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1.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321878

RESUMO

Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development during the pre-and post-flowering stages are susceptible to high temperature and drought. We report the field-based characterization of multiple morpho-physiological and reproductive stress resilience traits in 11 interspecific chromosome substitution (CS) lines isogenic to each other and the inbred G. hirsutum line TM-1. Significant genetic variability was detected (p < 0.001) in multiple traits in CS lines carrying chromosomes and chromosome segments from CS-B (G. barbadense) and CS-T (G. tomentosum). Line CS-T15sh had a positive effect on photosynthesis (13%), stomatal conductance (33%), and transpiration (24%), and a canopy 6.8 °C cooler than TM-1. The average pollen germination was approximately 8% greater among the CS-B than CS-T lines. Based on the stress response index, three CS lines are identified as heat- and drought-tolerant (CS-T07, CS-B15sh, and CS-B18). The three lines demonstrated enhanced photosynthesis (14%), stomatal conductance (29%), transpiration (13%), and pollen germination (23.6%) compared to TM-1 under field conditions, i.e., traits that would expectedly enhance performance in stressful environments. The generated phenotypic data and stress-tolerance indices on novel CS lines, along with phenotypic methods, would help in developing new cultivars with improved resilience to the effects of global warming.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233905, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502194

RESUMO

Water stress (WS) and heat stress (HS) have a negative effect on soybean plant growth and crop productivity. Changes in the physiological characteristics, proteome, and specific metabolites investigated on molecular and cellular functions were studied in two soybean cultivars exposed to different heat and water stress conditions independently and in combination. Leaf protein composition was studied using 2-DE and complemented with MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. While the two cultivars displayed genetic variation in response to water and heat stress, thirty-nine proteins were significantly altered in their relative abundance in response to WS, HS and combined WS+HS in both cultivars. A majority of these proteins were involved in metabolism, response to heat and photosynthesis showing significant cross-tolerance mechanisms. This study revealed that MED37C, a probable mediator of RNA polymerase transcription II protein, has potential interacting partners in Arabidopsis and signified the marked impact of this on the PI-471938 cultivar. Elevated activities in antioxidant enzymes indicate that the PI-471938 cultivar can restore the oxidation levels and sustain the plant during the stress. The discovery of this plant's development of cross-stress tolerance could be used as a guide to foster ongoing genetic modifications in stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Secas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/fisiologia , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/fisiologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Solo/química , Água/análise
3.
Physiol Plant ; 121(2): 250-257, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15153192

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of UV-B radiation and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO(2)]) on leaf senescence of cotton by measuring leaf photosynthesis and chlorophyll content and to identify changes in leaf hyperspectral reflectance occurring due to senescence and UV-B radiation. Plants were grown in controlled-environment growth chambers at two [CO(2)] (360 and 720 micro mol mol(-1)) and three levels of UV-B radiation (0, 7.7 and 15.1 kJ m(-2) day(-1)). Photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids and phenolic compounds along with leaf hyperspectral reflectance were measured on three leaves aged 12, 21 and 30 days in each of the treatments. No interaction was detected between [CO(2)] and UV-B for any of the measured parameters. Significant interactions were observed between UV-B and leaf age for photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Elevated [CO(2)] enhanced leaf photosynthesis by 32%. On exposure to 0, 7.7 and 15.1 kJ of UV-B, the photosynthetic rates of 30-day-old leaves compared with 12-day-old leaves were reduced by 52, 76 and 86%, respectively. Chlorophyll pigments were not affected by leaf age at UV-B radiation of 0 and 7.7 kJ, but UV-B of 15.1 kJ reduced the chlorophylls by 20, 60 and 80% in 12, 21 and 30-day-old leaves, respectively. The hyperspectral reflectance between 726 and 1142 nm showed interaction for UV-B radiation and leaf age. In cotton, leaf photosynthesis can be used as an indicator of leaf senescence, as it is more sensitive than photosynthetic pigments on exposure to UV-B radiation. This study revealed that, cotton leaves senesced early on exposure to UV-B radiation as indicated by leaf photosynthesis, and leaf hyperspectral reflectance can be used to detect changes caused by UV-B and leaf ageing.

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