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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445337

RESUMO

In fibrotic diseases, myofibroblasts derive from a range of cell types including endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Increasing evidence suggests that miRNAs are key regulators in biological processes but their profile is relatively understudied in EndMT. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), EndMT was induced by treatment with TGFß2 and IL1ß. A significant decrease in endothelial markers such as VE-cadherin, CD31 and an increase in mesenchymal markers such as fibronectin were observed. In parallel, miRNA profiling showed that miR-126-3p was down-regulated in HUVECs undergoing EndMT and over-expression of miR-126-3p prevented EndMT, maintaining CD31 and repressing fibronectin expression. EndMT was investigated using lineage tracing with transgenic Cdh5-Cre-ERT2; Rosa26R-stop-YFP mice in two established models of fibrosis: cardiac ischaemic injury and kidney ureteric occlusion. In both cardiac and kidney fibrosis, lineage tracing showed a significant subpopulation of endothelial-derived cells expressed mesenchymal markers, indicating they had undergone EndMT. In addition, miR-126-3p was restricted to endothelial cells and down-regulated in murine fibrotic kidney and heart tissue. These findings were confirmed in patient kidney biopsies. MiR-126-3p expression is restricted to endothelial cells and is down-regulated during EndMT. Over-expression of miR-126-3p reduces EndMT, therefore, it could be considered for miRNA-based therapeutics in fibrotic organs.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular/genética , Rim/patologia , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Fibrose/genética , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/patologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/fisiologia , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/patologia
2.
FASEB J ; 35(5): e21604, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913566

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction leads to a rapid innate immune response that is ultimately required for repair of damaged heart tissue. We therefore examined circulating monocyte dynamics immediately after reperfusion of the culprit coronary vessel in STEMI patients to determine whether this correlated with level of cardiac injury. A mouse model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury was subsequently used to establish the degree of monocyte margination to the coronary vasculature that could potentially contribute to the drop in circulating monocytes. We retrospectively analyzed blood samples from 51 STEMI patients to assess the number of non-classical (NC), classical, and intermediate monocytes immediately following primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Classical and intermediate monocytes showed minimal change. On the other hand, circulating numbers of NC monocytes fell by approximately 50% at 90 minutes post-reperfusion. This rapid decrease in NC monocytes was greatest in patients with the largest infarct size (P < .05) and correlated inversely with left ventricular function (r = 0.41, P = .04). The early fall in NC monocytes post-reperfusion was confirmed in a second prospective study of 13 STEMI patients. Furthermore, in a mouse cardiac ischemia model, there was significant monocyte adhesion to coronary vessel endothelium at 2 hours post-reperfusion pointing to a specific and rapid vessel margination response to cardiac injury. In conclusion, rapid depletion of NC monocytes from the circulation in STEMI patients following coronary artery reperfusion correlates with the level of acute cardiac injury and involves rapid margination to the coronary vasculature.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Cardíacos/sangue , Traumatismos Cardíacos/patologia , Monócitos/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Animais , Feminino , Traumatismos Cardíacos/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Angiogenesis ; 23(4): 559-566, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506200

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endoglin (ENG) forms a receptor complex with ALK1 in endothelial cells (ECs) to promote BMP9/10 signalling. Loss of function mutations in either ENG or ALK1 genes lead to the inherited vascular disorder hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), characterised by arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, the vessel-specific role of ENG and ALK1 proteins in protecting against AVMs is unclear. For example, AVMs have been described to initiate in arterioles, whereas ENG is predominantly expressed in venous ECs. To investigate whether ENG has any arterial involvement in protecting against AVM formation, we specifically depleted the Eng gene in venous and capillary endothelium whilst maintaining arterial expression, and investigated how this affected the incidence and location of AVMs in comparison with pan-endothelial Eng knockdown. METHODS: Using the mouse neonatal retinal model of angiogenesis, we first established the earliest time point at which Apj-Cre-ERT2 activity was present in venous and capillary ECs but absent from arterial ECs. We then compared the incidence of AVMs following pan-endothelial or venous/capillary-specific ENG knockout. RESULTS: Activation of Apj-Cre-ERT2 with tamoxifen from postnatal day (P) 5 ensured preservation of arterial ENG protein expression. Specific loss of ENG expression in ECs of veins and capillaries led to retinal AVMs at a similar frequency to pan-endothelial loss of ENG. AVMs occurred in the proximal as well as the distal part of the retina consistent with a defect in vascular remodelling during maturation of the vasculature. CONCLUSION: Expression of ENG is not required in arterial ECs to protect against AVM formation.

4.
Circ Res ; 126(2): 243-257, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805812

RESUMO

RATIONALE: ENG (endoglin) is a coreceptor for BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) 9/10 and is strongly expressed in endothelial cells. Mutations in ENG lead to the inherited vascular disorder hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia characterized by local telangiectases and larger arteriovenous malformations (AVMs); but how ENG functions to regulate the adult vasculature is not understood. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the work was to determine how ENG maintains vessel caliber in adult life to prevent AVM formation and thereby protect heart function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genetic depletion of endothelial Eng in adult mice led to a significant reduction in mean aortic blood pressure. There was no evidence of hemorrhage, anemia, or AVMs in major organs to explain the reduced aortic pressure. However, large AVMs developed in the peripheral vasculature intimately associated with the pelvic cartilaginous symphysis-a noncapsulated cartilage with a naturally high endogenous expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). The increased blood flow through these peripheral AVMs explained the drop in aortic blood pressure and led to increased cardiac preload, and high stroke volumes, ultimately resulting in high-output heart failure. Development of pelvic AVMs in this region of high VEGF expression occurred because loss of ENG in endothelial cells leads to increased sensitivity to VEGF and a hyperproliferative response. Development of AVMs and associated progression to high-output heart failure in the absence of endothelial ENG was attenuated by targeting VEGF signaling with an anti-VEGFR2 (VEGF receptor 2) antibody. CONCLUSIONS: ENG promotes the normal balance of VEGF signaling in quiescent endothelial cells to maintain vessel caliber-an essential function in conditions of increased VEGF expression such as local hypoxia or inflammation. In the absence of endothelial ENG, increased sensitivity to VEGF drives abnormal endothelial proliferation in local regions of high VEGF expression, leading to AVM formation and a rapid injurious impact on heart function.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/metabolismo , Endoglina/genética , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Malformações Arteriovenosas/complicações , Malformações Arteriovenosas/genética , Malformações Arteriovenosas/patologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Proliferação de Células , Endoglina/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(36): 17800-17808, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431534

RESUMO

Endoglin (ENG) is a coreceptor of the transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) family signaling complex, which is highly expressed on endothelial cells and plays a key role in angiogenesis. Its extracellular domain can be cleaved and released into the circulation as soluble ENG (sENG). High circulating levels of sENG contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE). Circulating bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), a vascular quiescence and endothelial-protective factor, binds sENG with high affinity, but how sENG participates in BMP9 signaling complexes is not fully resolved. sENG was thought to be a ligand trap for BMP9, preventing type II receptor binding and BMP9 signaling. Here we show that, despite cell-surface ENG being a dimer linked by disulfide bonds, sENG purified from human placenta and plasma from PE patients is primarily in a monomeric form. Incubating monomeric sENG with the circulating form of BMP9 (prodomain-bound form) in solution leads to the release of the prodomain and formation of a sENG:BMP9 complex. Furthermore, we demonstrate that binding of sENG to BMP9 does not inhibit BMP9 signaling. Indeed, the sENG:BMP9 complex signals with comparable potency and specificity to BMP9 on human primary endothelial cells. The full signaling activity of the sENG:BMP9 complex required transmembrane ENG. This study confirms that rather than being an inhibitory ligand trap, increased circulating sENG might preferentially direct BMP9 signaling via cell-surface ENG at the endothelium. This is important for understanding the role of sENG in the pathobiology of PE and other cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Endoglina/metabolismo , Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Proteínas da Gravidez/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta/patologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Gravidez
6.
Stem Cell Reports ; 8(5): 1287-1298, 2017 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494939

RESUMO

Clinical trials of stem cell therapy to treat ischemic heart disease primarily use heterogeneous stem cell populations. Small benefits occur via paracrine mechanisms that include stimulating angiogenesis, and increased understanding of these mechanisms would help to improve patient outcomes. Cardiosphere-derived-cells (CDCs) are an example of these heterogeneous stem cell populations, cultured from cardiac tissue. CDCs express endoglin, a co-receptor that binds specific transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) family ligands, including bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9). In endothelial cells endoglin regulates angiogenic responses, and we therefore hypothesized that endoglin is required to promote the paracrine pro-angiogenic properties of CDCs. Cre/LoxP technology was used to genetically manipulate endoglin expression in CDCs, and we found that the pro-angiogenic properties of the CDC secretome are endoglin dependent both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, BMP9 pre-treatment of endoglin-depleted CDCs restores their pro-angiogenic paracrine properties. As BMP9 signaling is normally required to maintain endoglin expression, we propose that media containing BMP9 could be critical for therapeutic CDC preparation.


Assuntos
Endoglina/metabolismo , Miocárdio/citologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Comunicação Parácrina , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Endoglina/genética , Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
7.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 11: 29-34, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27882341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mice are frequently used in research to examine outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI) and to investigate therapeutic interventions at an early pre-clinical stage. The MI model is generated by surgically occluding a major coronary artery, but natural variation in murine coronary anatomy can generate variable outcomes that will inevitably affect the accuracy of such investigations. The aim of this study was to use MRI to derive the most sensitive early variable that could be used to predict subsequent adverse cardiac remodelling in a male mouse model of MI. METHODS: Using a longitudinal study design, heart structure and function were evaluated using cardiac MRI at one week following surgical MI to generate the early measurements and again at four weeks, when the scar had matured. The primary variables measured at week one were left ventricular volumes at end systole (LV-ESV) and at end diastole (LV-EDV), infarct size, LV-cardiac mass, and ejection fraction (EF). RESULTS: Univariate and multiple regression analyses showed that LV-ESV at one week following MI could be used to accurately predict various parameters of adverse LV remodelling at four weeks post-MI. However, the highest correlation was between LV-ESV at one week following MI and LV-EDV at four weeks (r = 0.99; p < 0.0001), making LV-ESV at one week a valuable predictor variable of future adverse ventricular remodelling after MI. CONCLUSION: Using MRI to determine LV-ESV at an early stage following MI enables a more robust analysis of potential therapeutic interventions to ameliorate adverse cardiac remodelling.

8.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e98646, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24896812

RESUMO

Rare inherited cardiovascular diseases are frequently caused by mutations in genes that are essential for the formation and/or function of the cardiovasculature. Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia is a familial disease of this type. The majority of patients carry mutations in either Endoglin (ENG) or ACVRL1 (also known as ALK1) genes, and the disease is characterized by arteriovenous malformations and persistent haemorrhage. ENG and ACVRL1 encode receptors for the TGFß superfamily of ligands, that are essential for angiogenesis in early development but their roles are not fully understood. Our goal was to examine the role of Acvrl1 in vascular endothelial cells during vascular development and to determine whether loss of endothelial Acvrl1 leads to arteriovenous malformations. Acvrl1 was depleted in endothelial cells either in early postnatal life or in adult mice. Using the neonatal retinal plexus to examine angiogenesis, we observed that loss of endothelial Acvrl1 led to venous enlargement, vascular hyperbranching and arteriovenous malformations. These phenotypes were associated with loss of arterial Jag1 expression, decreased pSmad1/5/8 activity and increased endothelial cell proliferation. We found that Endoglin was markedly down-regulated in Acvrl1-depleted ECs showing endoglin expression to be downstream of Acvrl1 signalling in vivo. Endothelial-specific depletion of Acvrl1 in pups also led to pulmonary haemorrhage, but in adult mice resulted in caecal haemorrhage and fatal anaemia. We conclude that during development, endothelial Acvrl1 plays an essential role to regulate endothelial cell proliferation and arterial identity during angiogenesis, whilst in adult life endothelial Acvrl1 is required to maintain vascular integrity.


Assuntos
Receptores de Ativinas Tipo I/genética , Malformações Arteriovenosas/genética , Endotélio/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Endoglina , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Hemorragia/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Vasos Retinianos/metabolismo , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
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