Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 16 de 16
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(10): 927-940, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the heightened urgency of the current prescription opioid crisis, few psychotherapies have been evaluated for chronic pain patients receiving long-term opioid analgesics. Current psychological pain treatments focus primarily on ameliorating negative affective processes, yet basic science suggests that risk for opioid misuse is linked with a dearth of positive affect. Interventions that modulate positive psychological processes may produce therapeutic benefits among patients with opioid-treated chronic pain. The aim of this study was to conduct a theory-driven mechanistic analysis of proximal outcome data from a Stage 2 randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), an integrative intervention designed to promote positive psychological health. METHOD: Patients with opioid-treated chronic pain (N = 95; age = 56.8 ± 11.7; 66% female) were randomized to 8 weeks of therapist-led MORE or support group (SG) interventions. A latent positive psychological health variable comprised of positive affect, meaning in life, and self-transcendence measures was examined as a mediator of the effect of MORE on changes in pain severity at posttreatment and opioid misuse risk by 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: Participants in MORE reported significantly greater reductions in pain severity by posttreatment (p = .03) and opioid misuse risk by 3-month follow-up (p = .03) and significantly greater increases in positive psychological health (p < .001) than SG participants. Increases in positive psychological health mediated the effect of MORE on pain severity by posttreatment (p = .048), which in turn predicted decreases in opioid misuse risk by follow-up (p = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Targeting positive psychological mechanisms via MORE and other psychological interventions may reduce opioid misuse risk among chronic pain patients receiving long-term opioid therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Epigenomics ; 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536415

RESUMO

Aim: Cigarette smoking influences DNA methylation genome wide, in newborns from pregnancy exposure and in adults from personal smoking. Whether a unique methylation signature exists for in utero exposure in newborns is unknown. Materials & methods: We separately meta-analyzed newborn blood DNA methylation (assessed using Illumina450k Beadchip), in relation to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy (9 cohorts, 5648 newborns, 897 exposed) and adult blood methylation and personal smoking (16 cohorts, 15907 participants, 2433 current smokers). Results & conclusion: Comparing meta-analyses, we identified numerous signatures specific to newborns along with many shared between newborns and adults. Unique smoking-associated genes in newborns were enriched in xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Our findings may provide insights into specific health impacts of prenatal exposure on offspring.

3.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

4.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(3): 1101-1110, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060644

RESUMO

Through autonomic and affective mechanisms, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) may disrupt the capacity to regulate negative emotions, increasing craving and exacerbating risk for opioid use disorder (OUD) among individuals with chronic pain who are receiving long-term opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy. This study examined associations between ACEs, heart rate variability (HRV) during emotion regulation, and negative emotional cue-elicited craving among a sample of female opioid-treated chronic pain patients at risk for OUD. A sample of women (N = 36, mean age = 51.2 ± 9.5) with chronic pain receiving long-term opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy (mean morphine equivalent daily dose = 87.1 ± 106.9 mg) were recruited from primary care and pain clinics to complete a randomized task in which they viewed and reappraised negative affective stimuli while HRV and craving were assessed. Both ACEs and duration of opioid use significantly predicted blunted HRV during negative emotion regulation and increased negative emotional cue-elicited craving. Analysis of study findings from a multiple-levels-of-analysis approach suggest that exposure to childhood abuse occasions later emotion dysregulation and appetitive responding toward opioids in negative affective contexts among adult women with chronic pain, and thus this vulnerable clinical population should be assessed for OUD risk when initiating a course of extended, high-dose opioids for pain management.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

7.
Epigenomics ; 10(1): 27-42, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172695

RESUMO

AIM: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is sometimes associated with adverse outcomes in offspring, potentially mediated by epigenetic modifications. We aimed to investigate genome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood of newborns exposed to alcohol in utero. MATERIALS & METHODS: We meta-analyzed information from six population-based birth cohorts within the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics consortium. RESULTS: We found no strong evidence of association at either individual CpGs or across larger regions of the genome. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest no association between maternal alcohol consumption and offspring cord blood DNA methylation. This is in stark contrast to the multiple strong associations previous studies have found for maternal smoking, which is similarly socially patterned. However, it is possible that a combination of a larger sample size, higher doses, different timings of exposure, exploration of a different tissue and a more global assessment of genomic DNA methylation might show evidence of association.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Metilação de DNA , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Troca Materno-Fetal , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(20): 4067-4085, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016858

RESUMO

Pre-pregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse offspring outcomes at birth and later in life. Individual studies have shown that epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation could contribute. Within the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium, we meta-analysed the association between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and methylation at over 450,000 sites in newborn blood DNA, across 19 cohorts (9,340 mother-newborn pairs). We attempted to infer causality by comparing the effects of maternal versus paternal BMI and incorporating genetic variation. In four additional cohorts (1,817 mother-child pairs), we meta-analysed the association between maternal BMI at the start of pregnancy and blood methylation in adolescents. In newborns, maternal BMI was associated with small (<0.2% per BMI unit (1 kg/m2), P < 1.06 × 10-7) methylation variation at 9,044 sites throughout the genome. Adjustment for estimated cell proportions greatly attenuated the number of significant CpGs to 104, including 86 sites common to the unadjusted model. At 72/86 sites, the direction of the association was the same in newborns and adolescents, suggesting persistence of signals. However, we found evidence for acausal intrauterine effect of maternal BMI on newborn methylation at just 8/86 sites. In conclusion, this well-powered analysis identified robust associations between maternal adiposity and variations in newborn blood DNA methylation, but these small effects may be better explained by genetic or lifestyle factors than a causal intrauterine mechanism. This highlights the need for large-scale collaborative approaches and the application of causal inference techniques in epigenetic epidemiology.


Assuntos
Herança Materna/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Resultado da Gravidez/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/fisiologia , Mães , Gravidez/fisiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo
9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(4): 760-766, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27323799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy, especially when sustained, leads to numerous adverse health outcomes in offspring. Pregnant women disproportionately underreport smoking and smokers tend to have lower follow-up rates to repeat questionnaires. Missing, incomplete, or inaccurate data on presence and duration of smoking in pregnancy impairs identification of novel health effects and limits adjustment for smoking in studies of other pregnancy exposures. An objective biomarker in newborns of maternal smoking during pregnancy would be valuable. OBJECTIVES: We developed a biomarker of sustained maternal smoking in pregnancy using common DNA methylation platforms. METHODS: Using a dimension reduction method, we developed and tested a numeric score in newborns to reflect sustained maternal smoking in pregnancy from data on cotinine, a short-term smoking biomarker measured mid-pregnancy, and Illumina450K cord blood DNA methylation from newborns in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). RESULTS: This score reliably predicted smoking status in the training set (n = 1,057; accuracy = 96%, sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 98%). Sensitivity (58%) was predictably lower in the much smaller test set (n = 221), but accuracy (91%) and specificity (97%) remained high. Reduced birth weight, a well-known effect of maternal smoking, was as strongly related to the score as to cotinine. A three-site score had lower, but acceptable, performance (accuracytrain = 82%, accuracytest = 83%). CONCLUSIONS: Our smoking methylation score represents a promising novel biomarker of sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy easily calculated with Illumina450K or IlluminaEPIC data. It may help identify novel health impacts and improve adjustment for smoking when studying other risk factors with more subtle effects.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Cotinina/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(4): 680-96, 2016 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27040690

RESUMO

Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, represent a potential mechanism for environmental impacts on human disease. Maternal smoking in pregnancy remains an important public health problem that impacts child health in a myriad of ways and has potential lifelong consequences. The mechanisms are largely unknown, but epigenetics most likely plays a role. We formed the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium and meta-analyzed, across 13 cohorts (n = 6,685), the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and newborn blood DNA methylation at over 450,000 CpG sites (CpGs) by using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Over 6,000 CpGs were differentially methylated in relation to maternal smoking at genome-wide statistical significance (false discovery rate, 5%), including 2,965 CpGs corresponding to 2,017 genes not previously related to smoking and methylation in either newborns or adults. Several genes are relevant to diseases that can be caused by maternal smoking (e.g., orofacial clefts and asthma) or adult smoking (e.g., certain cancers). A number of differentially methylated CpGs were associated with gene expression. We observed enrichment in pathways and processes critical to development. In older children (5 cohorts, n = 3,187), 100% of CpGs gave at least nominal levels of significance, far more than expected by chance (p value < 2.2 × 10(-16)). Results were robust to different normalization methods used across studies and cell type adjustment. In this large scale meta-analysis of methylation data, we identified numerous loci involved in response to maternal smoking in pregnancy with persistence into later childhood and provide insights into mechanisms underlying effects of this important exposure.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Asma/etiologia , Asma/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Fenda Labial/etiologia , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/etiologia , Fissura Palatina/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
11.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10577, 2016 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861414

RESUMO

Folate is vital for fetal development. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and food fortification are recommended to prevent neural tube defects. Mechanisms whereby periconceptional folate influences normal development and disease are poorly understood: epigenetics may be involved. We examine the association between maternal plasma folate during pregnancy and epigenome-wide DNA methylation using Illumina's HumanMethyl450 Beadchip in 1,988 newborns from two European cohorts. Here we report the combined covariate-adjusted results using meta-analysis and employ pathway and gene expression analyses. Four-hundred forty-three CpGs (320 genes) are significantly associated with maternal plasma folate levels during pregnancy (false discovery rate 5%); 48 are significant after Bonferroni correction. Most genes are not known for folate biology, including APC2, GRM8, SLC16A12, OPCML, PRPH, LHX1, KLK4 and PRSS21. Some relate to birth defects other than neural tube defects, neurological functions or varied aspects of embryonic development. These findings may inform how maternal folate impacts the developing epigenome and health outcomes in offspring.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Adulto , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Calicreínas/genética , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Periferinas/genética , Gravidez , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 321, 2015 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26219460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several epidemiologic studies indicate that maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) influences health outcomes in offspring. Any underlying mechanisms have, however, not been established. A recent study of 88 children based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort examined the methylation levels at 1,505 Cytosine-Guanine methylation (CpG) loci and found several to be significantly associated with maternal weight gain between weeks 0 and 18 of gestation. Since these results could not be replicated we wanted to examine associations between 0 and 18 week GWG and genome-wide methylation levels using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K) platform on a larger sample size, i.e. 729 newborns sampled from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). RESULTS: We found no CpG loci associated with 0-18 week GWG after adjusting for the set of covariates used in the ALSPAC study (i.e. child's sex and maternal age) and for multiple testing (q > 0.9, both 1,505 and 473,731 tests). Hence, none of the CpG loci linked with the genes found significantly associated with 0-18 week GWG in the ALSPAC study were significant in our study. CONCLUSIONS: The inconsistency in the results with the ALSPAC study with regards to the 0-18 week GWG model may arise for several reasons: sampling from different populations, dissimilar methylome coverage, sample size and/or false positive findings.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez
13.
Bioinformatics ; 29(22): 2877-83, 2013 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23958724

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Batch effects are due to probe-specific systematic variation between groups of samples (batches) resulting from experimental features that are not of biological interest. Principal component analysis (PCA) is commonly used as a visual tool to determine whether batch effects exist after applying a global normalization method. However, PCA yields linear combinations of the variables that contribute maximum variance and thus will not necessarily detect batch effects if they are not the largest source of variability in the data. RESULTS: We present an extension of PCA to quantify the existence of batch effects, called guided PCA (gPCA). We describe a test statistic that uses gPCA to test whether a batch effect exists. We apply our proposed test statistic derived using gPCA to simulated data and to two copy number variation case studies: the first study consisted of 614 samples from a breast cancer family study using Illumina Human 660 bead-chip arrays, whereas the second case study consisted of 703 samples from a family blood pressure study that used Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0. We demonstrate that our statistic has good statistical properties and is able to identify significant batch effects in two copy number variation case studies. CONCLUSION: We developed a new statistic that uses gPCA to identify whether batch effects exist in high-throughput genomic data. Although our examples pertain to copy number data, gPCA is general and can be used on other data types as well. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The gPCA R package (Available via CRAN) provides functionality and data to perform the methods in this article. CONTACT: reesese@vcu.edu


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 256(2): 154-67, 2011 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21851831

RESUMO

Interactions between environmental contaminants can lead to non-additive effects that may affect the toxicity and risk assessment of a mixture. Comprehensive time course and dose-response studies with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), non-dioxin-like 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) and their mixture were performed in immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice. Mice were gavaged once with 30 µg/kg TCDD, 300 mg/kg PCB153, a mixture of 30 µg/kg TCDD with 300 mg/kg PCB153 (MIX) or sesame oil vehicle for 4,12, 24,72 or 168 h. In the 24h dose-response study, animals were gavaged with TCDD (0.3,1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 30, 45 µg/kg), PCB153 (3,10, 30, 60, 100, 150, 300, 450 mg/kg), MIX (0.3+3, 1+10, 3+30, 6+60, 10+100, 15+150, 30+300, 45 µg/kg TCDD+450 mg/kg PCB153, respectively) or vehicle. All three treatments significantly increased relative liver weights (RLW), with MIX eliciting significantly greater increases compared to TCDD and PCB153 alone. Histologically, MIX induced hepatocellular hypertrophy, vacuolization, inflammation, hyperplasia and necrosis, a combination of TCDD and PCB153 responses. Complementary lipid analyses identified significant increases in hepatic triglycerides in MIX and TCDD samples, while PCB153 had no effect on lipids. Hepatic PCB153 levels were also significantly increased with TCDD co-treatment. Microarray analysis identified 167 TCDD, 185 PCB153 and 388 MIX unique differentially expressed genes. Statistical modeling of quantitative real-time PCR analysis of Pla2g12a, Serpinb6a, Nqo1, Srxn1, and Dysf verified non-additive expression following MIX treatment compared to TCDD and PCB153 alone. In summary, TCDD and PCB153 co-treatment elicited specific non-additive gene expression effects that are consistent with RLW increases, histopathology, and hepatic lipid accumulation.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Furanos , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Tiofenos , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/análise
15.
Brief Bioinform ; 11(2): 244-52, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19939941

RESUMO

Extensive methodological research has been conducted to improve gene expression summary methods. However, in addition to quantitative gene expression summaries, most platforms, including all those examined in the MicroArray Quality Control project, provide a qualitative detection call result for each gene on the platform. These detection call algorithms are intended to render an assessment of whether or not each transcript is reliably measured. In this paper, we review uses of these qualitative detection call results in the analysis of microarray data. We also review the detection call algorithms for two widely used gene expression microarray platforms, Affymetrix GeneChips and Illumina BeadArrays, and more clearly formalize the mathematical notation for the Illumina BeadArray detection call algorithm. Both algorithms result in a P-value which is then used for determining the qualitative detection calls. We examined the performance of these detection call algorithms and default parameters by applying the methods to two spike-in datasets. We show that the default parameters for qualitative detection calls yield few absent calls for high spike-in concentrations. When genes of interest are expected to be present at very low concentrations, spike-in datasets can be useful for appropriately adjusting the tuning parameters for qualitative detection calls.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
16.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 68(1): 144-8, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20006169

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This prospective randomized clinical study assessed the efficacy of pain control for postextraction alveolar osteitis comparing the use of eugenol on a gauze strip versus a thermosetting gel containing 2.5% prilocaine and 2.5% lidocaine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients who presented with postextraction alveolar osteitis were randomly assigned to either a control group or test group. After irrigation of the extraction site with normal saline solution, the control patients were treated with eugenol on a gauze strip placed in the socket and the test patients were treated with the thermosetting gel placed directly into the socket. All patients were given a series of visual analog scales to record their pretreatment pain and post-treatment pain at 5, 10, and 15 minutes and then at 1-hour increments during waking hours for the next 48 hours. They were also given a prescription for an analgesic to use for breakthrough pain during the 48-hour period, if necessary, and instructed to record the dose and timing of any pain medication taken. All patients were seen for follow-up at 48 hours after treatment. RESULTS: The mean pretreatment pain score was 6.72 on a scale ranging from 1 to 10 for the eugenol group and 6.37 for the prilocaine-lidocaine group (SE, 0.46), and the 2 groups were not different (P = .62). In the immediate post-treatment period (0-15 minutes) the pain levels were significantly reduced in both groups (Ps < .001). However, the thermosetting gel produced a significantly greater reduction in pain (mean, 3.23; SE, 0.62) than the eugenol (mean, 4.83; SE, 0.43) (P = .022). Over the next 48 hours, the pain level was nominally less with the thermosetting gel, but this difference was not statistically significant (Ps = .2). CONCLUSION: Although the efficacy of the 2 treatments was not significantly different, the nominal superiority and ease of using the thermosetting gel warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Combinados/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Alvéolo Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Eugenol/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Prilocaína/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Alvéolo Seco/etiologia , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Extração Dentária/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA