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1.
Sleep Health ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore (a) how perceptions of personal and divine control over one's sleep schedule combine in distinct ways to predict sleep quality among college students and (b) whether health behaviors and psychological distress mediate the associations between perceptions of sleep control and sleep quality. METHODS: We surveyed 1251 students attending a public university in South Texas. All measures were derived from self-reports. Binary logistic regression techniques were used to predict the odds of reporting high-quality sleep in the past month. Mediation analyses were used to decompose the estimated effects of perceptions of sleep control on sleep quality via smoking, drinking, and psychological distress. RESULTS: Compared to participants who reported both low personal control and low divine control over their sleep schedules, students who reported both high personal control and high divine control exhibited 148% greater odds of reporting high-quality sleep (odds ratio = 2.48; 95% confidence interval = 1.434-4.294). These same participants also showed the highest predicted probabilities of reporting high-quality sleep (22%) compared to students with other sleep control orientations. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced psychological distress partially accounted for these differences, whereas smoking and drinking behaviors did not. CONCLUSION: College students who felt they and God both shared full control over their sleep schedules reported the highest quality sleep, which was partially explained by their lower average levels of psychological distress.

2.
Phytopathology ; : PHYTO06190201FI, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502520

RESUMO

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is an extensively studied RNA virus known to infect tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and other solanaceous crops. TMV has been classified as a seedborne virus in tobacco, with infection of developing seedlings thought to occur from contact with the TMV-infected seed coat. The mechanism of TMV transmission through seed was studied in seed of the K 326 cultivar of flue-cured tobacco. Cross pollinations were performed to determine the effect of parental tissue on TMV infection in seed. Dissection of individual tobacco seeds into seed coat, endosperm, and embryo was performed to determine TMV location within a seed, while germination tests and separation of the developing seedling into seed coat, roots, and cotyledons were conducted to estimate the percent transmission of TMV. A reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was developed and used to determine TMV concentrations in individual seed harvested from pods that formed on plants from TMV-infected and noninfected crosses. The results showed maternal transmission of TMV to tobacco seed and seedlings that developed from infected seed, not paternal transmission. RT-qPCR and endpoint PCR assays were also conducted on the separated seed coat, endosperm, and embryo of individual seed and separated cotyledons, roots, and seed coats of individual seedlings that developed from infected tobacco seed to identify the location of the virus in the seed and the subsequent path the virus takes to infect the developing seedling. RT-qPCR and endpoint PCR assay results showed evidence of TMV infection in the endosperm and embryo, as well as in the developing seedling roots and cotyledons within 10 days of initiating seed germination. To our knowledge, this is the first report of TMV being detected in embryos of tobacco seed, demonstrating that TMV is seedborne and seed-transmitted in flue-cured tobacco.

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(42): 15148-15153, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376232

RESUMO

The synthesis and applications of carboxy-MIDA-boronate, a novel C1 building block, are described. This molecule is accessible via a ruthenium tetraoxide-mediated cleavage of commercially available ethynyl-MIDA-boronate. In the course of this study, carboxy-MIDA-boronate was found to possess ambident reactivity towards nucleophiles. Carboxylic acid derivatization produces a broad range of previously unknown carbamoyl-, oxycarbo- and thiocarboboronates. Carboxy-MIDA-boronate and its derivatives undergo condensations to access borylated heterocycles with boron at positions that are difficult to access using alternate methods. The resulting heterocycles participate in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction, enabling entry into diverse bis(heteroaryl) motifs. The carbon monoxide-releasing capacity of carboxy-MIDA-boronate was also examined and applied in palladium-catalyzed carbonylation.

4.
Data Brief ; 23: 103647, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788391

RESUMO

This article presents data collected from a cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, who expressed interest in family planning and reproductive health in their clinical context. They were randomized (1:1, text-only vs. multimedia content) to access an online e-health portal containing educational information on the topic. The data collected includes baseline demographics, medication history, reproductive history, as well as standardized, validated questionnaires on knowledge ('CCPKnow'), reproductive concerns, beliefs about medications ('BMQ'), and medication adherence ('MARS-5'). These questionnaires were administered prior to the intervention, immediately after accessing the materials, and a minimum of 6 months later (without re-accessing the online material). Two publications have been generated from analysis and aggregation of the CCPKnow data ("Pregnancy-related Beliefs and Concerns of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients are Modified After Accessing e-Health Portal" (Sutton et al., in press), "Innovative Online Educational Portal Improves Disease-Specific Reproductive Knowledge Among Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease" (Sutton et al., 2018) however this is an extensive dataset that could be analyzed or combined with others' datasets for further insights.

6.
J Pharm Pract ; 32(5): 579-583, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463168

RESUMO

Fluid resuscitation, to restore intravascular volume and improve oxygen delivery, is a crucial step in early resuscitation efforts of patients with sepsis or septic shock. The 2016 Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines suggest the use of dynamic versus static measures of fluid responsiveness and fluid resuscitation with at least 30 mL/kg of intravenous crystalloid within the first 3 hours followed by fluid administration if hemodynamic factors continue to improve. Despite these recommendations, risks to this practice may exist as multiple studies have demonstrated an association between a positive fluid balance and/or administration of large fluid volume and increase in mortality. These studies are limited by variations in their methodologic design; therefore, cause and effect cannot yet be determined. Future multicenter, randomized, controlled studies that evaluate fluid balance and fluid volume need to be conducted to clarify the role of fluid administration to patients with sepsis to maximize benefits and minimize risk.

7.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 15(1): 36, 2018 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739468

RESUMO

The original article [1] contains a small mistake concerning the ARTIC Team members mentioned in the Acknowledgements. The team member, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò had their name presented incorrectly. This has now been corrected in the original article.

8.
J Relig Health ; 57(6): 2362-2377, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29564619

RESUMO

Does religious involvement (i.e., attendance and salience) mitigate the association between combat casualty exposure and sleep disturbance among US military veterans? To address this question, we analyze cross-sectional survey data from the public-use version of the 2011 Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Military Personnel. Results from multivariate regression models indicate: (1) Combat casualty exposure was positively associated with sleep disturbance; (2) religious salience both offset and moderated (i.e., buffered) the above association; and (3) religious attendance offset but did not moderate the above association. We discuss study implications and limitations, as well as some avenues for future research.


Assuntos
Distúrbios de Guerra/complicações , Militares/psicologia , Religião , Privação do Sono/complicações , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Veteranos/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Distúrbios de Guerra/epidemiologia , Distúrbios de Guerra/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(40): 14001-14004, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972364

RESUMO

The development of a system for the operationally simple, scalable conversion of polyhydroxylated biomass into industrially relevant feedstock chemicals is described. This system includes a bimetallic Pd/Re catalyst in combination with hydrogen gas as a terminal reductant and enables the high-yielding reduction of sugar acids. This procedure has been applied to the synthesis of adipate esters, precursors for the production of Nylon-6,6, in excellent yield from biomass-derived sources.


Assuntos
Adipatos/química , Caprolactama/análogos & derivados , Hidrogênio/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Açúcares Ácidos/química , Adipatos/síntese química , Biomassa , Caprolactama/síntese química , Caprolactama/química , Catálise , Esterificação , Hidrogenação , Hidroxilação , Oxirredução , Paládio/química , Polímeros/química , Rênio/química , Açúcares Ácidos/síntese química
10.
J Nematol ; 48(2): 79-86, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27418700

RESUMO

Most commercial tobacco cultivars possess the Rk1 resistance gene to races 1 and 3 of Meloidogyne incognita and race 1 of Meloidogyne arenaria, which has caused a shift in population prevalence in Virginia tobacco fields toward other species and races. A number of cultivars now also possess the Rk2 gene for root-knot resistance. Experiments were conducted in 2013 to 2014 to examine whether possessing both Rk1 and Rk2 increases resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 compared to either gene alone. Greenhouse trials were arranged in a completely randomized design with Coker 371-Gold (C371G; susceptible), NC 95 and SC 72 (Rk1Rk1), T-15-1-1 (Rk2Rk2), and STNCB-2-28 and NOD 8 (Rk1Rk1 and Rk2Rk2). Each plant was inoculated with 5,000 root-knot nematode eggs; data were collected 60 d postinoculation. Percent galling and numbers of egg masses and eggs were counted, the latter being used to calculate the reproductive index on each host. Despite variability, entries with both Rk1 and Rk2 conferred greater resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 than plants with Rk1 or Rk2 alone. Entries with Rk1 alone were successful in reducing root galling and nematode reproduction compared to the susceptible control. Entry T-15-1-1 did not reduce galling compared to the susceptible control but often suppressed reproduction.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27337176

RESUMO

Decapods represent one of the most ecologically diverse taxonomic groups within crustaceans, making them ideal to study physiological processes like osmoregulation. However, prior studies have failed to consider the entire transcriptomic response of the gill - the primary organ responsible for ion transport - to changing salinity. Moreover, the molecular genetic differences between non-osmoregulatory and osmoregulatory gill types, as well as the hormonal basis of osmoregulation, remain underexplored. Here, we identified and characterized differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via RNA-Seq in anterior (non-osmoregulatory) and posterior (osmoregulatory) gills during high to low salinity transfer in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, a well-studied model for crustacean osmoregulation. Overall, we confirmed previous expression patterns for individual ion transport genes and identified novel ones with salinity-mediated expression. Notable, novel DEGs among salinities and gill types for C. sapidus included anterior gills having higher expression of structural genes such as actin and cuticle proteins while posterior gills exhibit elevated expression of ion transport and energy-related genes, with the latter likely linked to ion transport. Potential targets among recovered DEGs for hormonal regulation of ion transport between salinities and gill types included neuropeptide Y and a KCTD16-like protein. Using publically available sequence data, constituents for a "core" gill transcriptome among decapods are presented, comprising genes involved in ion transport and energy conversion and consistent with salinity transfer experiments. Lastly, rarefication analyses lead us to recommend a modest number of sequence reads (~10-15M), but with increased biological replication, be utilized in future DEG analyses of crustaceans.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Salinidade , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Braquiúros/efeitos dos fármacos , Braquiúros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genoma/genética , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 282(1817): 20151453, 2015 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26468242

RESUMO

The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for humans and biodiversity. Human populations show robust annual rhythms in health and well-being, and the birth month can have lasting effects that persist throughout life. This review emphasizes the need for a better understanding of seasonal biology against the backdrop of its rapidly progressing disruption through climate change, human lifestyles and other anthropogenic impact. Climate change is modifying annual rhythms to which numerous organisms have adapted, with potential consequences for industries relating to health, ecosystems and food security. Disconcertingly, human lifestyles under artificial conditions of eternal summer provide the most extreme example for disconnect from natural seasons, making humans vulnerable to increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we introduce scenarios of seasonal disruption, highlight key aspects of seasonal biology and summarize from biomedical, anthropological, veterinary, agricultural and environmental perspectives the recent evidence for seasonal desynchronization between environmental factors and internal rhythms. Because annual rhythms are pervasive across biological systems, they provide a common framework for trans-disciplinary research.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Periodicidade , Estações do Ano , Agricultura , Animais , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Plantas
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(34): 11197-204, 2015 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26305231

RESUMO

The enantioselective total syntheses of himandravine and GB17 were completed through a common biomimetic strategy involving Diels-Alder reactions of unusual double diene containing linear precursors. The double diene precursors, containing or lacking a C12 substituent as required to produce GB17 or himandravine, respectively, were found to undergo Diels-Alder reactions to afford mixtures of regioisomeric cycloadducts that map onto the alternative carbocyclic frameworks of both himandravine and GB17. Computational investigations revealed that these Diels-Alder reactions proceed via transition state structures of similar energy that have a high degree of bispericyclic character and that the low levels of regioselectivity observed in the reactions are a consequence of competing orbital interaction and distortion energies. The combined experimental and computational results provide valuable insights into the biosynthesis of the Galbulimima alkaloids.


Assuntos
Alcadienos/química , Alcaloides/síntese química , Biomimética , Reação de Cicloadição , Piperidinas/síntese química , Quinolizidinas/síntese química , Alcaloides/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Piperidinas/química , Quinolizidinas/química
14.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 115(2): 173-84, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25920670

RESUMO

Farmed fish are typically genetically different from wild conspecifics. Escapees from fish farms may contribute one-way gene flow from farm to wild gene pools, which can depress population productivity, dilute local adaptations and disrupt coadapted gene complexes. Here, we reanalyse data from two experiments (McGinnity et al., 1997, 2003) where performance of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) progeny originating from experimental crosses between farm and wild parents (in three different cohorts) were measured in a natural stream under common garden conditions. Previous published analyses focussed on group-level differences but did not account for pedigree structure, as we do here using modern mixed-effect models. Offspring with one or two farm parents exhibited poorer survival in their first and second year of life compared with those with two wild parents and these group-level inferences were robust to excluding outlier families. Variation in performance among farm, hybrid and wild families was generally similar in magnitude. Farm offspring were generally larger at all life stages examined than wild offspring, but the differences were moderate (5-20%) and similar in magnitude in the wild versus hatchery environments. Quantitative genetic analyses conducted using a Bayesian framework revealed moderate heritability in juvenile fork length and mass and positive genetic correlations (>0.85) between these morphological traits. Our study confirms (using more rigorous statistical techniques) previous studies showing that offspring of wild fish invariably have higher fitness and contributes fresh insights into family-level variation in performance of farm, wild and hybrid Atlantic salmon families in the wild. It also adds to a small, but growing, number of studies that estimate key evolutionary parameters in wild salmonid populations. Such information is vital in modelling the impacts of introgression by escaped farm salmon.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/genética , Aptidão Genética , Variação Genética , Salmo salar/genética , Animais , Aquicultura , Teorema de Bayes , Tamanho Corporal , Padrões de Herança , Irlanda , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Genéticos , Rios
15.
Ecology ; 95(8): 2077-83, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25230460

RESUMO

Carry-over effects have major implications for individual fitness and population and evolutionary dynamics. The strength of these effects is dependent on an individual's intrinsic performance and the environmental conditions it experiences. However, understanding the relative importance of environmental and intrinsic effects underpinning seasonal interactions has proved extremely challenging, since they covary. A powerful approach is longitudinal measurement of individuals across a range of conditions, whereby each animal is effectively acting as its own control. We related time spent foraging during the nonbreeding period to subsequent breeding performance in European Shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis. By following individuals for up to six years, we could test simultaneously for extrinsic and intrinsic effects using random regression modeling. We detected significant annual and among-individual variation in daily foraging time during the late winter, and clear variation among individuals in the quadratic relationship between foraging time and date. Shorter foraging times were associated with earlier and more successful breeding, driven by differences among years and individuals, with no evidence of individual variation in the slope of these relationships. That both environmental and intrinsic variation shape carry-over effects has important implications for population responses to environmental change.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Agricultura Florestal , Longevidade , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24333600

RESUMO

The transfer of euryhaline crustaceans from full-strength seawater to low salinity results in both a rapid up-regulation of carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) mRNA and a slow induction of CA activity. There is a delay of several days between the two processes, which is attributed to the time required to synthesize new enzyme. These delays may also be due to limitations in the cellular uptake of Zn, which is a required post-translational active site modification to CA. To investigate these processes, the euryhaline crabs, Callinectes sapidus and Carcinus maenas, were acclimated to salinities below their isosmotic points (22.5 and 25 ppt, respectively) for 7 days to activate the physiological and molecular mechanisms of osmoregulation. CA mRNA increased 90-fold in C. sapidus and 2-fold in C. maenas within 6h; whereas it took 48 h for the initial increases in CA activity (120% and 31%), and 4 to 7 days for new acclimated levels (300% and 100%, respectively). Crabs were then transferred to lower salinities (10 and 15 ppt) to induce further CA activity and to determine if previous increases in CA mRNA reduced the time required for subsequent CA induction. Additionally, the expression of the Zn transporter ZIP1 was examined in C. sapidus at 35 and 22.5 ppt. In both species, prior CA mRNA elevation failed to accelerate the rate of CA induction. Levels of CA mRNA did not change in either crab following transfer from intermediate to low salinity. Taken together, these results show that the timecourse of CA induction at low salinity is not limited by the expression of CA mRNA, but by the synthesis of new enzyme from an existing pool of mRNA. No increases in ZIP1 expression occurred at low salinity, therefore these delays may be due to the limits of cellular Zn uptake.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Braquiúros/enzimologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Braquiúros/genética , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Indução Enzimática , Osmorregulação , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Salinidade , Transcrição Genética , Zinco/metabolismo
17.
Biol Bull ; 227(3): 285-99, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25572216

RESUMO

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays an essential role as a provider of counterions for Na(+)/H(+) and Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange in branchial ionic uptake processes in euryhaline crustaceans. CA activity and gene expression are low in crabs acclimated to full-strength seawater, with transfer to low salinity resulting in large-scale inductions of mRNA and subsequent enzyme activity in the posterior ion-regulating gills (e.g., G7). In the green crab Carcinus maenas, CA has been shown to be under inhibitory neuroendocrine control by a putative hormone in the x-organ-sinus gland complex (XOSG), located in the eyestalk. This study characterizes the neuroendocrine regulation of CA induction in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, a commonly used experimental organism for crustacean osmoregulation. In crabs acclimated to full-strength seawater, eyestalk ligation (ESL) triggered a 1.8- and 100-fold increase in CA activity and mRNA, respectively. Re-injection with eyestalk homogenates abolished increases in CA activity and fractionally reduced CA gene expression. ESL also enhanced CA induction by 33% after 96 h in crabs transferred to 15 ppt salinity. Injection of eyestalk homogenates into intact crabs transferred from 35 to 15 ppt diminished by 43% the CA induction stimulated by low salinity. These results point to the presence of a repressor hormone in the eyestalk. Separate injections of medullary tissue (MT) and sinus gland (SG), two components of the eyestalk, reduced salinity-stimulated CA activity by 22% and 49%, suggesting that the putative repressor is localized to the SG. Crabs injected with SG extract harvested from crabs acclimated to 5 ppt showed no decrease in CA activity, demonstrating that the hormone is down-regulated at low salinity. Our results show the presence in the XOSG of an inhibitory compound that regulates salinity-stimulated CA induction.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/enzimologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Animais , Anidrases Carbônicas/genética , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Brânquias/enzimologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiologia , Salinidade
19.
J Fish Biol ; 77(3): 692-705, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20701648

RESUMO

Time series on juvenile life-history traits obtained from sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka were analysed to assess lake-specific environmental influences on juvenile migration timing, size and survival of fish from a common gene pool. Every year for the past two decades, O. nerka have been spawned at a hatchery facility, and the progeny released into two lakes that differ in average summer temperatures, limnological attributes and growth opportunities. Juveniles reared in the warmer, more productive Crosswind Lake were larger and heavier as smolts compared to those from the cooler, less productive Summit Lake and had higher in-lake and subsequent marine survival. Crosswind Lake smolts migrated from the lake to sea slightly earlier in the season but the migration timing distributions overlapped considerably across years. Fry stocking density had a negative effect on smolt length for both lakes, and a negative effect on in-lake survival in Summit Lake. Taken together, the results revealed a strong effect of lake-rearing environment on the expression of life-history variation in O. nerka. The stocking of these lakes each year with juveniles from a single mixed-source population provided a large-scale reverse common-garden experiment, where the same gene pool was exposed to different environments, rather than the different gene pools in the same environment approach typical of evolutionary ecology studies. Other researchers are encouraged to seek and exploit similar serendipitous situations, which might allow environmental and genetic influences on ecologically important traits to be distinguished in natural or semi-natural settings.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Água Doce , Salmão/fisiologia , Migração Animal , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Pesqueiros , Salmão/genética , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Science ; 321(5896): 1681-2, 2008 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18687923

RESUMO

Parasitism can be a major constraint on host condition and an important selective force. Theoretical and empirical evidence shows that maternal condition affects relative investment in sons and daughters; however, the effect of parasitism on sex ratio in vertebrates is seldom considered. We demonstrate experimentally that parasitism constrains the ability of mothers to rear sons in a long-lived seabird, the European shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis. The effect contributes to the decline in offspring survival as the breeding season progresses and hence has important population-level consequences for this, and potentially other, seasonal breeders.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/fisiopatologia , Aves/fisiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Comportamento de Nidação , Razão de Masculinidade , Animais , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Ascaridida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Ascaridida/fisiopatologia , Ascaridoidea , Doenças das Aves/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Caracteres Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida
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