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1.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(12): 1513-1515, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794301

RESUMO

Subclavian and proximal axillary arterial injuries are rare and difficult to manage. Eight patients were managed from January 2008 to December 2018 at The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan with mean age of 36.13 ± 14.48 years. All patients had penetrating injuries, from gunshot in 5 (62.5%), bomb blast in 2 (25%), and stab wound in 1 (12.5%) case. Six (75%) patients presented in haemodynamically stable condition. The mean time between the injury and patient presentation was 28 ± 8.39 hours. The injuries were approached via supraclavicular incision in 3 (37.5%) patients, infraclavicular incisions in 2 (25%) patients and median sternotomy in 2 (25%) patients. Three (37.5%) patients had false aneurysm, while 5 (62.5%) had transected artery. Primary repair was performed in 2 (25%) cases, while 6 (75%) patients were treated with interposition graft with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). All patients have salvaged limbs with good functional outcomes.  Key Words: Subclavian artery, Penetrating injury, Vascular trauma, Vascular repair.


Assuntos
Lesões do Sistema Vascular , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Ferimentos Perfurantes , Adulto , Artéria Axilar/lesões , Artéria Axilar/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Subclávia/lesões , Artéria Subclávia/cirurgia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia , Ferimentos Perfurantes/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(12): 7647-7656, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain state that negatively impacts the quality of life. Currently, available therapies for the treatment of neuropathic pain often lack efficacy and tolerability. Therefore, the search for novel drugs is crucial to obtain treatments that effectively suppress neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive properties of (1,4-bis-(diphenylphosphino) butane) palladium (II) chloride monohydrate (Compound 1) in a paclitaxel (PTX)-induced neuropathic pain model. METHODS: Initially, behavioral tests such as mechanical and cold allodynia as well as thermal and tail immersion hyperalgesia were performed to investigate the antinociceptive potential of Compound 1 (5 and 10 mg/kg, b.w). RT-PCR was performed to determine the effect of Compound 1 on the mRNA expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6. In addition, antioxidant protein, nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also determined. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that once-daily dosing of Compound 1 significantly suppressed the PTX-induced behavioral pain responses dose-dependently. The mRNA gene expressions of iNOS, COX-2, and inflammatory cytokines were markedly reduced by Compound 1. Furthermore, it enhanced the level of antioxidant enzymes and lowered the level of MDA and NO production. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the antinociceptive potential of Compound 1 in the PTX-induced neuropathic pain model is via suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation. Thus, Compound 1 might be a potential candidate for the therapeutic management of PTX induced neuropathic pain.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655381

RESUMO

The balanced amelioration of mechanical characteristics of fat clay with an additive refers to the attainment of high strength without compromising ductility, which is unattainable by solitary usage of a cementing additive. For this purpose, an amalgamated binary admixture (ABA) is proposed by assimilating shredded face mask (FM) waste, which is posing serious environmental concerns these days, with a cementitious waste material, i.e., silica fume (SF). However, for such ABA, the optimization of mix design is desirable because an excessive amount of one component could disturb the required balance. To address this issue, response surface methodology (RSM) is used in the current study, which is a strong technique used during the process of production to develop, improve, and optimize product inputs. Several experiments are designed and conducted to evaluate mechanical responses, i.e., unconfined compressive strength (qu), brittleness index (IB), deformability index (ID), and California bearing ratio (CBR) value, of treated fat clay by varying mix designs of ABA. Based on the test results, mathematical models are developed which are found to be statistically valid to predict the subjected responses using SF and FM as inputs. Afterward, an optimized mix design is determined by integrating developed models with a desirability function model and setting maximization of strength and ductility as the optimization goals. An ABA having 7.9% SF and 1.2% FM is observed to provide the highest strength and ductility for multiple applications, i.e., road and buildings, with desirability factor close to unity; responses of which are also validated by performing tests. Furthermore, analysis of cleaning aspect shows that the use of optimized ABA in place of cement for subgrade improvement of 1 km two-lane road could avoid CO2 emission of around 79,032 kg of C, save 42,720 kWh and 1174.8 GJ of electrical and thermal energy, respectively, and clean 43 Mg of FM waste; however, astute protocols of COVID-19 FM waste handling and disinfection are needed to be established and followed.

4.
J Genet Eng Biotechnol ; 19(1): 164, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serine/threonine kinase 3 (AKT3) is a protein-coding gene that is associated with several cattle immune diseases including different tumors and cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in structures and functions of AKT3 of cow and buffalo cattle. METHODS: The sequence differences of gene-coding sequence (CDS) and core promoter region of AKT3 in cow and buffalo were analyzed by using bioinformatics tools and PCR sequencing. Also, the functional analysis of promoter regulating gene expression by RT-PCR was performed using 500 Holstein cows and buffalos. And, evaluation of AKT3 inflammatory response to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis was performed between both species. RESULTS: The results revealed the variation in 6 exons out of 13 exons of the two species of CDS. Also, 4 different regions in 3-kb promoters of the AKT3 gene were significantly different between cow and buffalo species, in which cow's AKT3 promoter sequence region was started from - 371 to - 1247, while in buffalo, the sequence was started from - 371 to - 969 of the promoter crucial region. Thus, the promoter was overexpressed in cows compared to buffaloes. As a result, significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two species in the AKT3 gene expression level related to the LPS stimulation in their mammary epithelial cell line. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasized the great importance of the structural differences of AKT3 between the animal species on their different responses against immune diseases like mastitis.

5.
J Genet Eng Biotechnol ; 19(1): 153, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mastitis is one of the major diseases causing economic loss to the dairy industry by reducing the quantity and quality of milk. Thus, the objective of this scientific study was to find new biomarkers based on genes for the early prediction before its severity. METHODS: In the present study, advanced bioinformatics including hierarchical clustering, enrichment analysis, active site prediction, epigenetic analysis, functional domain identification, and protein docking were used to analyze the important genes that could be utilized as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for mastitis. RESULTS: Four differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in different regions of the mammary gland (teat cistern, gland cistern, lobuloalveolar, and Furstenberg's rosette) that resulted in 453, 597, 577, and 636 DEG, respectively. Also, 101 overlapped genes were found by comparing 27 different expressed genes. These genes were associated with eight immune response pathways including NOD-like receptor signaling pathway (IL8, IL18, IL1B, PYDC1) and chemokine signaling pathway (PTK2, IL8, NCF1, CCR1, HCK). Meanwhile, 241 protein-protein interaction networks were developed among overlapped genes. Fifty-seven regulatory events were found between miRNAs, expressed genes, and the transcription factors (TFs) through micro-RNA and transcription factors (miRNA-DEG-TF) regulatory network. The 3D structure docking model of the expressed genes proteins identified their active sites and the binding ligands that could help in choosing the appropriate feed or treatment for affected animals. CONCLUSIONS: The novelty of the distinguished DEG and their pathways in this study is that they can precisely improve the detection biomarkers and treatments techniques of cows' Escherichia coli mastitis disease due to their high affinity with the target site of the mammary gland before appearing the symptoms.

6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(9): 2224-2229, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580519

RESUMO

Endoleaks are the most common complications following endovascular aneurysm repair. Depending upon their origin, there are five types of endoleaks, types I-V, which can also be classified as direct and indirect endoleaks. Direct endoleaks (type I and III) have higher risk of aneurysm rupture due to rapid sac expansion, and require immediate correction. Indirect endoleaks ( type II, IV and V) have a relatively benign course compared to direct endoleaks. Most of them resolve with time and very few need interventions upon sac enlargement. Type V endotension is a special situation where there is sac enlargement despite no demonstrable endoleak. Proper planning and appropriate selection of stent-graft can prevent most of these endoleaks. With improvement in stent-graft technology, the incidence of endoleaks has been reduced. The current narrative review was planned to describe the pathophysiology, risk factors and treatment options for each type of endoleak.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Endoleak/diagnóstico por imagem , Endoleak/etiologia , Endoleak/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(8): 2027-2031, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418024

RESUMO

Abdominal vascular injuries are the common cause of death post-trauma. These are challenging injuries to manage due to severe haemodynamic instability, other associated injuries and difficulty in accessing and controlling these deep-seated vessels. Early control of bleeding can decrease mortality in these patients. Abdominal vasculature is divided into three zones, each requiring different operative strategy for exposure. Standard vascular surgery principles of achieving proximal and distal control before exploring any haematoma are followed when managing these injuries. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of aorta is a minimally invasive method of achieving proximal aortic occlusion. This also acts as bridge for definitive intervention or surgery. Endovascular interventions, including angioembolisation and stent-graft, have shown to improve outcomes, especially in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Updated knowledge is necessary for all those directly involved in managing these patients. The current narrative review was planned to discusses relevant anatomy, principles, different surgical approaches and endovascular techniques to deal with these injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Oclusão com Balão , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Cirurgiões , Lesões do Sistema Vascular , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Humanos , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia
8.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(7): 1885-1888, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410267

RESUMO

A study was conducted to assess the number of limbs salvaged among diabetic patients with chronic limb-threatening ischaemia after infra-inguinal bypass surgeries at a low- to middle-income country (LMIC) hospital. It was a retrospective chart review of diabetic patients who underwent infra-inguinal bypass for lower leg revascularisation for chronic limb-threatening ischaemia at the Section of Vascular Surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan) from January 2008 till April 2019. Diabetic patients with chronic limb-threatening ischaemia had a salvage rate of 90.5%(29/32) after infra-inguinal bypass surgery in our set up which is comparable to those described in the literature.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Doença Arterial Periférica , Amputação , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Isquemia/cirurgia , Salvamento de Membro , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Infect Genet Evol ; 94: 105012, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302994

RESUMO

Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica are digenetic trematodes causing fasciolosis in ruminants. The host and geographical distribution of both Fasciola species are influenced by environmental and climatic conditions favouring survival and development of free-living stages and intermediate hosts, and livestock management practices. The aim of the present study was to describe the host distribution of the two Fasciola species in buffalo, cattle, goats, and sheep in the Balochistan and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. 359 flukes were collected from a total of 32 livers from the four livestock species. Deep amplicon sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA ITS-2) and mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 1 (mtDNA ND-1) loci confirmed co-infection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Balochistan and single species F. gigantica infection in Punjab. In Balochistan, co-infections and hybrids of both Fasciola species were identified in cattle, with more F. hepatica detected than F. gigantica. However, F. hepatica was the only species identified in goats, and F. gigantica was the only species identified in buffalo. In Punjab, all flukes were confirmed as F. gigantica in each of the four livestock species. Overall, the results indicate differences in the host and geographical distribution of F. gigantica and F. hepatica, and provide useful knowledge for the development of control strategies for livestock and humans.

10.
Ann Vasc Dis ; 14(2): 118-121, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239636

RESUMO

Objective: To measure the pattern and severity of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in patients presenting to a vascular surgery clinic in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study has examined patients presenting with CVI for the first time. Patients were assessed for severity of the disease using clinical, etiological, anatomical and pathological (CEAP) score and venous clinical severity score (VCSS). Patients were then divided into two groups depending on the severity of the disease: 'mild/moderate' CVI if the CEAP classification was ≤C3 or VCSS was <5 and 'severe' if CEAP classification was >3 or VCSS was ≥5. Both groups were then compared to determine the factors associated with the more 'severe' form of CVI. Results: During the study duration, 121 patients presented with CVI with mean age of 47.83±12.02 years; 74 (61.2%) were female. Mean body mass index of the patients was 32.49±18.3 kg/m2. Mean VCSS was 5.49±3.84, indicating most patients presented with the severe form of CVI. Field workers were determined to be three to five times more likely to present with severe CVI compared to housewives and office workers. Conclusion: Majority of the patients who presented to a tertiary care facility had the severe form of CVI. Thus, there is a need to raise awareness on this disease at community level.

11.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(8): 1001-1003, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320726

RESUMO

Diabetes is considered a risk factor for arteriovenous fistula failure and increased perioperative complications; but this view is not proven for patients undergoing brachiobasilic transposition arteriovenous fistula (BBT-AVF). Fifty-one (68.9%) diabetic and 23 (31.08%) non-diabetic patients undergoing single-stage BBT-AVF were compared in terms of perioperative complications, access maturation and patency rates at The Aga Khan University Hospital from between January 2016 to December 2017. Diabetics were elder and more obese. The perioperative complications 19 (37.2%) vs. 8 (34.7%), and access maturation rates were compared (93.2% vs. 95.5%) between the two groups. At 6 months, access patency in diabetics was lower compared to non-diabetics (64.7% vs. 87.0%).  Similar trend was noted at 12 and 24 months in both groups. This study showed that the diabetic and non-diabetic were comparable in terms of perioperative complications and maturation rate. However, short term patency rate was lower in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Key Words: Brachiobasilic AVF, Complications, Diabetes mellitus, Patency.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica , Diabetes Mellitus , Idoso , Artéria Braquial/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148746, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323764

RESUMO

Not only has the COVID-19 pandemic caused a global health crisis, but it has also changed the dynamics of waste generation around the world. This situation demands a productive solution for face mask (FM) waste management to solve several associated environmental issues. In the current study, a novel soil treatment method is proposed for the improvement of mechanical characteristics of fat clay by using FM as fiber reinforcement and silica fume (SF) as the cementitious agent in the form of a composite binary admixture (CBA). The performance of the proposed CBA is compared with SF and FM as the lone stabilizers by conducting extensive geotechnical testing. The SF treatment exponentially improves the strength characteristics of soil but it marginalizes the ductility of soil, inviting sudden failure and instability under dynamic loadings. It is observed that the proposed CBA not only improves the strength characteristics more than SF but also regulates the ductility and deformability of treated soil due to the presence of FM fibers. In addition, the policies and protocols on the logistics of collecting FM waste and making it ready for the proposed geotechnical application are reviewed; associated health risks, socioeconomic conditions and available technologies are the major governing factors to formulate and implement these policies. Moreover, the prolonged storage of COVID-19 FM waste for disinfection is found to be suitable for the proposed soil stabilization method as per the literature. The current study helps in achieving cost-effective filler/foundation material, solving COVID-19 FM waste problems and promoting resource conservation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Máscaras , Argila , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Toxics ; 9(5)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065355

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) are toxic elements which contaminate the water bodies in developing countries because of their excessive discharge from industrial zones. Rice (Oryza sativa L) crops are submerged for a longer period of time in water, so irrigation with HMs polluted water possesses toxic effects on plant growth. This study was initiated to observe the synergistic effect of bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Lysinibacillus macroides) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/L) on the rice that were grown in HMs contaminated water. Current findings have revealed that bacteria, along with ZnO NPs at lower concentration, showed maximum removal of HMs from polluted water at pH 8 (90 min) as compared with higher concentrations. Seeds primed with bacteria grown in HM polluted water containing ZnO NPs (5 mg/L) showed reduced uptake of HMs in root, shoot and leaf, thus resulting in increased plant growth. Furthermore, their combined effects also reduced the bioaccumulation index and metallothionine (MTs) content and enhanced the tolerance index of plants. This study suggested that synergistic treatment of bacteria with lower concentrations of ZnO NPs helped plants to reduce heavy metal toxicity, especially Pb and Cu, and enhanced plant growth.

14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 157: 106132, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000677

RESUMO

The road traffic injuries are one of the leading cause of death in children and young adults according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The risk of a crash increases approximately four times for drivers using mobile phones during driving. This study investigates the importance of different factors affecting the driver's choice to use mobile phones for conversation during driving in Lahore, Pakistan. A questionnaire survey was conducted to check the tendency of mobile phone usage during driving from different locations of the city. Participants were asked to indicate frequency, risk, importance and emotionality of ten different conversations. A Structural Equation Model (SEM), similar to a previous study, conducted in Beijing, was developed for the frequency of calling and texting during driving with perceived risk of calling and texting, perceived importance and emotionality as predictors. The frequency of different conversations shows that perceived importance of the call mainly influences the driver's choice to make a call during driving in Lahore. The result of the model show that perceived risk has a significant negative effect on driver's decision to call or text in Lahore, similarly to Beijing. The results also indicates that drivers prefer calling on mobile phones in comparison to texting during driving in Lahore.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Telefone Celular , Acidentes de Trânsito , Pequim , Criança , Cidades , Humanos , Paquistão , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889183

RESUMO

Background: The venom of the krait (Bungarus sindanus), an Elapidae snake, is highly toxic to humans and contains a great amount of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The enzyme AChE provokes the hydrolysis of substrate acetylcholine (ACh) in the nervous system and terminates nerve impulse. Different inhibitors inactivate AChE and lead to ACh accumulation and disrupted neurotransmission. Methods: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palladium(II) complex as antivenom against krait venom AChE using kinetics methods. Results: Statistical analysis showed that krait venom AChE inhibition decreases with the increase of Pd(II) complex (0.025-0.05 µM) and exerted 61% inhibition against the AChE at a fixed concentration (0.5 mM) of ACh. Kinetic analysis using the Lineweaver Burk plot showed that Pd(II) caused a competitive inhibition. The compound Pd(II) complex binds at the active site of the enzyme. It was observed that K m (Michaelis-Menten constant of AChE-ACh into AChE and product) increased from 0.108 to 0.310 mM (45.74 to 318.35%) and V max remained constant with an increase of Pd(II) complex concentrations. In AChE K Iapp was found to increase from 0.0912 to 0.025 µM (29.82-72.58%) and did not affect the V maxapp with an increase of ACh from (0.05-1 mM). K i (inhibitory constant) was estimated to be 0.029 µM for snake venom; while the K m was estimated to be 0.4 mM. The calculated IC50 for Pd(II) complex was found to be 0.043 µM at constant ACh concentration (0.5 mM). Conclusions: The results show that the Pd(II) complex can be deliberated as an inhibitor of AChE.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673357

RESUMO

The Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in early embryonic development. Wnt/ß-catenin signaling is a major regulator of cell proliferation and keeps embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the pluripotent state. Dysregulation of Wnt signaling in the early developmental stages causes several hereditary diseases that lead to embryonic abnormalities. Several other signaling molecules are directly or indirectly activated in response to Wnt/ß-catenin stimulation. The crosstalk of these signaling factors either synergizes or opposes the transcriptional activation of ß-catenin/Tcf4-mediated target gene expression. Recently, the crosstalk between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ), which belongs to the steroid superfamily, and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling has been reported to take place during several aspects of embryonic development. However, numerous questions need to be answered regarding the function and regulation of PPARδ in coordination with the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Here, we have summarized the functional activation of the PPARδ in co-ordination with the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway during the regulation of several aspects of embryonic development, stem cell regulation and maintenance, as well as during the progression of several metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/embriologia , PPAR delta/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/patologia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Fator de Transcrição 4/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2649, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514851

RESUMO

Porous hollow fibres made of polyvinylidene fluoride were employed as membrane contactor for carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption in a gas-liquid mode with methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) based nanofluid absorbent. Both theoretical and experimental works were carried out in which a mechanistic model was developed that considers the mass transfer of components in all subdomains of the contactor module. Also, the model considers convectional mass transfer in shell and tube subdomains with the chemical reaction as well as Grazing and Brownian motion of nanoparticles effects. The predicted outputs of the developed model and simulations showed that the dispersion of CNT nanoparticles to MDEA-based solvent improves CO2 capture percentage compared to the pure solvent. In addition, the efficiency of CO2 capture for MDEA-based nanofluid was increased with rising MDEA content, liquid flow rate and membrane porosity. On the other hand, the enhancement of gas velocity and the membrane tortuosity led to reduced CO2 capture efficiency in the module. Moreover, it was revealed that the CNT nanoparticles effect on CO2 removal is higher in the presence of lower MDEA concentration (5%) in the solvent. The model was validated by comparing with the experimental data, and great agreement was obtained.

18.
Parasitol Int ; 82: 102288, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515742

RESUMO

Fasciola gigantica is considered to be a major pathogen causing fasciolosis in the Indian subcontinent, resulting in production losses of millions of dollars in the livestock industry. Understading the dispersal origin and the patterns of spread of F. gigantica is important. A total of 53 Fasciola flukes collected from buffaloes and goats in Punjab, Pakistan between 2017 and 2018 were identified as F. gigantica based on the multiplex PCR for the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for DNA polymerase delta (pold). A significant genetic difference between F. gigantica from buffaloes and goats was indicated by the genetic analyses of mitochondrial markers, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Phylogenetic analysis of the seventeen nad1 haplotypes of F. gigantica from Pakistan with those in neighbouring countries of the Indian subcontinent revealed that all the haplotypes identified in Pakistan were clustered in haplogroup A. fasciola gigantica with the eight haplotypes might be expanded in Pakistan from Indian origin, along with the migration of the domestic animals, since they were related to Indian haplotypes. In contrast, the remaining nine haplotypes were not shared with any neighbouring countries, suggesting independent origin, probably from neighbouring Middle East countries. However, cautious interpretation is required due to the very limited samples size of this study. Our study provides a proof of concept for a method that could be used to investigate the epidemiology of F. gigantica.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Proteínas de Helminto/análise , Animais , Fasciola/enzimologia , Fasciola/genética , Fasciolíase/transmissão , Cabras , Haplótipos , Paquistão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
19.
Anim Biosci ; 34(5): 880-885, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Omasum is an important site for the absorption of short chain fatty acids. The major route for the transport of acetate is via sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE). However, a discrepancy in the symmetry of sodium and acetate transport has been previously reported, the mechanism of which is unclear. In this study, we investigated the possible role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) for this asymmetry. METHODS: Omasal tissues were isolated from healthy sheep (N = 3) and divided into four groups; pH 7.4 and 6.4 alone and in combination with Ethoxzolamide. Electrophysiological measurements were made using Ussing chamber and the electrical measurements were made using computer controlled voltage clamp apparatus. Effect(s) of CA inhibitor on acetate and sodium transport flux rate of Na22 and 14C-acetate was measured in three different flux time periods. Data were presented as mean±standard deviation and level of significance was ascertained at p≤0.05. RESULTS: Mucosal to serosal flux of Na (JmsNa) was greater than mucosal to serosal flux of acetate (JmsAc) when the pH was decreased from 7.4 to 6.4. However, the addition of CA inhibitor almost completely abolished this discrepancy (JmsNa ≈ JmsAc). CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that the additional protons required to drive the NHE were provided by the CA enzyme in the isolated omasal epithelium. The findings of this study also suggest that the functions of CA may be exploited for better absorption in omasum.

20.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(8): 1379-1383, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368348

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and anti-bacterial properties of the bioactive principles of Sargassum aquifolium (Turner) C.Agardh, a brown seaweed in Red sea of Jazan province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Crystals were obtained from the petroleum ether extract of Sargassum aquifolium and subjected to chemical tests, FTIR spectroscopic analysis and NMR analysis to identify their chemical composition, and to study their antibacterial properties against selected human pathogenic bacteria. In addition, GC-MS analysis was performed to identify the bioactive compounds in the crude petroleum ether extract. Results of the antibacterial effect of the crystal analyte showed a wide spectrum of activity against the screened human pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sargassum/química , Solventes/química , Antibacterianos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Cristalização , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Alga Marinha/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
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