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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044370

RESUMO

Auricularia mushrooms are known for their bioactive compounds, mostly polysaccharides, which have numerous biological activities, such as antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulatory, hyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, anticoagulant and hepatoprotective effects. Over the past decades, there has been a consistent focus on the isolation, chemical properties and bioactivities of polysaccharides from Auricularia. This review will cover what is known about Auricularia polysaccharides (AP) especially for several common species, including A. auricula-judae, A. auricula, A. polytricha, and A. cornea var. Li. The isolation and purifications, structural characterizations, chemical modifications, and biological activities of these AP and their derivatives will be discussed, thus to provide a foundation for the further investigation, production, and application of AP as functional foods and therapeutic agents.

2.
Food Chem ; 308: 125576, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648092

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of cold storage at different temperatures (4, -0.5, -3, and -20 °C) on protein degradation and its relationship to structural changes of black carp muscle. At -0.5 and 4 °C, major structural changes occurred, including the formation of gaps between myofibers and myofibrils, breakage of myofibrils and myofibers, and degradation of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Gel-based proteomic analysis showed that these structural changes were accompanied by degradation of a series of myofibrillar proteins, including titin, nebulin, troponin, myosin, myomesin, myosin-binding protein, and α-actinin. Loss of extractable gelatinolytic and caseinolytic protease activities was also observed. At -3 and -20 °C, formation of ice crystals was the most noticeable change. The major proteins were degraded at different locations in the black carp muscle, and gelatinolytic and caseinolytic proteases appear to contribute to the degradation of those proteins.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Actinina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte , Temperatura Baixa , Conectina/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteômica
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115020, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426989

RESUMO

A potato amylose-based fat replacer (PAFR) was prepared using super-heated quenching at different amylose ratios. The effects of amylose ratio on texture attributes, rheological properties, water distribution, and microstructure of PAFR were investigated. The results showed amylose contributed to the gel structure of PAFR, with a positive correlation of G' and G'' with amylose ratio. PAFR with 85% amylose ratio generated better texture attributes and gel properties. The low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) indicated amylose was advantageous for the tight interaction with water molecules through hydrogen bonds, which then developed a creamy texture of PAFR. In addition, the microstructure changed from a three-dimensional network structure to a lamellar structure, while some spherulites of 2-10 µm diameter, similar to fat globules in size, started to appear with the increasing amylose ratio. This study on amylose impact would provide great insights for future application of fat replacer.

4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5771-5777, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red fish meat (a by-product of fillet processing from grass carp) is a rich source of good-quality protein, which makes it an important candidate for the production of functional foods. In this study, wheat flour was replaced with red fish meat (RFM) leftover from grass carp fillet frames at different levels (100-300 g kg-1 ) in fried snacks on a laboratory scale. The quality characteristics, physicochemical properties and sensory acceptability of the fried snacks were assessed. RESULTS: The addition of RFM significantly (P < 0.05) increased protein, fat, moisture and ash contents, while texture (breakage force) was improved. Expansion and water hydration capacity were decreased with increasing content of RFM. Lightness (L*) was increased whereas redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were decreased with the addition of RFM. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the protein matrix was increased and fewer starch granules were found when RFM was added. Moreover, in vitro protein digestibility was also increased in samples prepared with RFM compared with the control. Furthermore, essential amino acids (lysine, leucine, threonine and methionine) increased (1.2-fold compared with the control) with increasing RFM content. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that red fish meat can be used to make a new snack product with improved nutritional value and textural properties. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Lanches , Animais , Carpas , Cor , Culinária , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Paladar , Triticum/química , Resíduos/análise
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 108989, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228801

RESUMO

Korean pine nut protein (PNP) has a variety of biological activities, which are good for human health, but its ability to preventing diabetes has not been reported. This study evaluated the effects of water-soluble proteins of Korean pine nut obtained from a dilute alkali extract on carbohydrate metabolism of type 2 diabetic mice on a model of diabetes induced using a high fat diet combined with streptozotocin. The results showed that the hypoglycemic effect of PNP at a middle dose was the most significant, which was 38.7% lower than that of control. The extract significantly improved the oral glucose tolerance and liver indexes, increased the activity of the carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, and regulated the expression of the function of key genes for carbohydrate metabolism. It had a positive effect on both insulin resistance and glycolytic/gluconeogenesis signaling. In conclusion, PNP can regulate fasting blood glucose, improve insulin resistance, correct the glucose metabolism disorder in diabetic mice, and have a positive regulatory role. As the functional food, it has the potential to be beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus as a new hypoglycemic functional food.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Nozes/uso terapêutico , Pinus/química , Água/química , Administração Oral , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Jejum/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Nozes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Nozes/farmacologia , Solubilidade
6.
Biomolecules ; 9(5)2019 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060346

RESUMO

Recent studies have identified the regulatory mechanism of collagen in bone ossification and resorption. Due to its excellent bio-mimicry property, collagen is used for the treatment of several bone and joint disease such as arthritis, osteoporosis, and osteopenia. In bone, the biological action of collagen is highly influenced by the interactions of other bone materials such as glycosaminoglycan and minerals. In view of the above perceptions, collagen was crosslinked with chitosan, hydroxyapatite (H), and chondroitin sulfate (Cs), to produce a natural bone-like 3D structure and to evaluate its effect on bone homeostasis using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblast, and bone marrow macrophages. The XRD and micro-CT data confirmed the arrangement of H crystallites in the chitosan-collagen-H-Cs (CCHCs) three-dimensional (3D)-matrix and the three-dimensional structure of the matrix. The stimulatory osteoblastogenic and exploitive osteoclastogenic activity of 3D-matrices were identified using differentiated osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Besides, osteogenic progenitor's paracrine cues for osteoclastogenesis showed that the differentiated osteoblast secreted higher levels of RANKL to support osteoclastogenesis, and the effect was downregulated by the CCHCs 3D-matrix. From that, it was hypothesized that the morphology of the CCHCs 3D-matrix resembles trabecular bone, which enhances bone growth, limits bone resorption, and could be a novel biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/farmacologia , Colágeno/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Quitosana/química , Colágeno/química , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/ultraestrutura , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Comunicação Parácrina/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reologia , Tilápia
7.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-13, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924360

RESUMO

Fishery products are delicious, nutritional and healthy foods, and their popularity in today's market is growing. With the changes in consumer consumption expectations as well as the development of reliable cold-chains, fresh preprocessed fishery products such as fillets are more popular with consumers and producers because of their convenience for processing and cooking. However, fishery products after being removed from water have a short shelf life due to their intrinsic characteristics. Therefore, developing effective preservation technology to extend postmortem shelf life of fishery products has been an on-going area of study. This review summarizes the patterns of quality deterioration and external factors that affect postmortem quality of fishery products, and then updates the recent advances with preservation methods for fishery products including superchilling, modified atmosphere packaging, active packaging, edible coatings, irradiation and high hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of each technology are discussed, and future trends for improving the preservation of fishery products are also discussed.

8.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-15, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676059

RESUMO

Fermentation is a traditional food preservation method and is widely used for improving food safety, shelf life, and organoleptic and nutritional attributes. Fermented fish are produced and consumed in different parts of the world and are an integral part of many food cultures. Furthermore, fermented fish are a source of interesting microbes and are an important industry in many countries. This review tries to update the types and manufacturing processes for fermented fish around the world. The emphasis is on this work related to fermented fish and their health benefits, as well as the contribution of microorganisms to their fermentation. A variety of different approaches have been used to determine and understand microbial composition and functionality. Moreover, some challenges and future research directions regarding fermented fish are also discussed in this review. Further research into fermented fish products is of crucial importance not only for the food industry but also for human health. However, extensive in vivo and toxicological studies are essential before the application of bioactive-rich fermented fish products for human health benefits.

9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 293: 87-93, 2019 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677560

RESUMO

The effect of air packaging (AP), vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 75% CO2/25% N2) on the composition of the microbial community of lightly salted grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 °C was studied. Physicochemical characteristics (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value, pH value and biogenic amines (BA)) were also monitored. Based on sensory evaluation, the shelf life of fillets under AP, VP, and MAP was 8, 16 and 24 days, respectively. High-throughput sequencing showed that Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated the microflora of fresh grass carp. At the sensory rejection time, Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter dominated the AP products. Lactococcus became the predominant genus of both VP and MAP fillets, and there was no obvious difference in the composition of the dominant microbiota between these two treatments at the end of the shelf life.


Assuntos
Carpas/microbiologia , Embalagem de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Vácuo , Acinetobacter/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Animais , Atmosfera , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactococcus/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Psychrobacter/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , Cloreto de Sódio , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
10.
Chemosphere ; 219: 95-99, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529858

RESUMO

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) levels in Lagocephalus sceleratus (Silverstripe blaasop), Lagocephalus spadiceus (Half-smooth golden pufferfish) and Lagocephalus suezensis (Suez puffer) caught in Mersin Bay in the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea were analysed using Q-TOF LC/MS. Pufferfish were caught using trawl fishing, longlining and fishing line from December 2015 to October 2016. The TTX changes in the gonads, livers, intestines, skins and muscle tissues were evaluated according to sex and season. TTX levels for L. sceleratus and L. suezensis for all tissues were in the range of 0.69-35.6 µg/g and 0.67-3.09 µg/g, respectively. The highest TTX levels were observed in the gonads of female L. sceleratus caught in the autumn, and in the skin of L. suezensis caught in the spring but no quantifiable levels of TTX were found for L. spadiceus. In conclusion, L. sceleratus and L. suezensis species caught in the North-Eastern Mediterranean are toxic, and their consumption is unsafe.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tetrodotoxina/química , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Tetraodontiformes
11.
Food Chem ; 272: 539-548, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309579

RESUMO

This study investigates the effects of pre-acidification (pH 6.7-5.4) of skim milk, followed by pH-restoration of the retentates, on spray-drying performance, physico-chemical properties and functionality of the resulting milk protein concentrate (MPC). Powder recovery decreased with decreasing pH of pre-acidification but improved with pH-restoration. Colloidal calcium was gradually solubilized with decreasing pH of pre-acidification but was slightly recovered by pH-restoration. Dissociation of micellar caseins increased with decreasing pH of pre-acidification of skim milk and was further increased by pH-restoration. Casein micelles maintained their overall structures at pre-acidification pH of 6.7-6.0, and partially disintegrated into loosely entangled aggregates at pH 5.7-5.4; while after pH-restoration, micelles generally maintained their overall structures at pre-acidification pH of 6.0, and completely disintegrated at pH 5.7-5.4. Solubility and emulsifying properties of MPC improved with decreasing pH of pre-acidification and with pH-restoration. Heat stability of MPC declined with decreasing pH of pre-acidification but improved with pH-restoration.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/química , Dessecação , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Micelas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Leite/química , Pós/química , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Solubilidade , Temperatura Ambiente , Difração de Raios X
12.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 59(15): 2481-2493, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29584448

RESUMO

The popularity of preprocessed fresh fishery products such as fillets and peeled shrimps is growing in today s market due to their convenience for subsequent processing and cooking. However, fishery products are highly perishable because of the combined actions of biochemical reactions and microbial metabolism. Various methods have been proposed to address this problem. Among these methods, bio-based edible coating has been highlighted as a promising solution. This review updates and summarizes the recent literature on the application of coatings for the preservation of fishery products including the aspects of coating carriers, composite natural preservatives and coating methods, and a discussion of the protective effects based on microbial, physicochemical and sensorial evaluations. Moreover, some challenges and future research directions regarding optimization of formulas and exploration of mechanisms of coating are also discussed. Given consumer demand for fresh fishery products with long shelf life, edible coatings that are environmentally friendly and effective alternative will be used to extend the shelf life of fishery products.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Alginatos , Produtos Biológicos , Quitosana , Aditivos Alimentares , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Gelatina , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Alimentos Marinhos , Paladar , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
13.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2585, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410482

RESUMO

The effect of two levels of clinoptilolite (1 and 5%) on the production of biogenic amines (BA) and ammonia (AMN) by Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram negative bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella Parathypi A), in tyrosine decarboxylase broth (TDB) was studied. A. hydrophila and E. coli produced the highest amounts of amines which were 1223.06 and 2627.90 mg/l, respectively. All strains were able to decarboxylate tyrosine to tyramine (TYR) with E. coli being the highest (1657.19 mg/l). A. hydrophila formed >50 mg/l histamine (HIS) while the other strains produced none or very low concentrations (<4 mg/l). Among Gram-positive pathogens, E. faecalis was characterized as the main amine producer (478.23 mg/l). Although dependent on bacterial strain and level used, the natural zeolite clinoptilolite can be used to decrease BA and AMN production by bacterial strains that are of health concern. Practical Applications: Uses of natural prodcuts for biogenic amines inhibition. Clinoptilolite was used to reduce the amounts of amines such as spermine, putrescine, and dopamine produced by pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

14.
Technol Health Care ; 26(5): 805-814, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis that leads to a series of periodontal tissue injuries. Egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) is procuded in egg yolk and inhibits P. gingivalis. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effect of IgY on experimental periodontitis caused by P. gingivalis. METHODS: The second molars of rats were ligatured using medical 5-0 silk and smeared with P. gingivalis to induce experimental periodontitis. Then, the rats were smeared with 2 mL IgY solutions or 0.9% NaCl in the oral cavity for up to 4 wk. The scores for gingival index, plaque index and probe on bleeding, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, X-ray radiography and histology were used to determine the efficacy of the IgY on experimental periodontitis. RESULTS: The clinical indices improved; the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly (p< 0.05) decreased; the X-rays and histomorphological observations suggested that the periodontal inflammation and periodontitis were alleviated compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: IgY showed significant effects on anti-inflammatory, anti-coaggregation activity, and protected against alveolar bone loss. Therefore, it had a beneficial effect on preventing experimental periodontitis caused by P. gingivalis.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda do Osso Alveolar/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Índice Periodontal , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 285: 61-68, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031352

RESUMO

The effects of a chitosan-based coating on the inhibition of microbial spoilage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets were studied during refrigerated storage for 15 days in terms of pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-related compounds, K value, microbial enumeration and high-throughput sequencing. The results indicated that the fillets treated with chitosan-based coating enriched with 0.3% glycerol monolaurate and 0.5% clove essential oil had lower values of TVB-N, TMA, hypoxanthine riboside (HxR), hypoxanthine (Hx) and K value with the significant reductions (P < 0.05) of nearly 34, 73, 32, 74 and 38%, respectively, when compared to the control at day 15 of storage. Using high-throughput sequencing analysis, the major bacteria phyla of Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes and the bacteria family of Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroidaceae were observed in fresh grass carp. As storage time increased, the coated samples retained bacterial diversity. However, Shewanellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Flavobacteriaceae increased and became the predominant microbiota in spoiled control samples. The significant difference between the bacteria species in the control and coated samples showed that the coating had the potential to inhibit microbial growth, especially spoilage microorganisms, and reduced quality deterioration caused by bacteria during refrigerated storage of grass carp fillets.


Assuntos
Carpas/microbiologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lauratos/farmacologia , Monoglicerídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
16.
Molecules ; 23(6)2018 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890658

RESUMO

A novel chitosan microsphere for encapsulating pine cone polyphenols (PP) from P. koraiensis was successfully prepared using an emulsion crosslinking technique. The characteristics of pine polyphenol-loaded microspheres (PPM) were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a laser particle size detector. It was found that PPMs were spherical in shape with uniform particle size distribution patterns. The drug content and encapsulation rate of the microspheres were 7.47% and 73.6%, respectively, at a Ch/GA mass ratio of 0.7. The animal experiments showed that PPM had a stronger radiation protective effect than PP. PPM significantly increased the immune organ indices, the quantity of marrow DNA, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, the splenocyte proliferation index, and the phagocytosis activity of monocytes. PPM also decreased the numbers of micronuclei in bone marrow cells and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in plasma in mice exposed to 60Co γ-irradiation. In addition, gender differences in biological responses to exposure to radiation were observed.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Radioisótopos de Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Microesferas , Pinus/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Protetores contra Radiação/administração & dosagem , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 262: 1-6, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751895

RESUMO

The study evaluated the inhibitory effects of chitosan-based coatings on endogenous enzyme activities, proteolytic degradation and texture softening of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 °C for 15 days. In general, the inhibitory effects of chitosan coating were worse than that of chitosan composite coatings, which significantly inhibited cathepsin B, B + L and calpain activities of fillets, with the most reductions of 58%, 65% and 41%, respectively when compared to the corresponding values of control fillets. Besides, the treatments also retarded the proteolytic degradation through quantifiable indicators including salt-soluble proteins (SSP), TCA-soluble peptides and SDS-PAGE pattern. After storage of 15 days, the shear forces of coated fillets were 28-53% higher than that of control samples. These results indicated that chitosan composite coating combined with glycerol monolaurate and clove essential oil improved the quality of refrigerated grass carp fillets by alleviating endogenous enzyme induced proteolysis and softening.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Quitosana/farmacologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Produtos Pesqueiros , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Animais , Calpaína/metabolismo , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Lauratos/farmacologia , Monoglicerídeos/farmacologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5318, 2018 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29593232

RESUMO

Homeostasis of osteoclast formation from bone marrow macrophages (BMM) is regulated by paracrine signals of the neighbourhood bone cells particularly mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), osteoblasts and osteocytes (OC). Besides paracrine cues, collagen and glycosaminoglycan are involved in controlling bone homeostasis. Towards this approach, different molecular weight collagens were reacted with MSC, OC and BMM to understand the bone homeostasis activity of collagen. The up-regulating effect of collagens on osteogenic cell growth was confirmed by the presence of mineralized nodules in the osteoblastogenic lineage cells and increased osteogenic stimulatory gene expression. The decreased BMM-derived TRAP+ osteoclasts number and osteoclastogenic regulatory gene expression of OC could demonstrate the exploitive osteoclastogenic activity of collagens. Osteoclastogenesis from BMM was triggered by paracrine cues of OC in some extend, but it was down-regulated by collagen. Overall, the effect of collagen on osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis may depend on the molecular weight of collagens, and collagen suppresses osteoclastogenesis, at least in part by downregulating the secretion of cytokines in OC.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Colágeno/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Animais , Biomarcadores , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Colágeno/administração & dosagem , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Camundongos , Osteoblastos , Osteoclastos , Osteócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
19.
Food Res Int ; 106: 156-163, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579914

RESUMO

Taste and aroma compounds in Tianyou were determined using HPLC and GC-MS/GC-olfactometry. By comparison with light soy sauce (control), the contents of salt, sugar, total nitrogen and total acid in Tianyou were higher, while the contents of umami, sweet and bitter free amino acids, and the percentage of 1-5kDa peptides in Tianyou were lower. Thirty-one aroma-active compounds were identified in both Tianyou and the control (30 compounds in common). Aroma extraction dilution analysis indicated that most flavor dilution factors of aroma-active compounds were lower in Tianyou than the control. Quantitative descriptive analysis showed that Tianyou had significantly stronger salty and sweet tastes, weaker umami taste and weaker malty, caramel-like and smoky notes when compared to the control (p<0.05), which were in agreement with the analyses of taste and aroma compounds. This confirms that Tianyou has a distinctively different flavor from light soy sauce.


Assuntos
Condimentos/análise , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Farinha , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Triticum , Ácidos/análise , Adulto , Aminoácidos/análise , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/análise , Peptídeos/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Açúcares/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
20.
Nanoscale ; 10(8): 3639-3643, 2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423486

RESUMO

Since the late 1980s, low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) based on different classes of natural products have been reported. Until 2011, pure natural LMWGs (i.e., natural product gelators, NPGs) were not found. However, today only five NPGs are reported. We think that this may be due to the lack of awareness about the importance of NPGs and suitable methods to discover new NPGs. Here we illustrate the potential significance of NPGs, and present a general and efficient method for obtaining NPGs from organisms, which provides specific and important guidance to researchers for easy discovery of new NPGs from organisms in the future. Using this method, we screened a total of 64 kinds of organisms (including plants, animals and fungi), and 6 extracts with a gelation ability were tracked and isolated to yield six new NPGs. These new NPGs include new types of NPGs such as tricyclic triterpenes (1) and tetracyclic triterpenes (2), and new classes of NPGs such as steroids (4 and 5) and glycosides (6), which greatly expand the class of NPGs in the LMWG field.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Géis/química , Dioscorea/química , Gastrodia/química , Glicosídeos/química , Peso Molecular , Pleurotus/química , Esteroides/química , Taraxacum/química , Triterpenos/química , Wolfiporia/química
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