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1.
Curr Protoc Hum Genet ; 103(1): e93, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479589

RESUMO

The 2015 ACMG/AMP guidelines established a classification system for sequence variants; however, the broad scope of these guidelines necessitates specification of evidence types for specific genes or diseases of interest. Since publication of the guidelines, both general use and disease-focused specifications have emerged to aid in accurate application of ACMG/AMP evidence types. This article summarizes the approaches to, and rationale for, specifying three evidence categories (population frequency data, variant type and location, and case-level data), including available resources and a quantitative framework that can inform the specification process. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 526-533, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422818

RESUMO

As clinical testing for Mendelian causes of colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely driven by recognition of family history and early age of onset, the rates of such findings among individuals with prevalent CRC not recognized to have these features is largely unknown. We evaluated actionable genomic findings in community-based participants ascertained by three phenotypes: (1) CRC, (2) one or more adenomatous colon polyps, and (3) control participants over age 59 years without CRC or colon polyps. These participants underwent sequencing for a panel of genes that included colorectal cancer/polyp (CRC/P)-associated and actionable incidental findings genes. Those with CRC had a 3.8% rate of positive results (pathogenic or likely pathogenic) for a CRC-associated gene variant, despite generally being older at CRC onset (mean 72 years). Those ascertained for polyps had a 0.8% positive rate and those with no CRC/P had a positive rate of 0.2%. Though incidental finding rates unrelated to colon cancer were similar for all groups, our positive rate for cardiovascular findings exceeds disease prevalence, suggesting that variant interpretation challenges or low penetrance in these genes. The rate of HFE c.845G>A (p.Cys282Tyr) homozygotes in the CRC group reinforces a previously reported, but relatively unexplored, association between hemochromatosis and CRC. These results in a general clinical population suggest that current testing strategies could be improved in order to better detect Mendelian CRC-associated conditions. These data also underscore the need for additional functional and familial evidence to clarify the pathogenicity and penetrance of variants deemed pathogenic or likely pathogenic, particularly among the actionable genes associated with cardiovascular disease.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 177-188, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256874

RESUMO

Although genome sequencing is increasingly available in clinical and research settings, many questions remain about the interpretation of sequencing data. In the MedSeq Project, we explored how much effort is required to evaluate and report on more than 4,500 genes reportedly associated with monogenic conditions, as well as pharmacogenomic (PGx) markers, blood antigen serotyping, and polygenic risk scores in 100 individuals (50 with cardiomyopathy and 50 healthy) randomized to the sequencing arm. We defined the quality thresholds for determining the need for Sanger confirmation. Finally, we examined the effort needed and new findings revealed by reanalyzing each genome (6-23 months after initial analysis; mean 13 months). Monogenic disease risk and carrier status were reported in 21% and 94% of participants, respectively. Only two participants had no monogenic disease risk or carrier status identified. For the PGx results (18 genotypes in six genes for five drugs), the identified diplotypes prompted recommendation for non-standard dosing of at least one of the analyzed drugs in 95% of participants. For blood antigen studies, we found that 31% of participants had a rare blood antigen genotype. In the cardiomyopathy cohort, an explanation for disease was identified in 48% of individuals. Over the course of the study, 14 variants were reclassified and, upon reanalysis, 18 new variants met criteria for reporting. These findings highlight the quantity of medically relevant findings from a broad analysis of genomic sequencing data as well as the need for periodic reinterpretation and reanalysis of data for both diagnostic indications and secondary findings.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160754

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in GJB2 are the most common cause of autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing loss. The classification of c.101T>C/p.Met34Thr and c.109G>A/p.Val37Ile in GJB2 are controversial. Therefore, an expert consensus is required for the interpretation of these two variants. METHODS: The ClinGen Hearing Loss Expert Panel collected published data and shared unpublished information from contributing laboratories and clinics regarding the two variants. Functional, computational, allelic, and segregation data were also obtained. Case-control statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: The panel reviewed the synthesized information, and classified the p.Met34Thr and p.Val37Ile variants utilizing professional variant interpretation guidelines and professional judgment. We found that p.Met34Thr and p.Val37Ile are significantly overrepresented in hearing loss patients, compared with population controls. Individuals homozygous or compound heterozygous for p.Met34Thr or p.Val37Ile typically manifest mild to moderate hearing loss. Several other types of evidence also support pathogenic roles for these two variants. CONCLUSION: Resolving controversies in variant classification requires coordinated effort among a panel of international multi-institutional experts to share data, standardize classification guidelines, review evidence, and reach a consensus. We concluded that p.Met34Thr and p.Val37Ile variants in GJB2 are pathogenic for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 578-595, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951675

RESUMO

The evidence base supporting genetic and genomic sequence-variant interpretations is continuously evolving. An inherent consequence is that a variant's clinical significance might be reinterpreted over time as new evidence emerges regarding its pathogenicity or lack thereof. This raises ethical, legal, and financial issues as to whether there is a responsibility to recontact research participants to provide updates on reinterpretations of variants after the initial analysis. There has been discussion concerning the extent of this obligation in the context of both research and clinical care. Although clinical recommendations have begun to emerge, guidance is lacking on the responsibilities of researchers to inform participants of reinterpreted results. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in November 2018. The workgroup included representatives from the National Society of Genetic Counselors, the Canadian College of Medical Genetics, and the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors. The final statement includes twelve position statements that were endorsed or supported by the following organizations: Genetic Alliance, European Society of Human Genetics, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, American Association of Anthropological Genetics, Executive Committee of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Canadian College of Medical Genetics, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, and National Society of Genetic Counselors.

7.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2239-2247, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894701

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Proper interpretation of genomic variants is critical to successful medical decision making based on genetic testing results. A fundamental prerequisite to accurate variant interpretation is the clear understanding of the clinical validity of gene-disease relationships. The Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) has developed a semiquantitative framework to assign clinical validity to gene-disease relationships. METHODS: The ClinGen Hearing Loss Gene Curation Expert Panel (HL GCEP) uses this framework to perform evidence-based curations of genes present on testing panels from 17 clinical laboratories in the Genetic Testing Registry. The HL GCEP curated and reviewed 142 genes and 164 gene-disease pairs, including 105 nonsyndromic and 59 syndromic forms of hearing loss. RESULTS: The final outcome included 82 Definitive (50%), 12 Strong (7%), 25 Moderate (15%), 32 Limited (20%), 10 Disputed (6%), and 3 Refuted (2%) classifications. The summary of each curation is date stamped with the HL GCEP approval, is live, and will be kept up-to-date on the ClinGen website ( https://search.clinicalgenome.org/kb/gene-validity ). CONCLUSION: This gene curation approach serves to optimize the clinical sensitivity of genetic testing while reducing the rate of uncertain or ambiguous test results caused by the interrogation of genes with insufficient evidence of a disease link.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 76-93, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609409

RESUMO

Genomic sequencing provides many opportunities in newborn clinical care, but the challenges of interpreting and reporting newborn genomic sequencing (nGS) results need to be addressed for its broader and effective application. The BabySeq Project is a pilot randomized clinical trial that explores the medical, behavioral, and economic impacts of nGS in well newborns and those admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Here we present childhood-onset and actionable adult-onset disease risk, carrier status, and pharmacogenomics findings from nGS of 159 newborns in the BabySeq Project. nGS revealed a risk of childhood-onset disease in 15/159 (9.4%) newborns; none of the disease risks were anticipated based on the infants' known clinical or family histories. nGS also revealed actionable adult-onset disease risk in 3/85 (3.5%) newborns whose parents consented to receive this information. Carrier status for recessive diseases and pharmacogenomics variants were reported in 88% and 5% of newborns, respectively. Additional indication-based analyses were performed in 29/32 (91%) NICU newborns and 6/127 (5%) healthy newborns who later had presentations that prompted a diagnostic analysis. No variants that sufficiently explained the reason for the indications were identified; however, suspicious but uncertain results were reported in five newborns. Testing parental samples contributed to the interpretation and reporting of results in 13/159 (8%) newborns. Our results suggest that nGS can effectively detect risk and carrier status for a wide range of disorders that are not detectable by current newborn screening assays or predicted based on the infant's known clinical or family history, and the interpretation of results can substantially benefit from parental testing.

12.
J Mol Diagn ; 21(2): 318-329, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610921

RESUMO

Orthogonal confirmation of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-detected germline variants is standard practice, although published studies have suggested that confirmation of the highest-quality calls may not always be necessary. The key question is how laboratories can establish criteria that consistently identify those NGS calls that require confirmation. Most prior studies addressing this question have had limitations: they have been generally of small scale, omitted statistical justification, and explored limited aspects of underlying data. The rigorous definition of criteria that separate high-accuracy NGS calls from those that may or may not be true remains a crucial issue. We analyzed five reference samples and over 80,000 patient specimens from two laboratories. Quality metrics were examined for approximately 200,000 NGS calls with orthogonal data, including 1662 false positives. A classification algorithm used these data to identify a battery of criteria that flag 100% of false positives as requiring confirmation (CI lower bound, 98.5% to 99.8%, depending on variant type) while minimizing the number of flagged true positives. These criteria identify false positives that the previously published criteria miss. Sampling analysis showed that smaller data sets resulted in less effective criteria. Our methodology for determining test- and laboratory-specific criteria can be generalized into a practical approach that can be used by laboratories to reduce the cost and time burdens of confirmation without affecting clinical accuracy.

13.
Genet Med ; 21(4): 798-812, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655598

RESUMO

Identifying genes and variants contributing to rare disease phenotypes and Mendelian conditions informs biology and medicine, yet potential phenotypic consequences for variation of >75% of the ~20,000 annotated genes in the human genome are lacking. Technical advances to assess rare variation genome-wide, particularly exome sequencing (ES), enabled establishment in the United States of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported Centers for Mendelian Genomics (CMGs) and have facilitated collaborative studies resulting in novel "disease gene" discoveries. Pedigree-based genomic studies and rare variant analyses in families with suspected Mendelian conditions have led to the elucidation of hundreds of novel disease genes and highlighted the impact of de novo mutational events, somatic variation underlying nononcologic traits, incompletely penetrant alleles, phenotypes with high locus heterogeneity, and multilocus pathogenic variation. Herein, we highlight CMG collaborative discoveries that have contributed to understanding both rare and common diseases and discuss opportunities for future discovery in single-locus Mendelian disorder genomics. Phenotypic annotation of all human genes; development of bioinformatic tools and analytic methods; exploration of non-Mendelian modes of inheritance including reduced penetrance, multilocus variation, and oligogenic inheritance; construction of allelic series at a locus; enhanced data sharing worldwide; and integration with clinical genomics are explored. Realizing the full contribution of rare disease research to functional annotation of the human genome, and further illuminating human biology and health, will lay the foundation for the Precision Medicine Initiative.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/tendências , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Linhagem , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
14.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007752, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586411

RESUMO

The BRCA Challenge is a long-term data-sharing project initiated within the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) to aggregate BRCA1 and BRCA2 data to support highly collaborative research activities. Its goal is to generate an informed and current understanding of the impact of genetic variation on cancer risk across the iconic cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Initially, reported variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 available from public databases were integrated into a single, newly created site, www.brcaexchange.org. The purpose of the BRCA Exchange is to provide the community with a reliable and easily accessible record of variants interpreted for a high-penetrance phenotype. More than 20,000 variants have been aggregated, three times the number found in the next-largest public database at the project's outset, of which approximately 7,250 have expert classifications. The data set is based on shared information from existing clinical databases-Breast Cancer Information Core (BIC), ClinVar, and the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)-as well as population databases, all linked to a single point of access. The BRCA Challenge has brought together the existing international Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium expert panel, along with expert clinicians, diagnosticians, researchers, and database providers, all with a common goal of advancing our understanding of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variation. Ongoing work includes direct contact with national centers with access to BRCA1 and BRCA2 diagnostic data to encourage data sharing, development of methods suitable for extraction of genetic variation at the level of individual laboratory reports, and engagement with participant communities to enable a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical significance of genetic variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Variação Genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/ética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1668-1676, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311371

RESUMO

GenomeConnect, the NIH-funded Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) patient registry, engages patients in data sharing to support the goal of creating a genomic knowledge base to inform clinical care and research. Participant self-reported health information and genomic variants from genetic testing reports are curated and shared with public databases, such as ClinVar. There are four primary benefits of GenomeConnect: (1) sharing novel genomic data-47.9% of variants were new to ClinVar, highlighting patients as a genomic data source; (2) contributing additional phenotypic information-of the 52.1% of variants already in ClinVar, GenomeConnect provided enhanced case-level data; (3) providing a way for patients to receive variant classification updates if the reporting laboratory submits to ClinVar-97.3% of responding participants opted to receive such information and 13 updates have been identified; and (4) supporting connections with others, including other participants, clinicians, and researchers to enable the exchange of information and support-60.4% of participants have opted to partake in participant matching. Moving forward, ClinGen plans to increase patient-centric data sharing by partnering with other existing patient groups. By engaging patients, more information is contributed to the public knowledge base, benefiting both patients and the genomics community.

17.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1641-1649, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311378

RESUMO

ClinVar provides open access to variant classifications shared from many clinical laboratories. Although most classifications are consistent across laboratories, classification differences exist. To facilitate resolution of classification differences on a large scale, clinical laboratories were encouraged to reassess outlier classifications of variants with medically significant differences (MSDs). Outliers were identified by first comparing ClinVar submissions from 41 clinical laboratories to detect variants with MSDs between the laboratories (650 variants). Next, MSDs were filtered for variants with ≥3 classifications (244 variants), of which 87.6% (213 variants) had a majority consensus in ClinVar, thus allowing for identification of outlier classifications in need of reassessment. Laboratories with outlier classifications were sent a custom report and encouraged to reassess variants. Results were returned for 204 (96%) variants, of which 62.3% (127) were resolved. Of those 127, 64.6% (82) were resolved due to reassessment prompted by this study and 35.4% (45) resolved by a previously completed reassessment. This study demonstrates a scalable approach to classification resolution and capitalizes on the value of data sharing within ClinVar. These activities will help the community move toward more consistent variant classifications, which will improve the care of patients with, or at risk for, genetic disorders.

18.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1686-1689, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311379

RESUMO

The Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen)'s work to develop a knowledge base to support the understanding of genes and variants for use in precision medicine and research depends on robust, broadly applicable, and adaptable technical standards for sharing data and information. To forward this goal, ClinGen has joined with the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) to support the development of open, freely-available technical standards and regulatory frameworks for secure and responsible sharing of genomic and health-related data. In its capacity as one of the 15 inaugural GA4GH "Driver Projects," ClinGen is providing input on the key standards needs of the global genomics community, and has committed to participate on GA4GH Work Streams to support the development of: (1) a standard model for computer-readable variant representation; (2) a data model for linking variant data to annotations; (3) a specification to enable sharing of genomic variant knowledge and associated clinical interpretations; and (4) a set of best practices for use of phenotype and disease ontologies. ClinGen's participation as a GA4GH Driver Project will provide a robust environment to test drive emerging genomic knowledge sharing standards and prove their utility among the community, while accelerating the construction of the ClinGen evidence base.

19.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1525-1530, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311383

RESUMO

The Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Sequence Variant Interpretation Working Group set out to refine the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association of Molecular Pathologists (ACMG/AMP) variant pathogenicity recommendations for stand-alone rule BA1 (a variant with minor allele frequency [MAF] > 0.05 is benign), by clarifying how it should be used and specifying a set of variants that should be exempted from this rule. We cross-referenced ClinVar and Exome Aggregation Consortium data to identify variants for which there was a plausible argument for pathogenicity and the variant exists in one or more population data sets at MAF > 0.05. We identified nine such variants that were present in these data sets that may not be benign. The ACMG/AMP criteria were applied to these variants that resulted in four pathogenic and five variants of uncertain significance. We have refined benign rule BA1 by clarifying terms used to describe its use, which databases we recommend using, and assumptions made about this rule. We also recognized an initial list of nine variants for which there was some evidence of pathogenicity even though the MAF was high for these variants. We specify processes whereby individuals can petition ClinGen for amendments to our variant-specific assertions and the criteria experts should use when setting a numerically lower threshold for BA1 for specific genes.

20.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1593-1613, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311386

RESUMO

Due to the high genetic heterogeneity of hearing loss (HL), current clinical testing includes sequencing large numbers of genes, which often yields a significant number of novel variants. Therefore, the standardization of variant interpretation is crucial to provide consistent and accurate diagnoses. The Hearing Loss Variant Curation Expert Panel was created within the Clinical Genome Resource to provide expert guidance for standardized genomic interpretation in the context of HL. As one of its major tasks, our Expert Panel has adapted the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants in HL genes. Here, we provide a comprehensive illustration of the newly specified ACMG/AMP HL rules. Three rules remained unchanged, four rules were removed, and the remaining 21 rules were specified. These rules were further validated and refined using a pilot set of 51 variants assessed by curators and disease experts. Of the 51 variants evaluated in the pilot, 37% (19/51) changed category based upon application of the expert panel specified rules and/or aggregation of evidence across laboratories. These HL-specific ACMG/AMP rules will help standardize variant interpretation, ultimately leading to better care for individuals with HL.

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