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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691811

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a complex highly heritable disorder. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple loci that influence the risk of developing schizophrenia, although the causal variants driving these associations and their impacts on specific genes are largely unknown. We identify a significant correlation between schizophrenia risk and expression at 89 genes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (P ≤ 9.43x10-6), including 20 novel genes. Genes whose expression correlate with schizophrenia were enriched for those involved in abnormal CNS synaptic transmission (PFDR = 0.02) and antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I (PFDR = 0.02). Within the CNS synaptic transmission set, we identify individual significant candidate genes to which we assign direction of expression changes in schizophrenia. The findings provide strong candidates for experimentally probing the molecular basis of synaptic pathology in schizophrenia.

2.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553412

RESUMO

Importance: Psychotic experiences, such as hallucinations and delusions, are reported by approximately 5% to 10% of the general population, although only a small proportion develop psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Studying the genetic causes of psychotic experiences in the general population, and its association with the genetic causes of other disorders, may increase the understanding of their pathologic significance. Objectives: To determine whether genetic liability to psychotic experiences is shared with schizophrenia and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders and traits and to identify genetic loci associated with psychotic experiences. Design, Setting and Participants: Analyses of genetic correlation, polygenic risk scores, and copy number variation were performed using data from participants in the UK Biobank from April 1, 2018, to March 20, 2019, to assess whether genetic liability to psychotic experiences is shared with schizophrenia and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders and traits. Genome-wide association studies of psychotic experience phenotypes were conducted to identify novel genetic loci. Participants in the final analyses after exclusions included 6123 individuals reporting any psychotic experience, 2143 individuals reporting distressing psychotic experiences, and 3337 individuals reporting multiple occurrences of psychotic experiences. A total of 121 843 individuals who did not report a psychotic experience formed the comparator group. Individuals with a psychotic disorder were excluded from all analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Genetic associations with psychotic experience phenotypes. Results: The study included a total of 127 966 participants (56.0% women and 44.0% men; mean [SD] age, 64.0 [7.6] years). Psychotic experiences were genetically correlated with major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Analyses of polygenic risk scores identified associations between psychotic experiences and genetic liability for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Individuals reporting psychotic experiences had an increased burden of copy number variations previously associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% CI, 1.39-2.98; P = 2.49 × 10-4) and neurodevelopmental disorders more widely (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24-2.48; P = 1.41 × 10-3). Genome-wide association studies identified 4 significantly associated loci, including a locus in Ankyrin-3 (ANK3 [GenBank NM_020987]) (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.10-1.23; P = 3.06 × 10-8) with any psychotic experience, and a locus in cannabinoid receptor 2 gene (CNR2 [GenBank NM_001841]) (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.78; P = 3.78 × 10-8) with distressing psychotic experiences. The genome-wide association study of any psychotic experience had a low single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate (h2 = 1.71%; 95% CI, 1.02%-2.40%). Conclusions and Relevance: A large genetic association study of psychotic experiences from the population-based UK Biobank sample found support for a shared genetic liability between psychotic experiences and schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

3.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 30% of individuals with schizophrenia remain symptomatic and significantly impaired despite antipsychotic treatment and are considered to be treatment resistant. Clinicians are currently unable to predict which patients are at higher risk of treatment resistance.AimsTo determine whether genetic liability for schizophrenia and/or clinical characteristics measurable at illness onset can prospectively indicate a higher risk of treatment-resistant psychosis (TRP). METHOD: In 1070 individuals with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorders, schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) and large copy number variations (CNVs) were assessed for enrichment in TRP. Regression and machine-learning approaches were used to investigate the association of phenotypes related to demographics, family history, premorbid factors and illness onset with TRP. RESULTS: Younger age at onset (odds ratio 0.94, P = 7.79 × 10-13) and poor premorbid social adjustment (odds ratio 1.64, P = 2.41 × 10-4) increased risk of TRP in univariate regression analyses. These factors remained associated in multivariate regression analyses, which also found lower premorbid IQ (odds ratio 0.98, P = 7.76 × 10-3), younger father's age at birth (odds ratio 0.97, P = 0.015) and cannabis use (odds ratio 1.60, P = 0.025) increased the risk of TRP. Machine-learning approaches found age at onset to be the most important predictor and also identified premorbid IQ and poor social adjustment as predictors of TRP, mirroring findings from regression analyses. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was not associated with TRP. CONCLUSIONS: People with an earlier age at onset of psychosis and poor premorbid functioning are more likely to be treatment resistant. The genetic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia may be distinct from that of treatment outcomes.Declaration of interestNone.

5.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994872

RESUMO

Importance: The role of large, rare copy number variants (CNVs) in neuropsychiatric disorders is well established, but their association with common psychiatric disorders, such as depression, remains unclear. Objective: To examine the association of a group of 53 CNVs associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and burden of rare CNVs with risk of depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study used data from the UK Biobank study sample, which comprised 502 534 individuals living in the United Kingdom. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar affective disorder diagnoses were excluded. Analyses were further restricted to individuals of European genetic ancestry (n = 407 074). The study was conducted from January 2017 to September 2018. Exposures: CNV carrier status. Main Outcomes and Measures: For the primary outcome, individuals who reported that a physician had told them they had a depression diagnosis were defined as cases. Analyses were repeated using 2 alternative depression definitions: self-reported lifetime depression with current antidepressant prescription at the time of visit 1, and hospital discharge diagnosis of depression. Results: Copy number variants were identified in 488 366 individuals aged 37 to 73 years. In total, 407 074 individuals with European genetic ancestry (220 201 female [54.1%]; mean [SD] age of 56.9 [8.0] years) were included in the study. Of these individuals, 23 979 (5.9%) had self-reported lifetime depression and 383 095 (94.1%) reported no lifetime depression. The group of 53 neurodevelopmental CNVs was associated with self-reported depression (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.19-1.49, uncorrected P = 1.38 × 10-7), and these results were consistent when using 2 alternative definitions of depression. This association was partially explained by physical health, educational attainment, social deprivation, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. A strong independent association remained between the neurodevelopmental CNVs and depression in analyses that incorporated these other measures (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.11-1.43; P = 2.87 × 10-4). Eight individual CNVs were nominally associated with risk of depression, and 3 of these 8 CNVs (1q21.1 duplication, Prader-Willi syndrome duplication, and 16p11.2 duplication) survived Bonferroni correction for the 53 CNVs tested. After the exclusion of carriers of neurodevelopmental CNVs, no association was found between measures of CNV burden and depression. Conclusions and Relevance: Neurodevelopmental CNVs appear to be associated with depression, extending the spectrum of clinical phenotypes that are associated with CNV carrier status.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1121-1133, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886340

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated genetic differences between monozygotic (MZ) twins. To test the hypothesis that early post-twinning mutational events associate with phenotypic discordance, we investigated a cohort of 13 twin pairs (n = 26) discordant for various clinical phenotypes using whole-exome sequencing and screened for copy number variation (CNV). We identified a de novo variant in PLCB1, a gene involved in the hydrolysis of lipid phosphorus in milk from dairy cows, associated with lactase non-persistence, and a variant in the mitochondrial complex I gene MT-ND5 associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We also found somatic variants in multiple genes (TMEM225B, KBTBD3, TUBGCP4, TFIP11) in another MZ twin pair discordant for ALS. Based on the assumption that discordance between twins could be explained by a common variant with variable penetrance or expressivity, we screened the twin samples for known pathogenic variants that are shared and identified a rare deletion overlapping ARHGAP11B, in the twin pair manifesting with either schizotypal personality disorder or schizophrenia. Parent-offspring trio analysis was implemented for two twin pairs to assess potential association of variants of parental origin with susceptibility to disease. We identified a de novo variant in RASD2 shared by 8-year-old male twins with a suspected diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) manifesting as different traits. A de novo CNV duplication was also identified in these twins overlapping CD38, a gene previously implicated in ASD. In twins discordant for Tourette's syndrome, a paternally inherited stop loss variant was detected in AADAC, a known candidate gene for the disorder.

7.
Br J Psychiatry ; 214(5): 297-304, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by varying degrees of cognitive impairment, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. However, the effects of many individual CNVs in carriers without neurodevelopmental disorders are not yet fully understood, and little is known about the effects of reciprocal copy number changes of known pathogenic loci.AimsWe aimed to analyse the effect of CNV carrier status on cognitive performance and measures of occupational and social outcomes in unaffected individuals from the UK Biobank. METHOD: We called CNVs in the full UK Biobank sample and analysed data from 420 247 individuals who passed CNV quality control, reported White British or Irish ancestry and were not diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders. We analysed 33 pathogenic CNVs, including their reciprocal deletions/duplications, for association with seven cognitive tests and four general measures of functioning: academic qualifications, occupation, household income and Townsend Deprivation Index. RESULTS: Most CNVs (24 out of 33) were associated with reduced performance on at least one cognitive test or measure of functioning. The changes on the cognitive tests were modest (average reduction of 0.13 s.d.) but varied markedly between CNVs. All 12 schizophrenia-associated CNVs were associated with significant impairments on measures of functioning. CONCLUSIONS: CNVs implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, are associated with cognitive deficits, even among unaffected individuals. These deficits may be subtle but CNV carriers have significant disadvantages in educational attainment and ability to earn income in adult life.Declaration of interestNone.

8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 102, 2019 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804328

RESUMO

Genomic copy number variants (CNVs) are amongst the most highly penetrant genetic risk factors for neuropsychiatric disorders. The scarcity of carriers of individual CNVs and their phenotypical heterogeneity limits investigations of the associated neural mechanisms and endophenotypes. We applied a novel design based on CNV penetrance for schizophrenia (Sz) and developmental delay (DD) that allows us to identify structural sequelae that are most relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders. Our focus on brain structural abnormalities was based on the hypothesis that convergent mechanisms contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders would likely manifest in the macro- and microstructure of white matter and cortical and subcortical grey matter. Twenty one adult participants carrying neuropsychiatric risk CNVs (including those located at 22q11.2, 15q11.2, 1q21.1, 16p11.2 and 17q12) and 15 age- and gender-matched controls underwent T1-weighted structural, diffusion and relaxometry MRI. The macro- and microstructural properties of the cingulum bundles were associated with penetrance for both developmental delay and schizophrenia, in particular curvature along the anterior-posterior axis (Sz: pcorr = 0.026; DD: pcorr = 0.035) and intracellular volume fraction (Sz: pcorr = 0.019; DD: pcorr = 0.064). Further principal component analysis showed alterations in the interrelationships between the volumes of several midline white-matter structures (Sz: pcorr = 0.055; DD: pcorr = 0.027). In particular, the ratio of volumes in the splenium and body of the corpus callosum was significantly associated with both penetrance scores (Sz: p = 0.037; DD; p = 0.006). Our results are consistent with the notion that a significant alteration in developmental trajectories of midline white-matter structures constitutes a common neurodevelopmental aberration contributing to risk for schizophrenia and intellectual disability.

9.
Schizophr Bull ; 45(6): 1267-1278, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597088

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have linked common variation in ZNF804A with an increased risk of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the biology of ZNF804A and its role in schizophrenia. Here, we investigate the function of ZNF804A using a variety of complementary molecular techniques. We show that ZNF804A is a nuclear protein that interacts with neuronal RNA splicing factors and RNA-binding proteins including RBFOX1, which is also associated with schizophrenia, CELF3/4, components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the ZNF804A paralog, GPATCH8. GPATCH8 also interacts with splicing factors and is localized to nuclear speckles indicative of a role in pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) processing. Sequence analysis showed that GPATCH8 contains ultraconserved, alternatively spliced poison exons that are also regulated by RBFOX proteins. ZNF804A knockdown in SH-SY5Y cells resulted in robust changes in gene expression and pre-mRNA splicing converging on pathways associated with nervous system development, synaptic contact, and cell adhesion. We observed enrichment (P = 1.66 × 10-9) for differentially spliced genes in ZNF804A-depleted cells among genes that contain RBFOX-dependent alternatively spliced exons. Differentially spliced genes in ZNF804A-depleted cells were also enriched for genes harboring de novo loss of function mutations in autism spectrum disorder (P = 6.25 × 10-7, enrichment 2.16) and common variant alleles associated with schizophrenia (P = .014), bipolar disorder and schizophrenia (P = .003), and autism spectrum disorder (P = .005). These data suggest that ZNF804A and its paralogs may interact with neuronal-splicing factors and RNA-binding proteins to regulate the expression of a subset of synaptic and neurodevelopmental genes.

10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679740

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder for which anatomical brain alterations have been repeatedly reported in clinical samples. Unaffected at-risk groups have also been studied in an attempt to identify brain changes that do not reflect reverse causation or treatment effects. However, no robust associations have been observed between neuroanatomical phenotypes and known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. We tested subcortical brain volume differences between 49 unaffected participants carrying at least one of the 12 copy number variants associated with schizophrenia in UK Biobank and 9063 individuals who did not carry any of the 93 copy number variants reported to be pathogenic. Our results show that CNV carriers have reduced volume in some of the subcortical structures previously shown to be reduced in schizophrenia. Moreover, these associations partially accounted for the association between pathogenic copy number variants and cognitive impairment, which is one of the features of schizophrenia.

11.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 867, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to increase risk for physical anomalies, developmental, psychiatric and medical disorders. Some of them have been associated with changes in weight, height, and other physical traits. As most studies have been performed on children and young people, these effects of CNVs in middle-aged and older people are not well established. The UK Biobank recruited half a million adults who provided a variety of physical measurements. We called all CNVs from the Affymetrix microarrays and selected a set of 54 CNVs implicated as pathogenic (including their reciprocal deletions/duplications) and that were found in five or more persons. Linear regression analysis was used to establish their association with 16 physical traits relevant to human health. RESULTS: 396,725 participants of white British or Irish descent (excluding first-degree relatives) passed our quality control filters. Out of the 864 CNV/trait associations, 214 were significant at a false discovery rate of 0.1, most of them novel. Many of these traits increase risk for adverse health outcomes: e.g. increases in weight, waist-to-hip ratio, pulse rate and body fat composition. Deletions at 16p11.2, 16p12.1, NRXN1 and duplications at 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 produced the highest numbers of significant associations. Five CNVs produced average changes of over one standard deviation for the 16 traits, compared to controls: deletions at 16p11.2 and 22q11.2, and duplications at 3q29, the Williams-Beuren and Potocki-Lupski regions. CNVs at 1q21.1, 2q13, 16p11.2 and 16p11.2 distal, 16p12.1, 17p12 and 17q12 demonstrated one or more mirror image effects of deletions versus duplications. CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of many CNVs should be monitored for physical traits that increase morbidity and mortality. Genes within these CNVs can give insights into biological processes and therapeutic interventions.

12.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sequencing studies have pointed to the involvement in schizophrenia of rare coding variants in neuronally expressed genes, including activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (ARC) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) complexes; however, larger samples are required to reveal novel genes and specific biological mechanisms. METHODS: We sequenced 187 genes, selected for prior evidence of association with schizophrenia, in a new dataset of 5207 cases and 4991 controls. Included among these genes were members of ARC and NMDAR postsynaptic protein complexes, as well as voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. We performed a rare variant meta-analysis with published sequencing data for a total of 11,319 cases, 15,854 controls, and 1136 trios. RESULTS: While no individual gene was significantly associated with schizophrenia after genome-wide correction for multiple testing, we strengthen the evidence that rare exonic variants in the ARC (p = 4.0 × 10-4) and NMDAR (p = 1.7 × 10-5) synaptic complexes are risk factors for schizophrenia. In addition, we found that loss-of-function variants and missense variants at paralog-conserved sites were enriched in voltage-gated sodium channels, particularly the alpha subunits (p = 8.6 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: In one of the largest sequencing studies of schizophrenia to date, we provide novel evidence that multiple voltage-gated sodium channels are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis and confirm the involvement of ARC and NMDAR postsynaptic complexes.

13.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic CNVs increase the risk for early-onset neurodevelopmental disorders, but their impact on medical outcomes in later life is still poorly understood. The UK Biobank allows us to study the medical consequences of CNVs in middle and old age in half a million well-phenotyped adults. METHODS: We analysed all Biobank participants for the presence of 54 CNVs associated with genomic disorders or clinical phenotypes, including their reciprocal deletions or duplications. After array quality control and exclusion of first-degree relatives, we compared 381 452 participants of white British or Irish origin who carried no CNVs with carriers of each of the 54 CNVs (ranging from 5 to 2843 persons). We used logistic regression analysis to estimate the risk of developing 58 common medical phenotypes (3132 comparisons). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Many of the CNVs have profound effects on medical health and mortality, even in people who have largely escaped early neurodevelopmental outcomes. Forty-six CNV-phenotype associations were significant at a false discovery rate threshold of 0.1, all in the direction of increased risk. Known medical consequences of CNVs were confirmed, but most identified associations are novel. Deletions at 16p11.2 and 16p12.1 had the largest numbers of significantly associated phenotypes (seven each). Diabetes, hypertension, obesity and renal failure were affected by the highest numbers of CNVs. Our work should inform clinicians in planning and managing the medical care of CNV carriers.

14.
Neuro Oncol ; 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239861

RESUMO

Search strategy and selection criteria: An initial search of PubMed used broad search terms 'brain tumors', 'low-grade', 'radiotherapy, 'chemotherapy', 'surgery' and 'treatment' from January 1990 to March 2018. A subsequent focused search was undertaken using the names of individual histological subtypes of low-grade brain tumors as in the 2016 WHO classification. Only papers published in English were reviewed. The final reference list was generated on the basis of originality and relevance to the broad scope of this review.

15.
Nat Genet ; 50(3): 381-389, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483656

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric condition often associated with poor quality of life and decreased life expectancy. Lack of progress in improving treatment outcomes has been attributed to limited knowledge of the underlying biology, although large-scale genomic studies have begun to provide insights. We report a new genome-wide association study of schizophrenia (11,260 cases and 24,542 controls), and through meta-analysis with existing data we identify 50 novel associated loci and 145 loci in total. Through integrating genomic fine-mapping with brain expression and chromosome conformation data, we identify candidate causal genes within 33 loci. We also show for the first time that the common variant association signal is highly enriched among genes that are under strong selective pressures. These findings provide new insights into the biology and genetic architecture of schizophrenia, highlight the importance of mutation-intolerant genes and suggest a mechanism by which common risk variants persist in the population.

16.
Nat Genet ; 49(8): 1167-1173, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28650482

RESUMO

By performing a meta-analysis of rare coding variants in whole-exome sequences from 4,133 schizophrenia cases and 9,274 controls, de novo mutations in 1,077 family trios, and copy number variants from 6,882 cases and 11,255 controls, we show that individuals with schizophrenia carry a significant burden of rare, damaging variants in 3,488 genes previously identified as having a near-complete depletion of loss-of-function variants. In patients with schizophrenia who also have intellectual disability, this burden is concentrated in risk genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. After excluding known risk genes for neurodevelopmental disorders, a significant rare variant burden persists in other genes intolerant of loss-of-function variants; although this effect is notably stronger in patients with both schizophrenia and intellectual disability, it is also seen in patients with schizophrenia who do not have intellectual disability. Together, our results show that rare, damaging variants contribute to the risk of schizophrenia both with and without intellectual disability and support an overlap of genetic risk between schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exoma , Variação Genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Neuron ; 94(6): 1101-1111.e7, 2017 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28641109

RESUMO

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a model neuropsychiatric disorder thought to arise from abnormal development and/or maintenance of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. TS is highly heritable, but its underlying genetic causes are still elusive, and no genome-wide significant loci have been discovered to date. We analyzed a European ancestry sample of 2,434 TS cases and 4,093 ancestry-matched controls for rare (< 1% frequency) copy-number variants (CNVs) using SNP microarray data. We observed an enrichment of global CNV burden that was prominent for large (> 1 Mb), singleton events (OR = 2.28, 95% CI [1.39-3.79], p = 1.2 × 10-3) and known, pathogenic CNVs (OR = 3.03 [1.85-5.07], p = 1.5 × 10-5). We also identified two individual, genome-wide significant loci, each conferring a substantial increase in TS risk (NRXN1 deletions, OR = 20.3, 95% CI [2.6-156.2]; CNTN6 duplications, OR = 10.1, 95% CI [2.3-45.4]). Approximately 1% of TS cases carry one of these CNVs, indicating that rare structural variation contributes significantly to the genetic architecture of TS.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Contactinas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Síndrome de Tourette/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Adulto Jovem
18.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(2): 103-110, 2017 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27773354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The UK Biobank is a unique resource for biomedical research, with extensive phenotypic and genetic data on half a million adults from the general population. We aimed to examine the effect of neurodevelopmental copy number variants (CNVs) on the cognitive performance of participants. METHODS: We used Affymetrix Power Tools and PennCNV-Affy software to analyze Affymetrix microarrays of the first 152,728 genotyped individuals. We annotated a list of 93 CNVs and compared their frequencies with control datasets. We analyzed the performance on seven cognitive tests of carriers of 12 CNVs associated with schizophrenia (n = 1087) and of carriers of another 41 neurodevelopmental CNVs (n = 484). RESULTS: The frequencies of the 93 CNVs in the Biobank subjects were remarkably similar to those among 26,628 control subjects from other datasets. Carriers of schizophrenia-associated CNVs and of the group of 41 other neurodevelopmental CNVs had impaired performance on the cognitive tests, with nine of 14 comparisons remaining statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. They also had lower educational and occupational attainment (p values between 10-7 and 10-18). The deficits in cognitive performance were modest (Z score reductions between 0.01 and 0.51), compared with individuals with schizophrenia in the Biobank (Z score reductions between 0.35 and 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study on the cognitive phenotypes of CNVs to date. Adult carriers of neurodevelopmental CNVs from the general population have significant cognitive deficits. The UK Biobank will allow unprecedented opportunities for analysis of further phenotypic consequences of CNVs.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 73(9): 963-969, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27602560

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: At least 11 rare copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to be major risk factors for schizophrenia (SZ). These CNVs also increase the risk for other neurodevelopmental disorders, such as intellectual disability. It is possible that additional intellectual disability-associated CNVs increase the risk for SZ but have not yet been implicated in SZ because of previous studies being underpowered. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether additional CNVs implicated in intellectual disability represent novel SZ risk loci. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data to evaluate a set of 51 CNVs implicated in intellectual disability (excluding the known SZ loci) in a large data set of patients with SZ and healthy persons serving as controls recruited in a variety of settings. We analyzed a new sample of 6934 individuals with SZ and 8751 controls and combined those data with previously published large data sets for a total of 20 403 cases of SZ and 26 628 controls. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Burden analysis of CNVs implicated in intellectual disability (excluding known SZ CNVs) for association with SZ. Association of individual intellectual disability CNV loci with SZ. RESULTS: Of data on the 20 403 cases (6151 [30.15%] female) and 26 628 controls (14 252 [53.52%] female), 51 intellectual disability CNVs were analyzed. Collectively, intellectual disability CNVs were significantly enriched for SZ (P = 1.0 × 10-6; odds ratio [OR], 1.9 [95% CI, 1.46-2.49]). Of the 51 CNVs tested, 19 (37%) were more common in SZ cases; only 4 (8%) were more common in controls (no observations were made for the remaining 28 [55%] loci). One novel locus, deletion at 16p12.1, was significantly associated with SZ after correction for multiple testing (rate in SZ, 33 [0.16%]; rate in controls, 12 [0.05%]; corrected P = .017; OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.61-7.05), and 2 loci reached nominal levels of significance (deletions at 2q11.2: 6 [0.03%] vs 1 [0.004%]; OR, 9.3; 95% CI, 1.03-447.76; corrected P > .99; and duplications at 10q11.21q11.23: 5 [0.2%] vs 0 [0.03%]; OR, infinity; 95% CI, 1.26-infinity; corrected P = .71). Our new data set also provided independent support for the 11 SZ risk loci previously reported to be associated with the disorder and for the protective effect of 22q11.2 duplication. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A large proportion of CNV loci implicated in intellectual disability are risk factors for SZ, but the available sample size precludes statistical confirmation for additional individual loci.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Valores de Referência , Risco , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Reino Unido
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 25986, 2016 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27185616

RESUMO

Compared with the general population, an excess of rare copy number variants (CNVs) has been identified in people with schizophrenia. Females with neurodevelopmental disorders and in the general population have been reported to carry more large, rare CNVs than males. Given that many schizophrenia datasets do not have equal gender ratios in cases and controls, sex differences in CNV burden might have impacted on estimates of case-related CNV burden and also on associations to individual loci. In a sample of 13,276 cases and 17,863 controls, we observed a small but significant excess of large (≥500 Kb), rare (<1%) CNVs in females compared with males in both cases and controls (OR = 1.17, P = 0.0012 for controls; OR = 1.11, P = 0.045 for cases). The burden of 11 schizophrenia-associated CNVs was significantly higher in female cases compared with male cases (OR = 1.38, P = 0.0055), but after accounting for the rates of CNVs in controls, we found no significant gender difference in the risk conferred by these loci. Controlling for gender had a negligible effect on the significance of association between specific CNVs and schizophrenia. The female excess of large CNVs in both cases and controls suggests a female protective mechanism exists for deleterious CNVs that may extend beyond neurodevelopmental phenotypes.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
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