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1.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718828

RESUMO

The crucial role of the hypothalamus in the pathogenesis of obesity is widely recognized, while the precise molecular and cellular mechanisms involved are the focus of intense research. A disrupted endocannabinoid system, which critically modulates feeding and metabolic functions, through central and peripheral mechanisms, is a landmark indicator of obesity, as corroborated by investigations centered on the cannabinoid receptor CB1, considered to offer promise in terms of pharmacologically targeted treatment for obesity. In recent years, novel insights have been obtained, not only into relation to the mode of action of CB receptors, but also CB ligands, non-CB receptors, and metabolizing enzymes considered to be part of the endocannabinoid system (particularly the hypothalamus). The outcome has been a substantial expansion in knowledge of this complex signaling system and in drug development. Here we review recent literature, providing further evidence on the role of hypothalamic endocannabinoids in regulating energy balance and the implication for the pathophysiology of obesity. We discuss how these lipids are dynamically regulated in obesity onset, by diet and metabolic hormones in specific hypothalamic neurons, the impact of gender, and the role of endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes as promising targets for tackling obesity and related diseases.

2.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178(7): 1507-1523, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The enzyme α/ß-hydrolase domain containing 6 (ABHD6), a new member of the endocannabinoid system, is a promising therapeutic target against neuronal-related diseases. However, how ABHD6 activity is regulated is not known. ABHD6 coexists in protein complexes with the brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C). CPT1C is involved in neuro-metabolic functions, depending on brain malonyl-CoA levels. Our aim was to study CPT1C-ABHD6 interaction and determine whether CPT1C is a key regulator of ABHD6 activity depending on nutritional status. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Co-immunoprecipitation and FRET assays were used to explore ABHD6 interaction with CPT1C or modified malonyl-CoA-insensitive or C-terminal truncated CPT1C forms. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated signalling was investigated by determining cAMP levels. A novel highly sensitive fluorescent method was optimized to measure ABHD6 activity in non-neuronal and neuronal cells and in brain tissues from wild-type (WT) and CPT1C-KO mice. KEY RESULTS: CPT1C interacted with ABHD6 and negatively regulated its hydrolase activity, thereby regulating 2-AG downstream signalling. Accordingly, brain tissues of CPT1C-KO mice showed increased ABHD6 activity. CPT1C malonyl-CoA sensing was key to the regulatory role on ABHD6 activity and CB1 receptor signalling. Fasting, which attenuates brain malonyl-CoA, significantly increased ABHD6 activity in hypothalamus from WT, but not CPT1C-KO, mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our finding that negative regulation of ABHD6 activity, particularly in the hypothalamus, is sensitive to nutritional status throws new light on the characterization and the importance of the proteins involved as potential targets against diseases affecting the CNS.


Assuntos
Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Hidrolases , Malonil Coenzima A , Camundongos
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