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1.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(5): e27277, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate adherence to prescribed immunosuppressive medication regimens among kidney transplant recipients is common, yet interventions are needed to support patients in sustaining adequate adherence to prescribed regimens and achieving optimal transplant outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We examined the preliminary fidelity of a transplant center-based, multifaceted adherence monitoring strategy known as TAKE IT. METHODS: The TAKE IT strategy includes: (1) routine, online, monthly patient self-report adherence assessments; (2) care alerts directed to nurses; (3) quarterly reports monitoring tacrolimus values and adherence trends; (4) support tools tailored to specific adherence concerns. A 2-arm, patient-randomized trial is underway at two large transplant centers (N=449). To evaluate the initial fidelity of TAKE IT, we investigated patient uptake of monthly adherence assessments during the course of a 3-month period, whether any disparities emerged, and the nature of any reported adherence concerns. RESULTS: Among 202 patients randomized and exposed to TAKE IT for 3-months or more, 81% (164/202) completed an adherence assessment, 73% (148/202) completed at least two, and 57% (116/202) completed all monthly assessments. Overall, 50% (82/164) of kidney transplant recipients reported at least one adherence concern over the 3-month assessment period. The most common barriers were classified as regimen-related (eg, regimen complexity), cognitive (eg, forgetfulness), and medical (eg, side effects). Higher-income participants were more likely to complete all surveys compared to lower-income participants (P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: TAKE IT demonstrated 81% (164/202) completion of an adherence assessment, 73% (148/202) completion of at least two, and 57% (116/202) completion of all monthly assessments during this brief, initial observation period. Among those that did respond to the online assessments, the majority demonstrated sustained engagement. Additional monitoring modalities could also be offered to meet patient preferences to ensure all patients' medication use can be properly monitored. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03104868; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03104868.

3.
BMC Urol ; 22(1): 53, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to describe day-to-day evolution and variations in patient-reported stent-associated symptoms (SAS) in the STudy to Enhance uNderstanding of sTent-associated Symptoms (STENTS), a prospective multicenter observational cohort study, using multiple instruments with conceptual overlap in various domains. METHODS: In a nested cohort of the STENTS study, the initial 40 participants having unilateral ureteroscopy (URS) and stent placement underwent daily assessment of self-reported measures using the Brief Pain Inventory short form, Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System measures for pain severity and pain interference, the Urinary Score of the Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire, and Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network Symptom Index. Pain intensity, pain interference, urinary symptoms, and bother were obtained preoperatively, daily until stent removal, and at postoperative day (POD) 30. RESULTS: The median age was 44 years (IQR 29,58), and 53% were female. The size of the dominant stone was 7.5 mm (IQR 5,11), and 50% were located in the kidney. There was consistency among instruments assessing similar concepts. Pain intensity and urinary symptoms increased from baseline to POD 1 with apparent peaks in the first 2 days, remained elevated with stent in situ, and varied widely among individuals. Interference due to pain, and bother due to urinary symptoms, likewise demonstrated high individual variability. CONCLUSIONS: This first study investigating daily SAS allows for a more in-depth look at the lived experience after URS and the impact on quality of life. Different instruments measuring pain intensity, pain interference, and urinary symptoms produced consistent assessments of patients' experiences. The overall daily stability of pain and urinary symptoms after URS was also marked by high patient-level variation, suggesting an opportunity to identify characteristics associated with severe SAS after URS.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior , Ureter , Cálculos Ureterais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Dor/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Stents , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ureter/cirurgia , Cálculos Ureterais/cirurgia , Ureteroscopia
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264329, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in deceased donors is not associated with graft failure (GF). We hypothesize that hemodynamic AKI (hAKI) comprises the majority of donor AKI and may explain this lack of association. METHODS: In this ancillary analysis of the Deceased Donor Study, 428 donors with available charts were selected to identify those with and without AKI. AKI cases were classified as hAKI, intrinsic (iAKI), or mixed (mAKI) based on majority adjudication by three nephrologists. We evaluated the associations between AKI phenotypes and delayed graft function (DGF), 1-year eGFR and GF. We also evaluated differences in urine biomarkers among AKI phenotypes. RESULTS: Of the 291 (68%) donors with AKI, 106 (36%) were adjudicated as hAKI, 84 (29%) as iAKI and 101 (35%) as mAKI. Of the 856 potential kidneys, 669 were transplanted with 32% developing DGF and 5% experiencing GF. Median 1-year eGFR was 53 (IQR: 41-70) ml/min/1.73m2. Compared to non-AKI, donors with iAKI had higher odds DGF [aOR (95%CI); 4.83 (2.29, 10.22)] and had lower 1-year eGFR [adjusted B coefficient (95% CI): -11 (-19, -3) mL/min/1.73 m2]. hAKI and mAKI were not associated with DGF or 1-year eGFR. Rates of GF were not different among AKI phenotypes and non-AKI. Urine biomarkers such as NGAL, LFABP, MCP-1, YKL-40, cystatin-C and albumin were higher in iAKI. CONCLUSION: iAKI was associated with higher DGF and lower 1-year eGFR but not with GF. Clinically phenotyped donor AKI is biologically different based on biomarkers and may help inform decisions regarding organ utilization.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Transplante de Rim , Biomarcadores/urina , Função Retardada do Enxerto , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Rim , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Doadores de Tecidos
6.
Transplant Direct ; 8(4): e1299, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310603

RESUMO

Procurement biopsies suffer from challenges with quality and reproducibility and are linked to kidney discard. Nonetheless, procurement biopsies are obtained for the majority of kidneys in the United States, and biopsy findings are commonly relied upon in kidney acceptance decisions. Methods: We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 30 surgeons, nephrologists, nurse coordinators, and organ procurement organization (OPO) staff and directors to assess perceptions of factors contributing to kidney discard and strategies to reduce kidney discard, with a focus on the role of procurement biopsies. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Results: Three main themes emerged: (1) participants emphasized the importance of biopsy findings in making acceptance decisions but expressed concerns about a lack of standardization and quality control; (2) participants reported large variations in the level of importance placed on biopsy findings, the level of reliance on glomerulosclerosis in particular, and the cutoffs used; and (3) participants disagreed about how often procurement biopsies should be taken, with some supporting stricter limits on which kidneys are biopsied and others preferring a biopsy for most kidney offers. Conclusions: These findings support the development of standard practices for which kidneys require biopsy, how the biopsy material is prepared, and how the biopsy is interpreted. Variability in kidney acceptance practices across centers and the use of biopsy findings in guiding recipient selection also lend support to policies to allocate kidneys with suboptimal histological findings to the centers that are willing to use such kidneys and the patients who could most benefit from such offers.

7.
Hepatology ; 2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cirrhosis is a major cause of death and is associated with extensive health care use. Patients with cirrhosis have complex treatment choices due to risks of morbidity and mortality. To optimally counsel and treat patients with cirrhosis requires tools to predict their longer-term liver-related survival. We sought to develop and validate a risk score to predict longer-term survival of patients with cirrhosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults with cirrhosis with no major life-limiting comorbidities. Adults with cirrhosis within the Veterans Health Administration were used for model training and internal validation, and external validation used the OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium. We used four model-building approaches including variables predictive of cirrhosis-related mortality, focused on discrimination at key time points (1, 3, 5, and 10 years). Among 30,263 patients with cirrhosis ≤75 years old without major life-limiting comorbidities and complete laboratory data during the baseline period, the boosted survival tree models had the highest discrimination, with 1-year, 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year survival rates of 0.77, 0.81, 0.84, and 0.88, respectively. The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year discrimination was nearly identical in external validation. Secondary analyses with imputation of missing data and subgroups by etiology of liver disease had similar results to the primary model. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and validated (internally and externally) a risk score to predict longer-term survival of patients with cirrhosis. This score would transform management of patients with cirrhosis in terms of referral to specialty care and treatment decision-making for non-liver-related care.

8.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 18(2): 84-94, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750551

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease is an important clinical condition beset with racial and ethnic disparities that are associated with social inequities. Many medical schools and health centres across the USA have raised concerns about the use of race - a socio-political construct that mediates the effect of structural racism - as a fixed, measurable biological variable in the assessment of kidney disease. We discuss the role of race and racism in medicine and outline many of the concerns that have been raised by the medical and social justice communities regarding the use of race in estimated glomerular filtration rate equations, including its relationship with structural racism and racial inequities. Although race can be used to identify populations who experience racism and subsequent differential treatment, ignoring the biological and social heterogeneity within any racial group and inferring innate individual-level attributes is methodologically flawed. Therefore, although more accurate measures for estimating kidney function are under investigation, we support the use of biomarkers for determining estimated glomerular filtration rate without adjustments for race. Clinicians have a duty to recognize and elucidate the nuances of racism and its effects on health and disease. Otherwise, we risk perpetuating historical racist concepts in medicine that exacerbate health inequities and impact marginalized patient populations.


Assuntos
Nefrologia , Racismo , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Justiça Social , Estados Unidos
9.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(4): 1399-1408, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accuracy of glomerular filtration rate estimating (eGFR) equations has significant implications in cirrhosis, potentially guiding simultaneous liver kidney allocation and drug dosing. Most equations adjust for Black race, partially accounted for by reported differences in muscle mass by race. Patients with cirrhosis, however, are prone to sarcopenia which may mitigate such differences. We evaluated the association between baseline eGFR and incident acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cirrhosis with and without race adjustment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective national cohort study of veterans with cirrhosis. Baseline eGFR was calculated using multiple eGFR equations including Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), both with and without race adjustment. Poisson regression was used to investigate the association between baseline eGFR and incident AKI events per International Club of Ascites criteria. RESULTS: We identified 72,267 patients with cirrhosis, who were 97.3% male, 57.8% white, and 19.7% Black. Over median follow-up 2.78 years (interquartile range 1.22-5.16), lower baseline eGFR by CKD-EPI was significantly associated with higher rates of AKI in adjusted models. For all equations this association was minimally impacted when race adjustment was removed. For example, removal of race adjustment from CKD-EPI resulted in a 0.1% increase in the association between lower eGFR and higher rate of AKI events per 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 change (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Race adjustment in eGFR equations did not enhance AKI risk estimation in patients with cirrhosis. Further study is warranted to assess the impacts of removing race from eGFR equations on clinical outcomes and policy.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Am J Transplant ; 22(2): 599-609, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613666

RESUMO

Kidney transplantation (KT) from deceased donors with hepatitis C virus (HCV) into HCV-negative recipients has become more common. However, the risk of complications such as BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) remains unknown. We assembled a retrospective cohort at four centers. We matched recipients of HCV-viremic kidneys to highly similar recipients of HCV-aviremic kidneys on established risk factors for BKPyV. To limit bias, matches were within the same center. The primary outcome was BKPyV viremia ≥1000 copies/ml or biopsy-proven BKPyV nephropathy; a secondary outcome was BKPyV viremia ≥10 000 copies/ml or nephropathy. Outcomes were analyzed using weighted and stratified Cox regression. The median days to peak BKPyV viremia level was 119 (IQR 87-182). HCV-viremic KT was not associated with increased risk of the primary BKPyV outcome (HR 1.26, p = .22), but was significantly associated with the secondary outcome of BKPyV ≥10 000 copies/ml (HR 1.69, p = .03). One-year eGFR was similar between the matched groups. Only one HCV-viremic kidney recipient had primary graft loss. In summary, HCV-viremic KT was not significantly associated with the primary outcome of BKPyV viremia, but the data suggested that donor HCV might elevate the risk of more severe BKPyV viremia ≥10 000 copies/ml. Nonetheless, one-year graft function for HCV-viremic recipients was reassuring.


Assuntos
Vírus BK , Transplante de Rim , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus , Hepacivirus , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/etiologia , Viremia
11.
Liver Transpl ; 28(2): 304-313, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608746

RESUMO

Liver transplantation (LT), the only cure for end-stage liver disease, is a lifesaving, costly, and limited resource. LT recipients (LTRs) are aging with an increasing burden of medical comorbidities. Patient and graft survival rates exceed 70% at 5 years; however, patient-centered health outcomes beyond survival have received relatively little attention. LTRs must have strong self-management skills to navigate health systems, adhere to clinical monitoring, and take complex, multidrug regimens. All of these tasks require formidable cognitive abilities for active learning and problem solving. Yet, LTRs are at higher risk for impaired cognition as a result of the high prevalence of pretransplant hepatic encephalopathy, multiple chronic conditions, alcohol use, physical frailty, sarcopenia, and older age. Cognitive impairment after transplant may persist and has been causally linked to poor self-management skills, worse physical function, and inferior health outcomes in other health care settings, yet its impact after LT is largely unknown. There is a need to study potentially modifiable, posttransplant targets including caregiver support, physical activity, sleep, and treatment adherence to inform future health system responses to promote the long-term health and well-being of LTRs. Prospective, longitudinal data collection that encompasses key sociodemographic, cognitive-behavioral, psychosocial, and medical factors is needed to improve risk prediction and better inform patient and caregiver expectations. Interventions with proactive monitoring, reducing medical complexity, and improved care coordination can be tailored to optimize posttransplant care. We propose a research agenda focused on understudied, potentially modifiable risk factors to improve the long-term health of LTRs. Our conceptual model accounts for cognitive function, caregiver and patient self-management skills, health behaviors, and patient-centered outcomes beyond mortality. We propose actionable health-system, patient, and caregiver-directed interventions to fill knowledge gaps and improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Transplant Direct ; 8(1): e1254, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the impact of the kidney donor profile index (KDPI) on kidney discard is well researched, less is known about how patients make decisions about whether to give consent for KDPI > 85 kidney offers. METHODS: We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 16 transplant recipients, 15 transplant candidates, and 23 clinicians (transplant surgeons, nephrologists, and nurse coordinators) to assess and compare perceptions of transplant education, informed consent for KDPI > 85 kidneys' and the decision-making process for accepting kidney offers. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. RESULTS: Four themes emerged: (1) patients reported uncertainty about the meaning of KDPI or could not recall information about KDPI; (2) patients reported uncertainty about their KDPI > 85 consent status and a limited role in KDPI > 85 consent decision making; (3) patients' reported willingness to consider KDPI > 85 kidneys depended on their age, health status, and experiences with dialysis, and thus it changed over time; (4) patients' underestimated the survival benefit of transplantation compared with dialysis, which could affect their KDPI > 85 consent decision making. CONCLUSIONS: To better support patients' informed decision making about accepting KDPI > 85 kidneys, centers must ensure that all patients receive education about the trade-offs between accepting a KDPI > 85 kidney and remaining on dialysis. Additionally, education about KDPI and discussions about informed consent for KDPI > 85 kidneys must be repeated at multiple time points while patients are on the waiting list.

13.
Am J Transplant ; 22(3): 898-908, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897982

RESUMO

Kidney allocation trends from deceased donors with acute kidney injury (AKI) have not been characterized since initial Kidney Donor Profile Index reporting in 2012 and its use under the revised Kidney Allocation System (KAS) in 2014. We conducted a retrospective analysis of US registry data to characterize kidney procurement and discard trends in deceased donors with AKI, defined by ≥50% or ≥0.3 mg/dl (≥4.0 mg/dl or ≥200% for stage 3) increase in terminal serum creatinine from admission. From 2010 to 2020, 172 410 kidneys were procured from 93 341 deceased donors 16 years or older; 34 984 kidneys were discarded (17 559 from AKI donors). The proportion of stage 3 AKI donors doubled from 6% (412/6841) in 2010 to 12% (1365/11493) in 2020. Procurement of stage 3 AKI kidneys increased from 51% (423/824) to 80% (2183/2730). While discard of stage 3 AKI kidneys increased from 41% (175/423) in 2010 to 44% (960/2183) in 2020, this increase was not statistically significant in interrupted time-series analysis following KAS implementation (slope difference -0.41 [-3.22, 2.4], and level change 3.09 [-6.4, 12.6]). In conclusion, the absolute number of stage 3 AKI kidneys transplanted has increased. Ongoing high discard rates of these kidneys suggest opportunities for improved utilization.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Transplante de Rim , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Seleção do Doador , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Rim , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos
14.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(12): e795-e805, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney allograft failure is a common cause of end-stage renal disease. We aimed to develop a dynamic artificial intelligence approach to enhance risk stratification for kidney transplant recipients by generating continuously refined predictions of survival using updates of clinical data. METHODS: In this observational study, we used data from adult recipients of kidney transplants from 18 academic transplant centres in Europe, the USA, and South America, and a cohort of patients from six randomised controlled trials. The development cohort comprised patients from four centres in France, with all other patients included in external validation cohorts. To build deeply phenotyped cohorts of transplant recipients, the following data were collected in the development cohort: clinical, histological, immunological variables, and repeated measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria (measured using the proteinuria to creatininuria ratio). To develop a dynamic prediction system based on these clinical assessments and repeated measurements, we used a Bayesian joint models-an artificial intelligence approach. The prediction performances of the model were assessed via discrimination, through calculation of the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC), and calibration. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04258891. FINDINGS: 13 608 patients were included (3774 in the development cohort and 9834 in the external validation cohorts) and contributed 89 328 patient-years of data, and 416 510 eGFR and proteinuria measurements. Bayesian joint models showed that recipient immunological profile, allograft interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, allograft inflammation, and repeated measurements of eGFR and proteinuria were independent risk factors for allograft survival. The final model showed accurate calibration and very high discrimination in the development cohort (overall dynamic AUC 0·857 [95% CI 0·847-0·866]) with a persistent improvement in AUCs for each new repeated measurement (from 0·780 [0·768-0·794] to 0·926 [0·917-0·932]; p<0·0001). The predictive performance was confirmed in the external validation cohorts from Europe (overall AUC 0·845 [0·837-0·854]), the USA (overall AUC 0·820 [0·808-0·831]), South America (overall AUC 0·868 [0·856-0·880]), and the cohort of patients from randomised controlled trials (overall AUC 0·857 [0·840-0·875]). INTERPRETATION: Because of its dynamic design, this model can be continuously updated and holds value as a bedside tool that could refine the prognostic judgements of clinicians in everyday practice, hence enhancing precision medicine in the transplant setting. FUNDING: MSD Avenir, French National Institute for Health and Medical Research, and Bettencourt Schueller Foundation.


Assuntos
Aloenxertos , Inteligência Artificial , Transplante de Rim , Rim/cirurgia , Modelos Biológicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Insuficiência Renal/diagnóstico , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteinúria , Insuficiência Renal/cirurgia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Transplantados
15.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 255, 2021 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected health systems and medical research worldwide but its impact on the global publication dynamics and non-COVID-19 research has not been measured. We hypothesized that the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted the scientific production of non-COVID-19 research. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive meta-research on studies (original articles, research letters and case reports) published between 01/01/2019 and 01/01/2021 in 10 high-impact medical and infectious disease journals (New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Nature Medicine, British Medical Journal, Annals of Internal Medicine, Lancet Global Health, Lancet Public Health, Lancet Infectious Disease and Clinical Infectious Disease). For each publication, we recorded publication date, publication type, number of authors, whether the publication was related to COVID-19, whether the publication was based on a case series, and the number of patients included in the study if the publication was based on a case report or a case series. We estimated the publication dynamics with a locally estimated scatterplot smoothing method. A Natural Language Processing algorithm was designed to calculate the number of authors for each publication. We simulated the number of non-COVID-19 studies that could have been published during the pandemic by extrapolating the publication dynamics of 2019 to 2020, and comparing the expected number to the observed number of studies. RESULTS: Among the 22,525 studies assessed, 6319 met the inclusion criteria, of which 1022 (16.2%) were related to COVID-19 research. A dramatic increase in the number of publications in general journals was observed from February to April 2020 from a weekly median number of publications of 4.0 (IQR: 2.8-5.5) to 19.5 (IQR: 15.8-24.8) (p < 0.001), followed afterwards by a pattern of stability with a weekly median number of publications of 10.0 (IQR: 6.0-14.0) until December 2020 (p = 0.045 in comparison with April). Two prototypical editorial strategies were found: 1) journals that maintained the volume of non-COVID-19 publications while integrating COVID-19 research and thus increased their overall scientific production, and 2) journals that decreased the volume of non-COVID-19 publications while integrating COVID-19 publications. We estimated using simulation models that the COVID pandemic was associated with a 18% decrease in the production of non-COVID-19 research. We also found a significant change of the publication type in COVID-19 research as compared with non-COVID-19 research illustrated by a decrease in the number of original articles, (47.9% in COVID-19 publications vs 71.3% in non-COVID-19 publications, p < 0.001). Last, COVID-19 publications showed a higher number of authors, especially for case reports with a median of 9.0 authors (IQR: 6.0-13.0) in COVID-19 publications, compared to a median of 4.0 authors (IQR: 3.0-6.0) in non-COVID-19 publications (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this meta-research gathering publications from high-impact medical journals, we have shown that the dramatic rise in COVID-19 publications was accompanied by a substantial decrease of non-COVID-19 research. META-RESEARCH REGISTRATION: https://osf.io/9vtzp/ .


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19 , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2121908, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605920

RESUMO

Importance: Financial incentives may improve health behaviors. It is unknown whether incentives are more effective if they target a key process (eg, medication adherence), an outcome (eg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] levels), or both. Objective: To determine whether financial incentives awarded daily for process (adherence to statins), awarded quarterly for outcomes (personalized LDL-C level targets), or awarded for process plus outcomes induce reductions in LDL-C levels compared with control. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from February 12, 2015, to October 3, 2018; data analysis was performed from October 4, 2018, to May 27, 2021, at the University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia. Participants included 764 adults with an active statin prescription, elevated risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, suboptimal LDL-C level, and evidence of imperfect adherence to statin medication. Interventions: Interventions lasted 12 months. All participants received a smart pill bottle to measure adherence and underwent LDL-C measurement every 3 months. In the process group, daily financial incentives were awarded for statin adherence. In the outcomes group, participants received incentives for achieving or sustaining at least a quarterly 10-mg/dL LDL-C level reduction. The process plus outcomes group participants were eligible for incentives split between statin adherence and quarterly LDL-C level targets. Main Outcomes and Measures: Change in LDL-C level from baseline to 12 months, determined using intention-to-treat analysis. Results: Of the 764 participants, 390 were women (51.2%); mean (SD) age was 62.4 (10.0) years, 310 (40.6%) had diabetes, 298 (39.0%) had hypertension, and mean (SD) baseline LDL-C level was 138.8 (37.6) mg/dL. Mean LDL-C level reductions from baseline to 12 months were -36.9 mg/dL (95% CI, -42.0 to -31.9 mg/dL) among control participants, -40.0 mg/dL (95% CI, -44.7 to -35.4 mg/dL) among process participants, -41.6 mg/dL (95% CI, -46.3 to -37.0 mg/dL) among outcomes participants, and -42.8 mg/dL (95% CI, -47.4 to -38.1 mg/dL) among process plus outcomes participants. In exploratory analysis among participants with diabetes and hypertension, no spillover effects of incentives were detected compared with the control group on hemoglobin A1c level and blood pressure over 12 months. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, process-, outcomes-, or process plus outcomes-based financial incentives did not improve LDL-C levels vs control. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02246959.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/economia , Colesterol/análise , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reembolso de Incentivo/normas , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/sangue , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Philadelphia , Reembolso de Incentivo/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673160

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Concerns about nonadherent behaviors often prevent dialysis patients from entering waitlists for transplant even though there is an inconsistent association of these behaviors with posttransplant outcomes. We examined the association between plausible metrics of nonadherence related to dialysis treatment and posttransplant outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. We linked national dialysis treatment data with transplant registry data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014, who received a kidney transplant at a US center. EXPOSURES: We examined 5 nonadherence metrics: serum potassium level (≥5.2 mEq/L), serum phosphorus level (>5.5 mg/dL), interdialytic weight gain (IDWG; ≥5 L), shortened treatments (≥30 min), and missed treatments (≥1); missed treatment data were available only for 2004-2009. These metrics were characterized per proportion of time under observation. Dialysis observation time was divided into 3-month intervals (quarters), and the number of nonadherent measurements in each domain was calculated for each quarter. OUTCOMES: Allograft loss, mortality, and acute rejection in the first posttransplant year. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Using Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression, we estimated the hazard ratios for graft loss and mortality and odds ratios for rejection. RESULTS: 9,543 patients met inclusion criteria. In our primary model, hyperphosphatemia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.27 [95% CI, 1.08-1.49]), large IDWG (aHR, 1.39 [95% CI, 1.23-1.59]), and shortened treatments (aHR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.12-2.13]) were associated with greater rates of allograft loss, but hyperkalemia was not. Large IDWG (aHR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.29-1.73]) and shortened treatments (aHR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.13-1.58]) were associated with mortality, whereas hyperkalemia and hyperphosphatemia were not. Only shortened treatments were associated with an increased risk of acute rejection (adjusted odds ratio, 3.88 [95% CI, 1.98-7.58]). In models limited to the years 2004-2009 that included missed treatments, missed treatments were associated only with mortality. LIMITATIONS: Unmeasured confounding (eg, dietary data); adherence metrics used may have multiple, complex causes. CONCLUSIONS: Plausible measures of dialysis nonadherence have long-term associations with allograft and patient survival. Behavioral metrics were more closely associated with outcomes than laboratory markers were. The implications of nonadherent behaviors for dialysis patients must be carefully considered before patients are excluded from transplantation.

18.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(10): e709-e719, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preliminary data suggest that COVID-19 has reduced access to solid organ transplantation. However, the global consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on transplantation rates and the effect on waitlisted patients have not been reported. We aimed to assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on transplantation and investigate if the pandemic was associated with heterogeneous adaptation in terms of organ transplantation, with ensuing consequences for waitlisted patients. METHODS: In this population-based, observational, before-and-after study, we collected and validated nationwide cohorts of consecutive kidney, liver, lung, and heart transplants from 22 countries. Data were collected from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2020, along with data from the same period in 2019. The analysis was done from the onset of the 100th cumulative COVID-19 case through to Dec 31, 2020. We assessed the effect of the pandemic on the worldwide organ transplantation rate and the disparity in transplant numbers within each country. We estimated the number of waitlisted patient life-years lost due to the negative effects of the pandemic. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04416256. FINDINGS: Transplant activity in all countries studied showed an overall decrease during the pandemic. Kidney transplantation was the most affected, followed by lung, liver, and heart. We identified three organ transplant rate patterns, as follows: countries with a sharp decrease in transplantation rate with a low COVID-19-related death rate; countries with a moderate decrease in transplantation rate with a moderate COVID-19-related death rate; and countries with a slight decrease in transplantation rate despite a high COVID-19-related death rate. Temporal trends revealed a marked worldwide reduction in transplant activity during the first 3 months of the pandemic, with losses stabilising after June, 2020, but decreasing again from October to December, 2020. The overall reduction in transplants during the observation time period translated to 48 239 waitlisted patient life-years lost. INTERPRETATION: We quantified the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on worldwide organ transplantation activity and revealed heterogeneous adaptation in terms of organ transplantation, both at national levels and within countries, with detrimental consequences for waitlisted patients. Understanding how different countries and health-care systems responded to COVID-19-related challenges could facilitate improved pandemic preparedness, notably, how to safely maintain transplant programmes, both with immediate and non-immediate life-saving potential, to prevent loss of patient life-years. FUNDING: French national research agency (INSERM) ATIP Avenir and Fondation Bettencourt Schueller.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Humanos
19.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 78(6): 816-825, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352286

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Low muscle mass relative to fat mass (relative sarcopenia) has been associated with mortality and disability but has not been examined after kidney transplantation. We studied how measures of body composition change after receipt of a kidney allograft. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 60 kidney transplant recipients, aged 20-60 years, at the University of Pennsylvania. EXPOSURE: Kidney transplantation. OUTCOME: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measures of fat mass index (FMI) and appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, representing muscle mass), computed tomography measures of muscle density (low density represents increased intramuscular adipose tissue), dynamometer measures of leg muscle strength, and physical activity. ALMI relative to FMI (ALMFMI) is an established index of relative sarcopenia. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Measures expressed as age, sex, and race-specific z scores for transplant recipients were compared with 327 healthy controls. Regression models were used to identify correlates of change in outcome z scores and compare transplant recipients with controls. RESULTS: At transplantation, ALMI, ALMIFMI, muscle strength, and muscle density z scores were lower versus controls (all P≤0.001). Transplant recipients received glucocorticoids throughout. The prevalence of obesity increased from 18% to 45%. Although ALMI increased after transplantation (P<0.001) and was comparable with the controls from 6 months onward, gains were outpaced by increases in FMI, resulting in persistent ALMIFMI deficits (mean z score of-0.31 at 24 months; P=0.02 vs controls). Muscle density improved after transplantation despite gains in FMI (P=0.02). Muscle strength relative to ALMI also improved (P=0.04) but remained low compared with controls (P=0.01). Exercise increased in the early months after transplantation (P<0.05) but remained lower than controls (P = 0.02). LIMITATIONS: Lack of muscle biopsies precluded assessment of muscle histology and metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: The 2-year interval after kidney transplantation was characterized by gains in muscle mass and strength that were outpaced by gains in fat mass, resulting in persistent relative sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Absorciometria de Fóton , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Estudos Longitudinais , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Kidney Int ; 100(6): 1190-1198, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237327

RESUMO

The safety and efficacy of direct-acting antiviral therapies have allowed the transplantation of organs from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-viremic donors into uninfected recipients. This novel strategy contrasts with the previous standard-of-care practice of limiting the transplantation of HCV infected-donor organs to HCV-infected recipients, or all too often, discarding viable organs. In this review, we summarize the published literature about the safety and feasibility of transplanting organs from HCV-viremic donors, the challenges that hinder wider adoption of this strategy, and future research needs.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Transplante de Rim , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Doadores de Tecidos
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