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1.
Am Heart J ; 237: 13-24, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of oxygen therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in relation to sex in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction trial randomized 6,629 patients to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 hours or ambient air. In the present subgroup analysis including 5,010 patients (1,388 women and 3,622 men) with confirmed MI, we report the effect of supplemental oxygen on the composite of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure at long-term follow-up, stratified according to sex. RESULTS: Event rate for the composite endpoint was 18.1% in women allocated to oxygen, compared to 21.4% in women allocated to ambient air (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.05). In men, the incidence was 13.6% in patients allocated to oxygen compared to 13.3% in patients allocated to ambient air (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.23). No significant interaction in relation to sex was found (P= .16). Irrespective of allocated treatment, the composite endpoint occurred more often in women compared to men (19.7 vs 13.4%, HR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.30-1.75). After adjustment for age alone, there was no difference between the sexes (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.91-1.24), which remained consistent after multivariate adjustment. CONCLUSION: Oxygen therapy in normoxemic MI patients did not significantly affect all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for MI or heart failure in women or men. The observed worse outcome in women was explained by differences in baseline characteristics, especially age.

2.
Circulation ; 143(10): 1043-1061, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683945

RESUMO

After 15 years of successive randomized, controlled trials, indications for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are rapidly expanding. In the coming years, this procedure could become the first line treatment for patients with a symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and a tricuspid aortic valve anatomy. However, randomized, controlled trials have excluded bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), which is the most frequent congenital heart disease occurring in 1% to 2% of the total population and representing at least 25% of patients 80 years of age or older referred for aortic valve replacement. The use of a less invasive transcatheter therapy in this elderly population became rapidly attractive, and approximately 10% of patients currently undergoing TAVR have a BAV. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the "European Conformity" have approved TAVR for low-risk patients regardless of the aortic valve anatomy whereas international guidelines recommend surgical replacement in BAV populations. Given this progressive expansion of TAVR toward younger and lower-risk patients, heart teams are encountering BAV patients more frequently, while the ability of this therapy to treat such a challenging anatomy remains uncertain. This review will address the singularity of BAV anatomy and associated technical challenges for the TAVR procedure. We will examine and summarize available clinical evidence and highlight critical knowledge gaps regarding TAVR utilization in BAV patients. We will provide a comprehensive overview of the role of computed tomography scans in the diagnosis, and classification of BAV and TAVR procedure planning. Overall, we will offer an integrated framework for understanding the current role of TAVR in the treatment of bicuspid aortic stenosis and for guiding physicians in clinical decision-making.

3.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; : CIRCINTERVENTIONS120010300, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF), mitral regurgitation (MR), and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction have a complex interplay. We evaluated the role of AF in patients with heart failure and moderate-to-severe or severe secondary MR enrolled in the randomized COAPT trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation) and its impact on mechanisms and outcomes with the MitraClip. METHODS: Patients in the COAPT trial were stratified by the presence (n=327) or absence (n=287) of a history of AF and by assignment to treatment group. Clinical, echocardiographic, and outcome measures were assessed. The primary outcome was the composite rate of death or heart failure hospitalization at 24 months. RESULTS: Patients with history of AF were older and more often male. They had a higher LV ejection fraction, larger left atrial volumes and mitral valve orifice areas, smaller LV volumes, and similar MR severity. Patients with AF compared with those without a history of AF had a higher unadjusted (hazard ratio [HR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.06-1.64], P=0.01) and adjusted (HR, 1.30 [1.03-1.64], P=0.03) 2-year rate of the primary outcome. Treatment with the MitraClip compared with guideline-directed medical therapy alone reduced death or heart failure hospitalization in both those with (HR, 0.61 [0.46-0.82]) and without (HR, 0.46 [0.33-0.66]) a history of AF (Pint=0.18). Treatment with the MitraClip was associated with a lower risk of stroke in patients with a history of AF (HR, 0.18 [0.04-0.86]) but not in those without a history of AF (HR, 1.64 [0.58-4.62]; Pint=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In the COAPT trial, patients with a history of AF had larger left atrial and mitral valve orifice areas with higher LV ejection fraction and smaller LV volumes, suggesting an atrial mechanism contribution to functional MR. Despite the worse prognosis of heart failure patients with a history of AF, MR reduction with the MitraClip still afforded substantial clinical benefits. Treatment with MitraClip was associated with a lower risk of stroke in patients with a history of AF. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01626079.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to determine whether coronary artery tortuosity negatively affects clinical outcomes after stent implantation. BACKGROUND: Coronary artery tortuosity is a common angiographic finding and has been associated with increased rates of early and late major adverse events after balloon angioplasty. METHODS: Individual patient data from 6 prospective, randomized stent trials were pooled. Outcomes at 30 days and 5 years following percutaneous coronary intervention of a single coronary lesion were analyzed according to the presence or absence of moderate/severe vessel tortuosity, as determined by an angiographic core laboratory. The primary endpoint was target vessel failure (TVF; composite of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction [TV-MI], or ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization [ID-TVR]). RESULTS: A total of 6,951 patients were included, 729 of whom (10.5%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in vessels with moderate/severe tortuosity. At 30 days, TVF was more frequent in patients with versus without moderate/severe tortuosity (3.8% vs. 2.4%, hazard ratio: 1.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.09 to 2.46; p = 0.02), a difference driven by a higher rate of TV-MI. At 5 years, TVF remained increased in patients with moderate/severe tortuosity (p = 0.003), driven by higher rates of TV-MI (p = 0.003) and ID-TVR (p = 0.01). Definite stent thrombosis was also greater in patients with versus without moderate/severe tortuosity (1.9% vs. 1.0%, hazard ratio: 1.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.02 to 3.39; p = 0.04). After adjustment for baseline covariates, moderate/severe vessel tortuosity was independently associated with TV-MI and ID-TVR at 5 years (p = 0.04 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Stent implantation in vessels with moderate/severe coronary artery tortuosity is associated with increased rates of TVF due to greater rates of TV-MI and ID-TVR.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1325, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637713

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can result in a hyperinflammatory state, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), myocardial injury, and thrombotic complications, among other sequelae. Statins, which are known to have anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties, have been studied in the setting of other viral infections, but their benefit has not been assessed in COVID-19. This is a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with COVID-19 from February 1st through May 12th, 2020 with study period ending on June 11th, 2020. Antecedent statin use was assessed using medication information available in the electronic medical record. We constructed a multivariable logistic regression model to predict the propensity of receiving statins, adjusting for baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and outpatient medications. The primary endpoint includes in-hospital mortality within 30 days. A total of 2626 patients were admitted during the study period, of whom 951 (36.2%) were antecedent statin users. Among 1296 patients (648 statin users, 648 non-statin users) identified with 1:1 propensity-score matching, statin use is significantly associated with lower odds of the primary endpoint in the propensity-matched cohort (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.36-0.62, p < 0.001). We conclude that antecedent statin use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is associated with lower inpatient mortality.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , /isolamento & purificação
6.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity along with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is a promoter for coronary artery disease. On the other hand, a high body mass index (BMI) appears to exert a protective effect with respect to outcomes after a coronary artery event, termed the obesity paradox. METHODS: The Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry collects information on all patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Sweden along with demographic and procedure-related data. We studied the predictability of four categories of BMI for 1-year all-cause mortality in people with STEMI undergoing PCI. RESULTS: Among 25 384 patients, mean (SD) age 67.7 (12.1) years and 70.2% male, who underwent PCI for STEMI, a total of 5529 (21.8%) died within 1 year. Using normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) as a reference, subjects with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) had a low 1-year all-cause mortality risk in unadjusted analysis, HR 0.59 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.67). However, after adjustment for age, sex and other covariates, the difference became non-significant, HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.02). Patients with overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) had the lowest 1-year mortality risk in analysis adjusted for age, sex and other covariates, HR 0.87 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.97), whereas those with underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) had the highest mortality in both unadjusted HR 2.22 (95% CI 1.69 to 2.92) and adjusted analysis, HR 1.62 (95% CI 1.18 to 2.23). CONCLUSION: The protective effect of obesity with respect to 1-year mortality after coronary intervention became non-significant after adjusting for age, sex and relevant covariates. Instead, overweight people displayed the lowest risk and underweight individuals the highest risk for adjusted all-cause mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02311231.

7.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(4): 417-427, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the risk period for increased stent thrombosis (ST) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and whether this increased risk is related to high platelet reactivity (HPR). BACKGROUND: ST risk after PCI is higher among patients with ACS than those with stable ischemic heart disease. When ST risk is highest in patients with ACS and how that is affected by HPR is unknown. METHODS: Using the ADAPT-DES (Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents) registry, ST rates during 2-year follow-up post-PCI with drug-eluting stents were compared among patients presenting with ACS (myocardial infarction [MI] or unstable angina) or stable ischemic heart disease (non-ACS). Landmark analyses were done at 30 days and 1 year post-PCI. Platelet reactivity on aspirin and clopidogrel post-PCI was assessed using VerifyNow assays. RESULTS: Of 8,582 patients, 2,063 presented with MI, 2,370 with unstable angina, and 4,149 with non-ACS. Incidence rates of HPR were 48.0%, 43.3%, and 39.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). Within the first 30 days post-PCI, patients presenting with MI had increased ST risk compared with patients with non-ACS (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01 to 10.14; p < 0.001). After 30 days, relative ST risks were progressively lower and no longer significant between groups (31 days to 1 year post-PCI: HR: 1.97; 95% CI: 0.80 to 4.85; >1 year post-PCI: HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.27 to 2.92). The elevated ST risk in patients with MI within 30 days was largely confined to those with HPR on clopidogrel (HR: 5.77; 95% CI: 2.13 to 15.63; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing PCI, rates of ST during 2-year follow-up were highest in those with MI and lowest in those with non-ACS. Increased ST risk in patients with MI was greatest in the first 30 days post-PCI and was observed predominantly among those with increased HPR on clopidogrel. These findings emphasize the importance of adequate P2Y12 inhibition after MI, especially within the first 30 days after stent implantation.

8.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(2): e009879, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptom-to-balloon time (SBT) and door-to-balloon time (DBT) are both considered important metrics in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to assess the relationship of SBT and DBT with infarct size and microvascular obstruction (MVO) after pPCI. METHODS: Individual patient data for 3115 ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing pPCI in 10 randomized trials were pooled. Infarct size (% left ventricular mass) was assessed within 1 month after randomization by technetium-99 m sestamibi single-photon emission computerized tomography (3 studies) or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (7 studies). MVO was assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance. Patients were stratified by short (≤2 hours), intermediate (2-4 hours), or long (>4 hours) SBTs, and by short (≤45 minutes), intermediate (45-90 minutes), or long (>90 minutes) DBTs. RESULTS: Median [interquartile range] SBT and DBT were 185 [130-269] and 46 [28-83] minutes, respectively. Median [interquartile range] time to infarct size assessment after pPCI was 5 [3-12] days. There was a stepwise increase in infarct size according to SBT category (adjusted difference, 2.0% [95% CI, 0.4-3.5] for intermediate versus short SBT and 4.4% [95% CI, 2.7-6.1] for long versus short SBT) but not according to DBT category (adjusted difference, 0.4% [95% CI, -1.2 to 1.9] for intermediate versus short DBT and -0.1% [95% CI, -1.0 to 3.0] for long versus short SBT). MVO was greater in patients with long versus short SBT (adjusted difference, 0.9% [95% CI, 0.3-1.4]) but was not different between patients with intermediate versus short SBT (adjusted difference, 0.1 [95% CI, -0.4 to 0.6]). There was no difference in MVO according to DBT. Results were similar in multivariable analysis with SBT and DBT included as continuous variables. CONCLUSIONS: Among 3115 patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing infarct size assessment after pPCI, SBT was more strongly correlated with infarct size and MVO than DBT.

9.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 10, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the association of insulin resistance (IR) with coronary plaque morphology and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients enrolled in the Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in Coronary Tree (PROSPECT) study. METHODS: Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) were divided based on DM status. Non-DM patients were further stratified according to homeostasis-model-assessment IR (HOMA-IR) index as insulin sensitive (IS; HOMA-IR ≤ 2), likely-IR (LIR; 2 < HOMA-IR < 5), or diabetic-IR (DIR; HOMA-IR ≥ 5). Coronary plaque characteristics were investigated by intravascular ultrasound. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE); a composite of cardiac death, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for unstable/progressive angina. RESULTS: Among non-diabetic patients, 109 patients (21.5%) were categorized as LIR, and 65 patients (12.8%) as DIR. Patients with DIR or DM had significantly higher rates of echolucent plaque compared with LIR and IS. In addition, DIR and DM were independently associated with increased risk of MACE compared with IS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-4.29, p = 0.01 and aHR 2.12, 95% CI 1.19-3.75, p = 0.009, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: IR is common among patients with ACS. DM and advanced but not early stages of IR are independently associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00180466.

10.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 1314-1323, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511788

RESUMO

AIMS: The risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias (LTVA) has been reported to be lower in Takotsubo syndrome (TS) compared with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the extent to which these differences relate to the fact that most patients with TS are women (who have a lower risk of LTVA) and a relatively larger proportion of patients with STEMI are men is incompletely understood. We aimed to investigate the risk of LTVA or death in sex-matched and age-matched patients with TS, anterior STEMI, and non-anterior STEMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We systematically reviewed the charts of all patients with TS who were treated at Sahlgrenska University Hospital (Gothenburg, Sweden) between 2008 and 2019. A total of 155 patients with confirmed TS (according to the European Society of Cardiology diagnostic criteria for TS) were sex-matched and age-matched 1:1:1 to patients with anterior and non-anterior STEMI. Baseline characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were recorded directly from the patient charts for all patients, and all admission electrocardiographs were analysed. The primary outcome was the composite of death or LTVA [defined as sustained ventricular tachycardia (>30 s) or ventricular fibrillation] within 72 h. The risk of LTVA or death within 72 h after admission was considerably lower in TS (2.6%) vs. anterior STEMI (14%; P = 0.002) and non-anterior STEMI (9.0%; P = 0.02), despite similar or greater risks of acute heart failure, and similar risks of cardiogenic shock. Compared with STEMI, TS was associated with a lower risk of sustained and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: In a predominantly female age-matched and sex-matched cohort of patients with TS, anterior STEMI, and non-anterior STEMI, the adjusted risk of in-hospital LTVA or death was considerably lower in TS compared with STEMI, despite similar or greater risk of acute heart failure and similar risk of cardiogenic shock.

11.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258563

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The optimal choice of oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors has the potential to significantly influence outcomes. We seek to compare the safety and efficacy of the three most commonly used oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor) in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) via a comprehensive systematic review and network meta-analysis. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We will perform a comprehensive search for randomized clinical trials which compared cardiovascular and hemorrhagic outcomes after use of at least two of the distinct oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (i.e. clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor). In addition, key inclusion criteria will be trial size of at least 100 patients and at least 1 month of follow-up time. Several pre-specified subgroups will be explored, including Asian patients, patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, patients of advanced age, and others. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Exploratory frequentist pairwise meta-analyses will be based primarily on a random-effects method, relying on relative risks (RR) for short-term endpoints and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for long-term endpoints. Inferential frequentist network meta-analysis will be based primarily on a random-effects method, relying on RR and IRR as specified above. Results will be reported as point summary of effect, 95% CI, and p-values for effect, and graphically represented using forest plots. CONCLUSIONS: An international collaborative network meta-analysis has begun to comprehensively analyze the safety and efficacy of prasugrel, ticagrelor and clopidogrel, each on a background of aspirin, for management of patients with ACS. It is our hope that the rigor and breadth of the undertaking described herein will provide novel insights that will inform optimal patient care for patients with ACS treated conservatively, or undergoing revascularization.

12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(25): 2940-2951, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated if diastolic function could predict outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis. OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to assess the association between diastolic dysfunction (DD) and outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: Baseline, 30-day, and 1- and 2-year transthoracic echocardiograms from the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) 2 SAPIEN 3 registry were analyzed by a consortium of core laboratories and divided into the American Society of Echocardiography DD groups. RESULTS: Among the 1,750 included, 682 (54.4%) had grade 1 DD, 352 (28.1%) had grade 2 DD, 168 (13.4%) had grade 3 DD, and 51 (4.1%) had indeterminate DD grade. Incremental baseline grades of DD were associated with an increase in combined 1- and 2-year cardiovascular (CV) death/rehospitalization (all p < 0.002) and all-cause death at 2 years (p = 0.01) but not at 1 year. Improvement in DD grade/grade 1 DD at 30 days post-TAVR was seen in 70.8% patients. Patients with improvement in ≥1 grade of DD/grade 1 DD had reduced 1-year CV death/rehospitalization (p < 0.001) and increased 2-year survival (p = 0.01). Baseline grade 3 DD was a predictor of 1-year CV death/rehospitalization (hazard ratio: 2.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 6.98; p = 0.04). Improvement in DD grade/grade 1 DD at 30 days was protective for 1-year CV death/rehospitalizations (hazard ratio: 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.83; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In the PARTNER 2 SAPIEN 3 registry, baseline DD was a predictor of up to 2 years clinical outcomes in patients who underwent TAVR. Improvement in DD grade at 30 days was associated with improvement in short-term clinical outcomes. (The PARTNER II Trial: Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valves II - PARTNER II - PARTNERII - S3 Intermediate [PARTNERII S3i]; NCT03222128; PARTNER II Trial: Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valves II - High Risk and Nested Registry 7 [PII S3HR/NR7]; NCT03222141).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Canadá , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Estados Unidos
13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(22): 2595-2606, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension worsens prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF) and secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether baseline pulmonary hypertension influences outcomes of transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) in patients with HF with SMR. METHODS: In the COAPT (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation) trial, 614 patients with HF with moderate-to-severe or severe SMR were randomized to TMVr with the MitraClip plus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) (n = 302) versus GDMT alone (n = 312). Baseline pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) estimated from echocardiography was categorized as substantially increased (≥50 mm Hg) versus not substantially increased (<50 mm Hg). RESULTS: Among 528 patients, 184 (82 TMVr, 102 GDMT) had PASP of ≥50 mm Hg (mean: 59.1 ± 8.8 mm Hg) and 344 (171 TMVr, 173 GDMT) had PASP of <50 mm Hg (mean: 36.3 ± 8.1 mm Hg). Patients with PASP of ≥50 mm Hg had higher 2-year rates of death or HF hospitalization (HFH) compared to those with PASP of <50 mm Hg (68.8% vs. 49.1%; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.17 to 1.97; p = 0.002). Rates of death or HFH were reduced by TMVr versus GDMT alone, irrespective of baseline PASP (pinteraction = 0.45). TMVr reduced PASP from baseline to 30 days to a greater than GDMT alone (adjusted least squares mean: -4.0 vs. -0.9 mm Hg; p = 0.006), a change that was associated with reduced risk of death or HFH between 30 days and 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.91 per -5 mm Hg PASP; 95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 0.96; p = 0.0009). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated PASP is associated with a worse prognosis in patients with HF with severe SMR. TMVr with the MitraClip reduced 30-day PASP and 2-year rates of death or HFH compared with GDMT alone, irrespective of PASP.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167000

RESUMO

AIMS: Optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided external elastic lamina (EEL)-based stent sizing is safe and as effective as intravascular ultrasound in achieving post-procedural lumen dimensions. However, when compared with automated lumen diameter (LD) measurements, this approach is time-consuming. We aimed to compare vessel diameter measurements and stent diameter selection using either of these approaches and examined whether applying a correction factor to automated LD measurements could result in selecting similar stent diameters to the EEL-based approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively compared EEL-based measurements vs. automated LD in reference segments in 154 OCT acquisitions and derived a correction factor for stent sizing using the ratio of EEL to LD measurements. We then prospectively applied the correction factor in 119 OCT acquisitions. EEL could be adequately identified in 100 acquisitions (84%) at the distal reference to allow vessel diameter measurement. Vessel diameters were larger with EEL-based vs. LD measurements at both proximal (4.12 ± 0.74 vs. 3.14 ± 0.67 mm, P < 0.0001) and distal reference segments (3.34 ± 0.75 vs. 2.64 ± 0.65 mm, P < 0.0001). EEL-based downsizing led to selection of larger stents vs. an LD-based upsizing approach (3.33 ± 0.47 vs. 2.70 ± 0.44, P < 0.0001). Application of correction factors to LD [proximal 1.32 (IQR 1.23-1.37) and distal 1.25 (IQR 1.19-1.36)] resulted in discordance in stent sizing by >0.25 mm in 63% and potentially hazardous stent oversizing in 41% of cases. CONCLUSION: EEL-based stent downsizing led to selection of larger stent diameters vs. LD upsizing. While applying a correction factor to automated LD measurements resulted in similar mean diameters to EEL-based measurements, this approach cannot be used clinically due to frequent and potentially hazardous stent over-sizing.

15.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(11): e007293, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the COAPT trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation), treatment of heart failure (HF) patients with moderate-severe or severe secondary mitral regurgitation with transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) using the MitraClip plus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) reduced 2-year rates of HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality compared with GDMT alone. Whether the benefits of the MitraClip extend to patients with previously implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is unknown. We sought to examine the effect of prior CRT in patients enrolled in COAPT. METHODS: Patients (N=614) with moderate-severe or severe secondary mitral regurgitation who remained symptomatic despite maximally tolerated doses of GDMT were randomized 1:1 to the MitraClip (TMVr arm) versus GDMT only (control arm). Outcomes were assessed according to prior CRT use. RESULTS: Among 614 patients, 224 (36.5%) had prior CRT (115 and 109 randomized to TMVr and control, respectively) and 390 (63.5%) had no CRT (187 and 203 randomized to TMVr and control, respectively). Patients with CRT had similar 2-year rates of the composite of death or HF hospitalization compared with those without CRT (57.6% versus 55%, P=0.32). Death or HF hospitalization at 2 years was lower with TMVr versus control treatment in patients with prior CRT (48.6% versus 67.2%, hazard ratio, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.42-0.86]) and without CRT (42.5% versus 66.9%, hazard ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.39-0.69]; adjusted Pinteraction=0.23). The effects of TMVr with the MitraClip on reducing the 2-year rates of all-cause death (adjusted Pinteraction=0.14) and HF hospitalization (adjusted Pinteraction=0.82) were also consistent in patients with and without CRT as were improvements in quality-of-life and exercise capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In the COAPT trial, TMVr with the MitraClip improved the 2-year prognosis of patients with HF and moderate-severe or severe secondary mitral regurgitation who remained symptomatic despite maximally tolerated GDMT, regardless of prior CRT implantation. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01626079.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e018476, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169643

RESUMO

Background Cardiovascular involvement in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common and leads to worsened mortality. Diagnostic cardiovascular studies may be helpful for resource appropriation and identifying patients at increased risk for death. Methods and Results We analyzed 887 patients (aged 64±17 years) admitted with COVID-19 from March 1 - April 3, 2020 in New York City with 12 lead electrocardiography (ECG) within 2 days of diagnosis. Demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory testing including high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) were abstracted. At 30 days follow-up, 556 patients (63%) were living without requiring mechanical ventilation, 123 (14%) were living and required mechanical ventilation, and 203 (23%) had expired. ECG findings included atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (AF/AFL) in 46 (5%) and ST-T wave changes in 306 (38%). 27 (59%) patients with AF/AFL expired as compared to 181 (21%) of 841 with other non-life threatening rhythms (p<0.001). Multivariable analysis incorporating age, comorbidities, AF/AFL, QRS abnormalities, and ST-T wave changes, and initial hs-cTnT ≥ 20 ng/L showed that increased age (HR 1.04/year), elevated hs-cTnT (HR 4.57), AF/AFL (HR 2.07), and a history of coronary artery disease (HR 1.56) and active cancer (HR 1.87) were associated with increased mortality. Conclusions Myocardial injury with hs-cTnT ≥ 20 ng/L, in addition to cardiac conduction perturbations, especially AF/AFL, upon hospital admission for COVID-19 infection is associated with markedly increased risk for mortality than either diagnostic abnormality alone.

17.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(10): 2099-2109, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study whether combining vital signs and electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis can improve early prognostication. METHODS: This study analyzed 1258 adults with coronavirus disease 2019 who were seen at three hospitals in New York in March and April 2020. Electrocardiograms at presentation to the emergency department were systematically read by electrophysiologists. The primary outcome was a composite of mechanical ventilation or death 48 hours from diagnosis. The prognostic value of ECG abnormalities was assessed in a model adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and vital signs. RESULTS: At 48 hours, 73 of 1258 patients (5.8%) had died and 174 of 1258 (13.8%) were alive but receiving mechanical ventilation with 277 of 1258 (22.0%) patients dying by 30 days. Early development of respiratory failure was common, with 53% of all intubations occurring within 48 hours of presentation. In a multivariable logistic regression, atrial fibrillation/flutter (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.2), right ventricular strain (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.1), and ST segment abnormalities (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.8) were associated with death or mechanical ventilation at 48 hours. In 108 patients without these ECG abnormalities and with normal respiratory vitals (rate <20 breaths/min and saturation >95%), only 5 (4.6%) died or required mechanical ventilation by 48 hours versus 68 of 216 patients (31.5%) having both ECG and respiratory vital sign abnormalities. CONCLUSION: The combination of abnormal respiratory vital signs and ECG findings of atrial fibrillation/flutter, right ventricular strain, or ST segment abnormalities accurately prognosticates early deterioration in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and may assist with patient triage.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prognóstico
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2018735, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001202

RESUMO

Importance: Pretreatment of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) with P2Y12 receptor antagonists is a common practice despite the lack of definite evidence for its benefit. Objective: To investigate the association of P2Y12 receptor antagonist pretreatment vs no pretreatment with mortality, stent thrombosis, and in-hospital bleeding in patients with NSTE-ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used prospective data from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry of 64 857 patients who underwent procedures between 2010 and 2018. All patients who underwent PCI owing to NSTE-ACS in Sweden were stratified by whether they were pretreated with P2Y12 receptor antagonists. Associations of pretreatment with P2Y12 receptor antagonists with the risks of adverse outcomes were investigated using instrumental variable analysis and propensity score matching. Data were analyzed from March to June 2019. Exposures: Pretreatment with P2Y12 receptor antagonists. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was all-cause mortality within 30 days. Secondary end points were 1-year mortality, stent thrombosis within 30 days, and in-hospital bleeding. Results: In total, 64 857 patients (mean [SD] age, 64.7 [10.9] years; 46 809 [72.2%] men) were included. A total of 59 894 patients (92.4%) were pretreated with a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, including 27 867 (43.7%) pretreated with clopidogrel, 34 785 (54.5%) pretreated with ticagrelor, and 1148 (1.8%) pretreated with prasugrel. At 30 days, there were 971 deaths (1.5%) and 101 definite stent thromboses (0.2%) in the full cohort. Pretreatment was not associated with better survival at 30 days (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% CI, 0.66-2.11; P = .58), survival at 1 year (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.77-2.34; P = .30), or decreased stent thrombosis (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.42-1.55; P = .52). However, pretreatment was associated with increased risk of in-hospital bleeding (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.06-2.12; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that pretreatment of patients with NSTE-ACS with P2Y12 receptor antagonists was not associated with improved clinical outcomes but was associated with increased risk of bleeding. These findings support the argument that pretreatment with P2Y12 receptor antagonists should not be routinely used in patients with NSTE-ACS.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(14): 1609-1621, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varying definitions of procedural myocardial infarction (PMI) are in widespread use. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the rates and clinical relevance of PMI using different definitions in patients with left main coronary artery disease randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in the EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial. METHODS: The pre-specified protocol definition of PMI (PMIProt) required a large elevation of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), with identical threshold for both procedures. The Third Universal Definition of MI (types 4a and 5) (PMIUD) required lesser biomarker elevations but with supporting evidence of myocardial ischemia, different after PCI and CABG. For the PMIUD, troponins were used preferentially (available in 49.5% of patients), CK-MB otherwise. The multivariable relationship between each PMI type and 5-year mortality was determined. RESULTS: PMIProt occurred in 34 of 935 (3.6%) patients after PCI and 56 of 923 (6.1%) patients after CABG (difference -2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.4% to -0.5%; p = 0.015). The corresponding rates of PMIUD were 37 (4.0%) and 20 (2.2%), respectively (difference 1.8%; 95% CI: 0.2% to 3.4%; p = 0.025). Both PMIProt and PMIUD were associated with 5-year cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.18 [95% CI: 1.13 to 4.23] and 2.87 [95% CI: 1.44 to 5.73], respectively). PMIProt was associated with a consistent hazard of cardiovascular mortality after both PCI and CABG (pinteraction = 0.86). Conversely, PMIUD was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality after CABG (adjusted HR: 11.94; 95% CI: 4.84 to 29.47) but not after PCI (adjusted HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.67) (pinteraction = 0.004). Results were similar for all-cause mortality and with varying PMIUD biomarker definitions. Only large biomarker elevations (CK-MB ≥10× upper reference limit and troponin ≥70× upper reference limit) were associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of PMI after PCI and CABG vary greatly with different definitions. In the EXCEL trial, the pre-specified PMIProt was associated with similar hazard after PCI and CABG, whereas PMIUD was strongly associated with mortality after CABG but not after PCI. (EXCEL Clinical Trial [EXCEL]; NCT01205776).

20.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(4): 323-332, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate the effects of radial artery access versus femoral artery access on the risk of 30-day mortality, inhospital bleeding and cardiogenic shock in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: We used data from the SWEDEHEART registry and included all patients who were treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention in Sweden between 2005 and 2016. We compared patients who had percutaneous coronary intervention by radial access versus femoral access with regard to the primary endpoint of all-cause death within 30 days, using a multilevel propensity score adjusted logistic regression which included hospital as a random effect. RESULTS: During the study period, 44,804 patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention of whom 24,299 (54.2%) had radial access and 20,505 (45.8%) femoral access. There were 2487 (5.5%) deaths within 30 days, of which 920 (3.8%) occurred in the radial access and 1567 (7.6%) in the femoral access group. After propensity score adjustment, radial access was associated with a lower risk of death (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.88, P = 0.025). We found no interaction between access site and age, gender and cardiogenic shock regarding 30-day mortality. Radial access was also associated with a lower adjusted risk of bleeding (adjusted OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.79, P = 0.006) and cardiogenic shock (adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.73, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, primary percutaneous coronary intervention by radial access rather than femoral access was associated with an adjusted lower risk of death, bleeding and cardiogenic shock. Our findings are consistent with, and add external validity to, recent randomised trials.

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