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1.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 183, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airway bacterial dysbiosis is a feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is limited comparative data of the lung microbiome between healthy smokers, non-smokers and COPD. METHODS: We compared the 16S rRNA gene-based sputum microbiome generated from pair-ended Illumina sequencing of 124 healthy subjects (28 smokers and 96 non-smokers with normal lung function), with single stable samples from 218 COPD subjects collected from three UK clinical centres as part of the COPDMAP consortium. RESULTS: In healthy subjects Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the major phyla constituting 88% of the total reads, and Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, Actinomyces and Rothia were the dominant genera. Haemophilus formed only 3% of the healthy microbiome. In contrast, Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum accounting for 50% of the microbiome in COPD subjects, with Haemophilus and Moraxella at genus level contributing 25 and 3% respectively. There were no differences in the microbiome profile within healthy and COPD subgroups when stratified based on smoking history. Principal coordinate analysis on operational taxonomic units showed two distinct clusters, representative of healthy and COPD subjects (PERMANOVA, p = 0·001). CONCLUSION: The healthy and COPD sputum microbiomes are distinct and independent of smoking history. Our results underline the important role for Gammaproteobacteria in COPD.

2.
Thorax ; 75(1): 8-16, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a major global threat. We hypothesised that the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) airway is a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) that associate with microbiome-specific COPD subgroups. OBJECTIVE: To determine the resistance gene profiles in respiratory samples from COPD patients and healthy volunteers. METHODS: Quantitative PCR targeting 279 specific ARGs was used to profile the resistomes in sputum from subjects with COPD at stable, exacerbation and recovery visits (n=55; COPD-BEAT study), healthy controls with (n=7) or without (n=22) exposure to antibiotics in the preceding 12 months (EXCEED study) and in bronchial brush samples from COPD (n=8) and healthy controls (n=7) (EvA study). RESULTS: ARG mean (SEM) prevalence was greater in stable COPD samples (35.2 (1.6)) than in healthy controls (27.6 (1.7); p=0.004) and correlated with total bacterial abundance (r2=0.23; p<0.001). Prevalence of ARG positive signals in individuals was not related to COPD symptoms, lung function or their changes at exacerbation. In the COPD subgroups designated High γProteobacteria and High Firmicutes, ARG prevalence was not different at stable state but significantly declined from stable through exacerbation to recovery in the former (p=0.011) without changes in total bacterial abundance. The ARG patterns were similar in COPD versus health, COPD microbiome-subgroups and between sputum and bronchoscopic samples independent of antibiotic exposure in the last 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: ARGs are highly prevalent in sputum, broadly in proportion to bacterial abundance in both healthy and COPD subjects. Thus, COPD appears to be an ARG reservoir due to high levels of bacterial colonisation.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Idoso , Carga Bacteriana , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
6.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
7.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
8.
BMJ Open ; 3(1)2013 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23355655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether residential proximity to industrial incinerators in England is associated with increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective study using matched case-control areas. SETTING: Five circular regions of radius 10 km near industrial incinerators in England (case regions) and five matched control regions, 1998-2008. PARTICIPANTS: All cases of diseases of interest within the circular areas. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Counts of childhood cancer incidence (<15 years); childhood leukaemia incidence (<15 years); leukaemia incidence; liver cancer incidence; lung cancer incidence; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence; all-cause mortality; infant mortality (<1 year) and liver cancer mortality. RESULTS: The estimated relative risks for case circles versus control circles for the nine outcomes considered  range from 0.94 to 1.14, and show neither elevated risk in case circles compared to control areas nor elevated risk with proximity to incinerators within case circles. CONCLUSIONS: This study applies statistical methods for analysing spatially referenced health outcome data in regions with a hypothesised exposure relative to matched regions with no such exposure. There is no evidence of elevated risk of cancer incidence or mortality in the vicinity of large industrial incinerators in England.

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