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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468529

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen associated to food intoxication and other multiple infections in human being. Its presence in salted food is a serious issue due to its salt tolerance potential. A study was conducted to analyze the presence of enterotoxins producing drug resistance S. aureus in salted sea fish from Gwadar. Freshly persevered samples (n=50) of salted fish were subjected to analyze the presence of S. aureus using 16S rRNA and Nuc genes primers. The isolates were then evaluated for drug resistance and enterotoxins producing potential using specific primers for MecA (methicillin resistance gene), (SEA) staphylococcal enterotoxin A and (SEB) staphylococcal enterotoxin B genes. Total 13/50 (26%) of the samples were found positive for the presence of S. aureus, preliminary confirmed with biochemical profiling and finally with the help of target genes presence. The isolates were found showing 100% resistant to methicillin, which were molecularly confirmed by the presence of MecA gene present in genome. The isolates 5/13 (38%) were positive for SEA and 3/13 (23%) for SEB genes, whereas 2/13 (15%) were confirmed having both SEA and SEB genes in its genome. It was also confirmed that all the isolates were capable to form biofilm over the glass surfaces. It was concluded that the study confirmed the presence of enterotoxigenic methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA) in salted fish product, that poses gross food safety concern. Preventive and control measures are necessary to handle this serious food safety concern.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Produtos Pesqueiros , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
2.
Rev Sci Tech ; 37(3): 797-804, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964468

RESUMO

The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) is an independent, autonomous and constitutionally established institution that provides primary funding for higher education in Pakistan, which it also oversees, regulates and accredits. According to the HEC Charter: 'the HEC of Pakistan may set up national or regional evaluation councils or authorise any existing council/or similar body to carry out accreditation of institutions including their departments, facilities and disciplines by giving them appropriate ratings'. At present, 14 accreditation bodies operate under the umbrella of the HEC. Five were established under the HEC's Quality Assurance Agency, while nine councils associated with the accreditation and evaluation of medical institutes are independent bodies that were extant before the HEC was created, and are recognised by the HEC. The authors will discuss the role of the Pakistan Veterinary Medical Council (PVMC), the accreditation of veterinary institutes and associated issues of concern. They suggest that the PVMC should adopt an unbiased approach to new and established veterinary institutes to attain uniform accreditation of all veterinary institutes throughout the country. In addition, the government should consult the accreditation councils and professional bodies before setting up new institutes. The authors also suggest that, instead of placing new veterinary institutes under the aegis of non-veterinary universities, they should be made sub-campuses of established veterinary universities. In time, they will emerge as established institutes in their own right.


Assuntos
Acreditação , Paquistão
3.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 52(2): 189-194, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27862394

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effect of immunization with inhibin DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis on ovarian responses and fertility in cross-bred buffaloes. A total of 134 cross-bred buffaloes were divided into four groups: groups T1 (n = 34), T2 (n = 35) and T3 (n = 31) were nasal immunized twice a day with 10 ml of 1 × 1010  CFU/ml of the C501 (pVAX-asd-IS) vaccine for 5, 3 and 1 day, respectively. Group C (n = 34) was nasal immunized with 10 ml PBS for 5 days. All animals were immunized twice with an interval of 14 days and administered with 200 µg of a GnRH analogue on day 28, 0.5 mg PGF2α on day 35 and 200 µg of the same GnRH analogue on day 37. TAI was performed at 18 and 24 hr after the second GnRH treatment. Fourteen days after primary immunization, C501 (pVAX-asd-IS) elicited significant immune responses, and anti-inhibin IgG antibody titres in group T1 were significantly higher (p < .01) than groups T3 and C. After the second GnRH treatment, the growth speed of the dominant follicles in group T1 was significantly faster (p < .05) than groups T3 and C. The number and diameter of large follicles (≥10 mm) as well as ovulatory follicles in group T1 were the greatest in all groups, resulting in a greater conception rate in buffaloes with positive anti-inhibin antibodies. These results demonstrate that immunization with the C501 (pVAX-asd-IS) vaccine, coupled with the Ovsynch protocol, could be used as an alternative approach to improve reproductive performance in cross-bred buffaloes.


Assuntos
Búfalos/fisiologia , Inibinas/imunologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Ovulação/imunologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Salmonella/genética , Vacinas de DNA
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 221: 104-10, 2016 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27084480

RESUMO

The onset of abomasal pathophysiology due to parasitism coincides with the presence of adult worms in the lumen, implicating worm excretory/secretory (ES) products acting on the surface mucosa. Caco-2 cell monolayers were grown to confluence on Transwell plates and exposed on the apical side to ES products of adult Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta. ES products of both species significantly (p<0.001) reduced transepithelial electrical resistance after 2h to 81.1±1.0% and 82.9±1.1% respectively. Immunocytochemical staining of the Caco-2 monolayers for zona occludens-1 and occludin confirmed that the tight junctions remained intact in control medium, but these proteins were internalised from disrupted junctions after exposure to ES products. The components of H. contortus ES products responsible for increased epithelial permeability were partially blocked by phage displaying single chain antibodies derived from sheep immune to field infection and enriched by panning with H. contortus ES products. Immune hosts may therefore be able to reduce the effects of worm chemicals on the gastric epithelium. Permeabilisation of the abomasal surface mucosa by worm chemicals would also explain how cells deep in the gastric glands could rapidly be affected by parasites emerging from the glands or within a day of transplantation of adult worms into naïve hosts, resulting in the pathophysiology typically caused by abomasal nematode parasitism.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemonchus/química , Proteínas de Helminto/química , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/farmacologia , Humanos
5.
Clin Genet ; 90(1): 3-15, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26762677

RESUMO

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic human genetic disorder characterized by six major defects including obesity, mental retardation, renal anomalies, polydactyly, retinal degeneration and hypogenitalism. In several cases of BBS, few other features such as metabolic defects, cardiovascular anomalies, speech deficits, hearing loss, hypertension, hepatic defects and high incidence of diabetes mellitus have been reported as well. The BBS displays extensive genetic heterogeneity. To date, 19 genes have been mapped on different chromosomes causing BBS phenotypes having varied mutational load of each BBS gene. In this review, we have discussed clinical spectrum and genetics of BBS. This report presents a concise overview of the current knowledge on clinical data and its molecular genetics progress upto date.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Mutação , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/classificação , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Família Multigênica , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polidactilia/diagnóstico , Polidactilia/genética , Polidactilia/patologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Degeneração Retiniana/diagnóstico , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia
6.
Parasite Immunol ; 37(12): 657-69, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26457886

RESUMO

The levels of expression of surface molecules and release of cytokines and chemokines of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were determined after their exposure to adult H. contortus excretory/secretory (ES) products or a combination of ES products and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Worm products provoked a weak response and only partial maturation of the dendritic cells, consistent with the hyporesponsiveness and more tolerogenic immune environment present in parasitized animals and humans. Co-stimulation with LPS demonstrated that H. contortus secretions, like those of other helminths, contain immunomodulators capable of reducing some aspects of the strong T(H)1/T(H)2 response evoked by bacterial LPS. There were significant reductions in the release of some cytokine/chemokines by LPS-stimulated mdDCs and a trend (although not significant at P < 0.05) for reduced expression levels of CD40, CD80 and HLA-DR. A prominent feature was the variability in responses of dendritic cells from the four donors, even on different days in repeat experiments, suggesting that generalized conclusions may be difficult to make, except in genetically related animals. Such observations may therefore be applicable only to restricted populations. In addition, previous exposure to parasites in a target population for immunomodulatory therapy may be an important factor in assessing the likelihood of adverse reactions or failures in the treatment to worm therapy.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Hemoncose/imunologia , Haemonchus/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Ovinos
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 54(7): 348-52, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15449915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of D-Dimers assay in the diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism (PE) at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from January to November 2000. METHODS: Forty three consecutive patients clinically suspected of suffering from pulmonary embolism and referred to Armed Forces Institute of Pathology for Ventilation-Perfusion scan of lungs were inducted in the study. A detailed history was taken and clinical examination was performed. All patients were then subjected to Perfusion and/or Ventilation scan, which was taken as the standard for the diagnosis of PE. Blood samples were collected from all patients in trisodium citrate. Platelet poor plasma obtained from the samples was tested for D-Dimers semi-quantitatively using latex agglutination method. RESULTS: Out of 43 patients 14 (32.6%) had completely normal ventilation-perfusion scan hence the diagnosis of PE was excluded. In 6 (13.9%) patients the results were considered indeterminate. Abnormalities suggestive of pulmonary embolism were detected in 23 (53.5%) patients. D-Dimers were less than the cut off value of 500 ng/ml in 19 (44.2%) patients, whereas in 24 (55.8%) the levels were more than 500 ng/ml. When compared with the results of ventilation-perfusion scan the sensitivity of D-Dimers was 91.3% and specificity was 100%. Positive predictive value of the test was 100% whereas negative predictive value was 87.5%. CONCLUSION: D-Dimers assay combined with high clinical evidence is a cost effective, readily available test which can safely exclude the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in majority of the cases.


Assuntos
Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Plaquetas/citologia , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 54(2): 109-17, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10646558

RESUMO

Biochemical changes in wheat grains stored at 10, 25 and 45 degrees C for six months were studied. A significant decrease in pH and an increase in titratable acidity was observed during storage of wheat grains at 25 degrees C and 45 degrees C. Moisture contents of wheat grains decreased by 15% at 25 degrees C and 26% at 45 degrees C during six months of storage. A significant decrease in water soluble amylose (20-28%) along with an increase in insoluble amylose contents (7.6-17%) were observed during storage at 25 and 45 degrees C. Amylase activity of the samples showed a decrease as the storage progressed. Total soluble sugars increased by 9% at 10 degrees C and 12% at 25 degrees C; a 37% decrease was observed after six months storage at 45 degrees C. Total available lysine decreased by 18.0% and 22.6% at 25 and 45 degrees C, respectively, after six months storage. In vitro protein digestibility of wheat grains decreased by 5.00% at 25 degrees C and 10.28% at 45 degrees C during six months of storage. However, no significant biochemical changes occurred during storage at 10 degrees C.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Alimentos , Triticum/química , Amilases/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Valor Nutritivo , Temperatura
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