds 1 and 2 respectively. The 2-NBDG uptake by the cells treated with the compound 2 was observed to be comparable to the standard antidiabetic drug metformin. Compounds 1 and 2 were also tested against five bacterial and two fungi strains in order to evaluate pathogen killing activity. Compound 2 showed significant inhibitory action towards the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain with an MIC value of 2 µg/mL whereas the ligand 1 was found to be inactive. Furthermore, the interactive nature of compound 2 with a model serum carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied using a multi-spectroscopic approach which provided an insight into the nature and extent of binding, conformational changes and the quenching of amino acid residues of the protein.


Assuntos
4-Cloro-7-nitrobenzofurazano/análogos & derivados , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Desoxiglucose/análogos & derivados , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Níquel/farmacologia , Bases de Schiff/farmacologia , 4-Cloro-7-nitrobenzofurazano/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Desoxiglucose/metabolismo , Composição de Medicamentos , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Níquel/química , Bases de Schiff/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 150: 864-875, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29597169

RESUMO

As a contribution to the development of novel coumarin-oxime ether conjugates with therapeutically interesting properties, a series of coumarin-oxime ether (1a-1j) was synthesised using SN2 reaction of bromomethyl coumarins with butane-2,3-dione monoxime. Invitro anti-tuberculosis activityagainstMTBH37Rv strain was established for the coumarin-oxime ether (1a-1j). Most of the compounds exhibited significant activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)in the range of 0.04-3.12 µg mL-1. Compound (1h) was identified as a hit candidate exhibiting MIC of 0.04 µg mL-1, closer to the MIC value of Isoniazid (0.02 µg mL-1), a commercially available drug for the treatment of tuberculosis. Compound 1h also displayed a low level of toxicity in Vero cells along with a good safety profile in vitro. Compounds that showed potent anti-tubercular activity were also found to cleave DNA more efficiently and thereby exhibit nuclease activity. The most active compound (1h) was further studied to deduce the mode of interaction with model serum protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA).


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Éteres/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Oximas/farmacologia , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Animais , Antituberculosos/síntese química , Antituberculosos/química , Bovinos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cumarínicos/química , Clivagem do DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Éteres/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Oximas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Vero
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 101: 705-15, 2015 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26210508

RESUMO

A series of 2-(2-(4-fluorobenzyl)-6-(substituted phenyl) pyrimidin-4-yl)-3H-benzo[f]chromen-3-one derivatives (1a-1o) were selectively prepared in high yields under microwave irradiation. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental and spectroscopic analysis; in addition the structures of compound (1a), (1b) and (1j) were elucidated by the X-ray diffraction technique. Compounds (1a-1o) were evaluated for their in-vitro antitubercular activity while the most active compounds were further subjected for their cytotoxicity and DNA cleavage study. Results revealed that most of the tested compounds displayed potent antitubercular activity with MIC in the range 0.05-2.81 µg/mL. Among them, compound (1b) possessed excellent activity (MIC 0.05 µg/mL) against M.tb H37Rv strain and exhibited low level of cytotoxicity against Vero cells, which suggested compound (1b) is a promising lead for subsequent investigation in search of new antitubercular agents. DNA cleavage by gel electrophoresis method revealed that compounds (1b, 1g, 1k and 1n) were found to cleave the DNA completely.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/química , Clivagem do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/química , Animais , Antituberculosos/síntese química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , DNA Bacteriano/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Vero
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