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1.
J Cell Sci ; 135(5)2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028531

RESUMO

Lipid droplets (LDs) are globular subcellular structures that store neutral lipids. LDs are closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are limited by a phospholipid monolayer harboring a specific set of proteins. Most of these proteins associate with LDs through either an amphipathic helix or a membrane-embedded hairpin motif. Here, we address the question of whether integral membrane proteins can localize to the surface of LDs. To test this, we fused perilipin 3 (PLIN3), a mammalian LD-targeted protein, to ER-resident proteins. The resulting fusion proteins localized to the periphery of LDs in both yeast and mammalian cells. This peripheral LD localization of the fusion proteins, however, was due to a redistribution of the ER around LDs, as revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation between ER- and LD-localized partners. A LD-tethering function of PLIN3-containing membrane proteins was confirmed by fusing PLIN3 to the cytoplasmic domain of an outer mitochondrial membrane protein, OM14. Expression of OM14-PLIN3 induced a close apposition between LDs and mitochondria. These data indicate that the ER-LD junction constitutes a barrier for ER-resident integral membrane proteins.

2.
Transl Neurodegener ; 10(1): 19, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), and several genes linked to familial PD, including PINK1 (encoding PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 [PINK1]) and PARK2 (encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin), are directly involved in processes such as mitophagy that maintain mitochondrial health. The dominant p.D620N variant of vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (VPS35) gene is also associated with familial PD but has not been functionally connected to PINK1 and PARK2. METHODS: To better mimic and study the patient situation, we used CRISPR-Cas9 to generate heterozygous human SH-SY5Y cells carrying the PD-associated D620N variant of VPS35. These cells were treated with a protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) to induce the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, which was assessed using biochemical and microscopy approaches. RESULTS: Mitochondria in the VPS35-D620N cells exhibited reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and appeared to already be damaged at steady state. As a result, the mitochondria of these cells were desensitized to the CCCP-induced collapse in mitochondrial potential, as they displayed altered fragmentation and were unable to accumulate PINK1 at their surface upon this insult. Consequently, Parkin recruitment to the cell surface was inhibited and initiation of the PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy was impaired. CONCLUSION: Our findings extend the pool of evidence that the p.D620N mutation of VPS35 causes mitochondrial dysfunction and suggest a converging pathogenic mechanism among VPS35, PINK1 and Parkin in PD.

3.
Autophagy ; : 1-20, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970777

RESUMO

Eukaryotic cells use post-translational modifications to diversify and dynamically coordinate the function and properties of protein networks within various cellular processes. For example, the process of autophagy strongly depends on the balanced action of kinases and phosphatases. Highly conserved from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to humans, autophagy is a tightly regulated self-degradation process that is crucial for survival, stress adaptation, maintenance of cellular and organismal homeostasis, and cell differentiation and development. Many studies have emphasized the importance of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of autophagy and identified many of the core autophagy proteins as their direct targets. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on kinases and phosphatases acting on the core autophagy machinery and discuss the relevance of phosphoregulation for the overall process of autophagy.

4.
Autophagy ; : 1-16, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009100

RESUMO

Relatively quiescent tissues like salivary glands (SGs) respond to stimuli such as injury to expand, replace and regenerate. Resident stem/progenitor cells are key in this process because, upon activation, they possess the ability to self-renew. Macroautophagy/autophagy contributes to and regulates differentiation in adult tissues, but an important question is whether this pathway promotes stem cell self-renewal in tissues. We took advantage of a 3D organoid system that allows assessing the self-renewal of mouse SGs stem cells (SGSCs). We found that autophagy in dormant SGSCs has slower flux than self-renewing SGSCs. Importantly, autophagy enhancement upon SGSCs activation is a self-renewal feature in 3D organoid cultures and SGs regenerating in vivo. Accordingly, autophagy ablation in SGSCs inhibits self-renewal whereas pharmacological stimulation promotes self-renewal of mouse and human SGSCs. Thus, autophagy is a key pathway for self-renewal activation in low proliferative adult tissues, and its pharmacological manipulation has the potential to promote tissue regeneration.

5.
Curr Opin Cell Biol ; 71: 112-119, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930785

RESUMO

The de novo generation of double-membrane autophagosomes is the hallmark of autophagy. The initial membranous precursor cisterna, the phagophore, is very likely generated by the fusion of vesicles and acts as a membrane seed for the subsequent expansion into an autophagosome. This latter step requires a massive convoy of lipids into the phagophore. In this review, we present recent advances in our understanding of the intracellular membrane sources and lipid delivery mechanisms, which principally rely on vesicular transport and membrane contact sites that contribute to autophagosome biogenesis. In this context, we discuss lipid biosynthesis and lipid remodeling events that play a crucial role in both phagophore nucleation and expansion.

6.
Autophagy ; : 1-24, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794741

RESUMO

Autophagic pathways cross with lipid homeostasis and thus provide energy and essential building blocks that are indispensable for liver functions. Energy deficiencies are compensated by breaking down lipid droplets (LDs), intracellular organelles that store neutral lipids, in part by a selective type of autophagy, referred to as lipophagy. The process of lipophagy does not appear to be properly regulated in fatty liver diseases (FLDs), an important risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Here we provide an overview on our current knowledge of the biogenesis and functions of LDs, and the mechanisms underlying their lysosomal turnover by autophagic processes. This review also focuses on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a specific type of FLD characterized by steatosis, chronic inflammation and cell death. Particular attention is paid to the role of macroautophagy and macrolipophagy in relation to the parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells of the liver in NASH, as this disease has been associated with inappropriate lipophagy in various cell types of the liver.Abbreviations: ACAT: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase; ACAC/ACC: acetyl-CoA carboxylase; AKT: AKT serine/threonine kinase; ATG: autophagy related; AUP1: AUP1 lipid droplet regulating VLDL assembly factor; BECN1/Vps30/Atg6: beclin 1; BSCL2/seipin: BSCL2 lipid droplet biogenesis associated, seipin; CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; CREB1/CREB: cAMP responsive element binding protein 1; CXCR3: C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3; DAGs: diacylglycerols; DAMPs: danger/damage-associated molecular patterns; DEN: diethylnitrosamine; DGAT: diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase; DNL: de novo lipogenesis; EHBP1/NACSIN (EH domain binding protein 1); EHD2/PAST2: EH domain containing 2; CoA: coenzyme A; CCL/chemokines: chemokine ligands; CCl4: carbon tetrachloride; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ESCRT: endosomal sorting complexes required for transport; FA: fatty acid; FFAs: free fatty acids; FFC: high saturated fats, fructose and cholesterol; FGF21: fibroblast growth factor 21; FITM/FIT: fat storage inducing transmembrane protein; FLD: fatty liver diseases; FOXO: forkhead box O; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; GPAT: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase; HCC: hepatocellular carcinoma; HDAC6: histone deacetylase 6; HECT: homologous to E6-AP C-terminus; HFCD: high fat, choline deficient; HFD: high-fat diet; HSCs: hepatic stellate cells; HSPA8/HSC70: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 8; ITCH/AIP4: itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; KCs: Kupffer cells; LAMP2A: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2A; LDs: lipid droplets; LDL: low density lipoprotein; LEP/OB: leptin; LEPR/OBR: leptin receptor; LIPA/LAL: lipase A, lysosomal acid type; LIPE/HSL: lipase E, hormone sensitive type; LIR: LC3-interacting region; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; LSECs: liver sinusoidal endothelial cells; MAGs: monoacylglycerols; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MAP3K5/ASK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MCD: methionine-choline deficient; MGLL/MGL: monoglyceride lipase; MLXIPL/ChREBP: MLX interacting protein like; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; NAFLD: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NAS: NAFLD activity score; NASH: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NPC: NPC intracellular cholesterol transporter; NR1H3/LXRα: nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 3; NR1H4/FXR: nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 4; PDGF: platelet derived growth factor; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PLIN: perilipin; PNPLA: patatin like phospholipase domain containing; PNPLA2/ATGL: patatin like phospholipase domain containing 2; PNPLA3/adiponutrin: patatin like phospholipase domain containing 3; PPAR: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor; PPARA/PPARα: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha; PPARD/PPARδ: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta; PPARG/PPARγ: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; PPARGC1A/PGC1α: PPARG coactivator 1 alpha; PRKAA/AMPK: protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; PTEN: phosphatase and tensin homolog; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SE: sterol esters; SIRT1: sirtuin 1; SPART/SPG20: spartin; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; SREBF1/SREBP1c: sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1; TAGs: triacylglycerols; TFE3: transcription factor binding to IGHM enhancer 3; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TGFB1/TGFß: transforming growth factor beta 1; Ub: ubiquitin; UBE2G2/UBC7: ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 G2; ULK1/Atg1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; USF1: upstream transcription factor 1; VLDL: very-low density lipoprotein; VPS: vacuolar protein sorting; WIPI: WD-repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting; WDR: WD repeat domain.

7.
Autophagy ; : 1-16, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843443

RESUMO

The WDR45 gene is localized on the X-chromosome and variants in this gene are linked to six different neurodegenerative disorders, i.e., ß-propeller protein associated neurodegeneration, Rett-like syndrome, intellectual disability, and epileptic encephalopathies including developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and West syndrome and potentially also specific malignancies. WDR45/WIPI4 is a WD-repeat ß-propeller protein that belongs to the WIPI (WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting) family. The precise cellular function of WDR45 is still largely unknown, but deletions or conventional variants in WDR45 can lead to macroautophagy/autophagy defects, malfunctioning mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unbalanced iron homeostasis, suggesting that this protein functions in one or more pathways regulating directly or indirectly those processes. As a result, the underlying cause of the WDR45-associated disorders remains unknown. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the cellular and physiological functions of WDR45 and highlight how genetic variants in its encoding gene may contribute to the pathophysiology of the associated diseases. In particular, we connect clinical manifestations of the disorders with their potential cellular origin of malfunctioning and critically discuss whether it is possible that one of the most prominent shared features, i.e., brain iron accumulation, is the primary cause for those disorders.Abbreviations: ATG/Atg: autophagy related; BPAN: ß-propeller protein associated neurodegeneration; CNS: central nervous system; DEE: developmental and epileptic encephalopathy; EEG: electroencephalograph; ENO2/neuron-specific enolase, enolase 2; EOEE: early-onset epileptic encephalopathy; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ID: intellectual disability; IDR: intrinsically disordered region; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; NBIA: neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation; NCOA4: nuclear receptor coactivator 4; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; RLS: Rett-like syndrome; WDR45: WD repeat domain 45; WIPI: WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting.

8.
Trends Biochem Sci ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509650

RESUMO

Lysosomal degradation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fragments by autophagy, termed ER-phagy or reticulophagy, occurs under normal as well as stress conditions. The recent discovery of multiple ER-phagy receptors has stimulated studies on the roles of ER-phagy. We discuss how the ER-phagy receptors and the cellular components that work with these receptors mediate two important functions: ER homeostasis and ER quality control. We highlight that ER-phagy plays an important role in alleviating ER expansion induced by ER stress, and acts as an alternative disposal pathway for misfolded proteins. We suggest that the latter function explains the emerging connection between ER-phagy and disease. Additional ER-phagy-associated functions and important unanswered questions are also discussed.

9.
EMBO Rep ; : e50733, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025734

RESUMO

The mechanism and regulation of fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes/vacuoles are still only partially understood in both yeast and mammals. In yeast, this fusion step requires SNARE proteins, the homotypic vacuole fusion and protein sorting (HOPS) tethering complex, the RAB7 GTPase Ypt7, and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Mon1-Ccz1. We and others recently identified Ykt6 as the autophagosomal SNARE protein. However, it has not been resolved when and how lipid-anchored Ykt6 is recruited onto autophagosomes. Here, we show that Ykt6 is recruited at an early stage of the formation of these carriers through a mechanism that depends on endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident Dsl1 complex and COPII-coated vesicles. Importantly, Ykt6 activity on autophagosomes is regulated by the Atg1 kinase complex, which inhibits Ykt6 through direct phosphorylation. Thus, our findings indicate that the Ykt6 pool on autophagosomal membranes is kept inactive by Atg1 phosphorylation, and once an autophagosome is ready to fuse with vacuole, Ykt6 dephosphorylation allows its engagement in the fusion event.

10.
Autophagy ; : 1-17, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111629

RESUMO

Selective degradation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER; reticulophagy) is a type of autophagy involved in the removal of ER fragments. So far, amino acid starvation as well as ER stress have been described as inducers of reticulophagy, which in turn restores cellular energy levels and ER homeostasis. Here, we explored the autophagy-inducing mechanisms that underlie the autophagic cell death (ACD)-triggering compound loperamide (LOP) in glioblastoma cells. Interestingly, LOP triggers upregulation of the transcription factor ATF4, which is accompanied by the induction of additional ER stress markers. Notably, knockout of ATF4 significantly attenuated LOP-induced autophagy and ACD. Functionally, LOP also specifically induces the engulfment of large ER fragments within autophagosomes and lysosomes as determined by electron and fluorescence microscopy. LOP-induced reticulophagy and cell death are predominantly mediated through the reticulophagy receptor RETREG1/FAM134B and, to a lesser extent, TEX264, confirming that reticulophagy receptors can promote ACD. Strikingly, apart from triggering LOP-induced autophagy and ACD, ATF4 is also required for LOP-induced reticulophagy. These observations highlight a key role for ATF4, RETREG1 and TEX264 in response to LOP-induced ER stress, reticulophagy and ACD, and establish a novel mechanistic link between ER stress and reticulophagy, with possible implications for additional models of drug-induced ER stress. Abbreviations: ACD: autophagic cell death; ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; ATL3: atlastin 3; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; CCPG1: cell cycle progression gene 1; co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; DDIT3/CHOP: DNA damage inducible transcript 3; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; EIF2A/eIF2α: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A; EIF2AK3/PERK: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; ERN1/IRE1α: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; GBM: glioblastoma multiforme; HSPA5/BiP: heat shock protein family (Hsp70) member 5; LOP: loperamide; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; RETREG1/FAM134B: reticulophagy regulator 1; RTN3L: reticulon 3 long; SEC62: SEC62 homolog, protein translocation factor; TEX264: testis-expressed 264, reticulophagy receptor; UPR: unfolded protein response.

11.
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci ; 172: 203-237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620243

RESUMO

Autophagy, originally described as a conserved bulk degradation pathway important to maintain cellular homeostasis during starvation, has also been implicated in playing a central role in multiple physiological processes. For example, autophagy is part of our innate immunity by targeting intracellular pathogens to lysosomes for degradation in a process called xenophagy. Coevolution and adaptation between viruses and autophagy have armed viruses with a multitude of strategies to counteract the antiviral functions of the autophagy pathway. In addition, some viruses have acquired mechanisms to exploit specific functions of either autophagy or the key components of this process, the autophagy-related (ATG) proteins, to promote viral replication and pathogenesis. In this chapter, we describe several examples where the strategy employed by a virus to subvert autophagy has been described with molecular detail. Their stratagems positively or negatively target practically all the steps of autophagy, including the signaling pathways regulating this process. This highlights the intricate relationship between autophagy and viruses and how by commandeering autophagy, viruses have devised ways to fine-tune their replication.

12.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(8): e12476, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715647

RESUMO

Initially used as antimalarial drugs, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and, to a lesser extent, chloroquine (CQ) are currently being used to treat several diseases. Due to its cost-effectiveness, safety and efficacy, HCQ is especially used in rheumatic autoimmune disorders (RADs), such as systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis. Despite this widespread use in the clinic, HCQ molecular modes of action are still not completely understood. By influencing several cellular pathways through different mechanisms, CQ and HCQ inhibit multiple endolysosomal functions, including autophagy, as well as endosomal Toll-like receptor activation and calcium signalling. These effects alter several aspects of the immune system with the synergistic consequence of reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production and release, one of the most marked symptoms of RADs. Here, we review the current knowledge on the molecular modes of action of these drugs and the circumstances under which they trigger side effects. This is of particular importance as the therapeutic use of HCQ is expanding beyond the treatment of malaria and RADs.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18530-18539, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690699

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) macroautophagy (hereafter called ER-phagy) uses autophagy receptors to selectively degrade ER domains in response to starvation or the accumulation of aggregation-prone proteins. Autophagy receptors package the ER into autophagosomes by binding to the ubiquitin-like yeast protein Atg8 (LC3 in mammals), which is needed for autophagosome formation. In budding yeast, cortical and cytoplasmic ER-phagy requires the autophagy receptor Atg40. While different ER autophagy receptors have been identified, little is known about other components of the ER-phagy machinery. In an effort to identify these components, we screened the genome-wide library of viable yeast deletion mutants for defects in the degradation of cortical ER following treatment with rapamycin, a drug that mimics starvation. Among the mutants we identified was vps13Δ. While yeast has one gene that encodes the phospholipid transporter VPS13, humans have four vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) protein 13 isoforms. Mutations in all four human isoforms have been linked to different neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease. Our findings have shown that Vps13 acts after Atg40 engages the autophagy machinery. Vps13 resides at contact sites between the ER and several organelles, including late endosomes. In the absence of Vps13, the cortical ER marker Rtn1 accumulated at late endosomes, and a dramatic decrease in ER packaging into autophagosomes was observed. Together, these studies suggest a role for Vps13 in the sequestration of the ER into autophagosomes at late endosomes. These observations may have important implications for understanding Parkinson's and other neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Endossomos/genética , Endossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
14.
Autophagy ; 16(8): 1539-1541, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521192

RESUMO

Membrane integrity is essential for cellular survival and function. The spectrum of mechanisms protecting cellular and intracellular membranes is not fully known. Our recent work has uncovered a cellular system termed MERIT for lysosomal membrane repair, removal and replacement. Specifically, lysosomal membrane damage induces, in succession, ESCRT-dependent membrane repair, macroautophagy/autophagy-dominant removal of damaged lysosomes, and initiation of lysosomal biogenesis via transcriptional programs. The MERIT system is governed by galectins, a family of cytosolically synthesized lectins recognizing ß-galactoside glycans. We found in this study that LGALS3 (galectin 3) detects membrane damage by detecting exposed lumenal glycosyl groups, recruits and organizes ESCRT components PDCD6IP/ALIX, CHMP4A, and CHMPB at damaged sites on the lysosomes, and facilitates ESCRT-driven repair of lysosomal membrane. At later stages, LGALS3 cooperates with TRIM16, an autophagy receptor-regulator, to engage autophagy machinery in removal of excessively damaged lysosomes. In the absence of LGALS3, repair and autophagy are less efficient, whereas TFEB nuclear translocation increases to compensate lysosomal deficiency via de novo lysosomal biogenesis. The MERIT system protects endomembrane integrity against a broad spectrum of agents damaging the endolysosomal network including lysosomotropic drugs, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or neurotoxic MAPT/tau. ABBREVIATIONS: AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; APEX2: engineered ascorbate peroxidase 2; ATG13: autophagy related 13; ATG16L1: autophagy related 16 like 1; BMMs: bone marrow-derived macrophages; ESCRT: endosomal sorting complexes required for transport; GPN: glycyl-L-phenylalanine 2-naphthylamide; LLOMe: L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MERIT: membrane repair, removal and replacement; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TFRC: transferrin receptor; TRIM16: tripartite motif-containing 16.

15.
J Cell Sci ; 133(10)2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461337

RESUMO

Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a highly conserved catabolic pathway, which mediates the delivery of unwanted cytoplasmic structures and organelles to lysosomes for degradation. In numerous situations, autophagy is highly selective and exclusively targets specific intracellular components. Selective types of autophagy are a central element of our cell-autonomous innate immunity as they can mediate the turnover of viruses or bacteria, that gain access to the cytoplasm of the cell. Selective autophagy also modulates other aspects of our immunity by turning over specific immunoregulators. Throughout evolution, however, the continuous interaction between this fundamental cellular pathway and pathogens has led several pathogens to develop exquisite mechanisms to inhibit or subvert selective types of autophagy, to promote their intracellular multiplication. This Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster provides an overview of the selective autophagy of both pathogens, known as xenophagy, and of immunoregulators, and highlights a few archetypal examples that illustrate molecular strategies developed by viruses and bacteria to manipulate selective autophagy for their own benefit.

16.
Dev Cell ; 52(1): 69-87.e8, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813797

RESUMO

Endomembrane damage elicits homeostatic responses including ESCRT-dependent membrane repair and autophagic removal of damaged organelles. Previous studies have suggested that these systems may act separately. Here, we show that galectin-3 (Gal3), a ß-galactoside-binding cytosolic lectin, unifies and coordinates ESCRT and autophagy responses to lysosomal damage. Gal3 and its capacity to recognize damage-exposed glycans were required for efficient recruitment of the ESCRT component ALIX during lysosomal damage. Both Gal3 and ALIX were required for restoration of lysosomal function. Gal3 promoted interactions between ALIX and the downstream ESCRT-III effector CHMP4 during lysosomal repair. At later time points following lysosomal injury, Gal3 controlled autophagic responses. When this failed, as in Gal3 knockout cells, lysosomal replacement program took over through TFEB. Manifestations of this staged response, which includes membrane repair, removal, and replacement, were detected in model systems of lysosomal damage inflicted by proteopathic tau and during phagosome parasitism by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/metabolismo , Galectina 3/metabolismo , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia
17.
J Virol ; 94(4)2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776274

RESUMO

Coronavirus (CoV) nucleocapsid (N) proteins are key for incorporating genomic RNA into progeny viral particles. In infected cells, N proteins are present at the replication-transcription complexes (RTCs), the sites of CoV RNA synthesis. It has been shown that N proteins are important for viral replication and that the one of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a commonly used model CoV, interacts with nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3), a component of the RTCs. These two aspects of the CoV life cycle, however, have not been linked. We found that the MHV N protein binds exclusively to nsp3 and not other RTC components by using a systematic yeast two-hybrid approach, and we identified two distinct regions in the N protein that redundantly mediate this interaction. A selective N protein variant carrying point mutations in these two regions fails to bind nsp3 in vitro, resulting in inhibition of its recruitment to RTCs in vivo Furthermore, in contrast to the wild-type N protein, this N protein variant impairs the stimulation of genomic RNA and viral mRNA transcription in vivo and in vitro, which in turn leads to impairment of MHV replication and progeny production. Altogether, our results show that N protein recruitment to RTCs, via binding to nsp3, is an essential step in the CoV life cycle because it is critical for optimal viral RNA synthesis.IMPORTANCE CoVs have long been regarded as relatively harmless pathogens for humans. Severe respiratory tract infection outbreaks caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV, however, have caused high pathogenicity and mortality rates in humans. These outbreaks highlighted the relevance of being able to control CoV infections. We used a model CoV, MHV, to investigate the importance of the recruitment of N protein, a central component of CoV virions, to intracellular platforms where CoVs replicate, transcribe, and translate their genomes. By identifying the principal binding partner at these intracellular platforms and generating a specific mutant, we found that N protein recruitment to these locations is crucial for promoting viral RNA synthesis. Moreover, blocking this recruitment strongly inhibits viral infection. Thus, our results explain an important aspect of the CoV life cycle and reveal an interaction of viral proteins that could be targeted in antiviral therapies.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite Murina/fisiologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , RNA Viral/biossíntese , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
18.
Autophagy ; 16(8): 1366-1379, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525119

RESUMO

Mitophagy is a critical process that safeguards mitochondrial quality control in order to maintain proper cellular homeostasis. Although the mitochondrial-anchored receptor Atg32-mediated cargo-recognition system has been well characterized to be essential for this process, the signaling pathway modulating its expression as a contribution of governing the mitophagy process remains largely unknown. Here, bioinformatics analyses of epigenetic or transcriptional regulators modulating gene expression allow us to identify the Paf1 complex (the polymerase-associated factor 1 complex, Paf1C) as a transcriptional repressor of ATG genes. We show that Paf1C suppresses glucose starvation-induced autophagy, but does not affect nitrogen starvation- or rapamycin-induced autophagy. Moreover, we show that Paf1C specifically regulates mitophagy through modulating ATG32 expression. Deletion of the genes encoding two core subunits of Paf1C, Paf1 and Ctr9, increases ATG32 and ATG11 expression and facilitates mitophagy activity. Although Paf1C is required for many histone modifications and gene activation, we show that Paf1C regulates mitophagy independent of its positive regulatory role in other processes. More importantly, we also demonstrate the mitophagic role of PAF1C in mammals. Overall, we conclude that Paf1C maintains mitophagy at a low level through binding the promoter of the ATG32 gene in glucose-rich conditions. Dissociation of Paf1C from ATG32 leads to the increased expression of this gene, and mitophagy induction upon glucose starvation. Thus, we uncover a new role of Paf1C in modulating the mitophagy process at the transcriptional level. ABBREVIATIONS: AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATP5F1A: ATP synthase F1 subunit alpha; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CCCP: chlorophenylhydrazone; DFP: chelator deferiprone; GFP: green fluorescent protein; H2B-Ub1: H2B monoubiquitination; HSPD1/HSP60: heat shock protein family D (Hsp60) member 1; KD: kinase dead; OPTN, optineurin; Paf1: polymerase-associated factor 1; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN/Parkin: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; RT-qPCR: real-time quantitative PCR; SD-N: synthetic dropout without nitrogen base; TIMM23: translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 23; TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; WT: wild-type; YPD: yeast extract peptone dextrose; YPL: yeast extract peptone lactate.

19.
Life Sci Alliance ; 2(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732693

RESUMO

Lectins are glycan-binding proteins with no catalytic activity and ubiquitously expressed in nature. Numerous bacteria use lectins to efficiently bind to epithelia, thus facilitating tissue colonisation. Wounded skin is one of the preferred niches for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which has developed diverse strategies to impair tissue repair processes and promote infection. Here, we analyse the effect of the P. aeruginosa fucose-binding lectin LecB on human keratinocytes and demonstrate that it triggers events in the host, upon binding to fucosylated residues on cell membrane receptors, which extend beyond its role as an adhesion molecule. We found that LecB associates with insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and dampens its signalling, leading to the arrest of cell cycle. In addition, we describe a novel LecB-triggered mechanism to down-regulate host cell receptors by showing that LecB leads to insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor internalisation and subsequent missorting towards intracellular endosomal compartments, without receptor activation. Overall, these data highlight that LecB is a multitask virulence factor that, through subversion of several host pathways, has a profound impact on keratinocyte proliferation and survival.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Lectinas/metabolismo , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosilação , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/fisiologia , Ligação Proteica , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
20.
J Cell Sci ; 132(22)2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649143

RESUMO

Autophagy is initiated by the formation of a phagophore assembly site (PAS), the precursor of autophagosomes. In mammals, autophagosome formation sites form throughout the cytosol in specialized subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In yeast, the PAS is also generated close to the ER, but always in the vicinity of the vacuole. How the PAS is anchored to the vacuole and the functional significance of this localization are unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the PAS-vacuole connection for bulk autophagy in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We show that Vac8 constitutes a vacuolar tether that stably anchors the PAS to the vacuole throughout autophagosome biogenesis via the PAS component Atg13. S. cerevisiae lacking Vac8 show inefficient autophagosome-vacuole fusion, and form fewer and smaller autophagosomes that often localize away from the vacuole. Thus, the stable PAS-vacuole connection established by Vac8 creates a confined space for autophagosome biogenesis between the ER and the vacuole, and allows spatial coordination of autophagosome formation and autophagosome-vacuole fusion. These findings reveal that the spatial regulation of autophagosome formation at the vacuole is required for efficient bulk autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vacúolos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Autofagia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia
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