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1.
New Phytol ; 2021 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953172

RESUMO

The phenotypic plasticity of flowering plants in response to herbivore damage to vegetative tissues can affect plant interactions with flower-feeding organisms. Such induced systemic responses are probably regulated by defence-related phytohormones that signal flowers to alter secondary chemistry that affects resistance to florivores. Current knowledge on the effects of damage to vegetative tissues on plant interactions with florivores and the underlying mechanisms is limited. We compared the preference and performance of two florivores on flowering Brassica nigra plants damaged by one of three herbivores feeding from roots or leaves. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we quantified expression patterns of marker genes for defence-related phytohormonal pathways, and concentrations of phytohormones and glucosinolates in buds and flowers. Florivores displayed contrasting preferences for plants damaged by herbivores feeding on roots and leaves. Chewing florivores performed better on plants damaged by folivores, but worse on plants damaged by the root herbivore. Chewing root and foliar herbivory led to specific induced changes in the phytohormone profile of buds and flowers. This resulted in increased glucosinolate concentrations for leaf-damaged plants, and decreased glucosinolate concentrations for root-damaged plants. The outcome of herbivore-herbivore interactions spanning from vegetative tissues to floral tissues is unique for the inducing root/leaf herbivore and receiving florivore combination.

2.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 169: 311-321, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826706

RESUMO

General volatile anaesthetics (GVA) inhibit electrical signal propagation in animal neurons. Although plants do not have neurons, they generate and propagate electrical signals systemically from a local damaged leaf to neighbouring leaves. This systemic electrical signal propagation is mediated by ligand-gated glutamate receptor-like (GLR) channels. Here, we investigated the effect of GVA diethyl ether on the systemic electrical and further downstream responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. We monitored electrical signals, cytoplasmic Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]cyt), ultra-weak photon emission, amino acid contents, phytohormone response as well as gene expression in response to heat wounding during diethyl ether anaesthesia. We found complete suppression of electrical and [Ca2+]cyt signal propagation from damaged leaf to neighbouring systemic leaves upon diethyl ether treatment. Concomitantly, jasmonates (JAs) did not accumulate and expression of JA-responsive genes (AOS, OPR3, JAZ10) was not detected in systemic leaves. However local damaged leaves still showed increased [Ca2+]cyt and accumulated high level of JAs and JA-inducible transcripts. An exogenously added GLR ligand, L-glutamate, was not able to trigger Ca2+ wave in etherized plants indicating that GLRs are targeted by diethyl ether, but not specifically. The fact that GVA inhibit electrical signal propagation not only in animals but also in plants is intriguing. However, the cellular response is completely blocked only in systemic leaves; the local damaged leaf still senses damaging stimuli.

3.
New Phytol ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716577

RESUMO

●Isoprene, a major biogenic volatile hydrocarbon of climate-relevance, indisputably mitigates abiotic stresses in emitting plants. However functional relevance of constitutive isoprene emission in unstressed plants remains contested. Isoprene and cytokinins (CKs) are synthesised from a common substrate and pathway in chloroplasts. It was postulated that isoprene emission may affect CK-metabolism. ●Using transgenic isoprene-emitting (IE) Arabidopsis and isoprene non-emitting (NE) RNAi grey poplars (paired with respective NE and IE genotypes), the life of individual IE and NE leaves from emergence to abscission was followed under stress-free conditions. We monitored plant growth rate, above-ground developmental phenotype, modelled leaf photosynthetic energy status, quantified the abundance of leaf CKs, analyzed Arabidopsis and poplar leaf transcriptomes by RNA-sequencing in presence and absence of isoprene during leaf senescence. ●Isoprene emission by unstressed leaves enhanced the abundance of CKs (isopentenyl adenine and its precursor) by >200%, significantly upregulated genes coding for CK-synthesis, CK-signaling and CK-degradation, hastened plant development, increased chloroplast metabolic rate, altered photosynthetic energy status, induced early leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and poplar. IE leaves senesced sooner even in decapitated poplars where source-sink relationships and hormone homeostasis were perturbed. ●Constitutive isoprene emission significantly accelerates CK-led leaf and organismal development and induces early senescence independent of growth constraints. Isoprene emission provides an early-riser evolutionary advantage and shortens lifecycle duration to assist rapid diversification in unstressed emitters.

4.
Elife ; 102021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632981

RESUMO

Gut enzymes can metabolize plant defense compounds and thereby affect the growth and fitness of insect herbivores. Whether these enzymes also influence feeding preference is largely unknown. We studied the metabolization of taraxinic acid ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G), a sesquiterpene lactone of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) that deters its major root herbivore, the common cockchafer larva (Melolontha melolontha). We have demonstrated that TA-G is rapidly deglucosylated and conjugated to glutathione in the insect gut. A broad-spectrum M. melolontha ß-glucosidase, Mm_bGlc17, is sufficient and necessary for TA-G deglucosylation. Using cross-species RNA interference, we have shown that Mm_bGlc17 reduces TA-G toxicity. Furthermore, Mm_bGlc17 is required for the preference of M. melolontha larvae for TA-G-deficient plants. Thus, herbivore metabolism modulates both the toxicity and deterrence of a plant defense compound. Our work illustrates the multifaceted roles of insect digestive enzymes as mediators of plant-herbivore interactions.


Assuntos
Besouros/enzimologia , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Taraxacum/metabolismo , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo , Animais , Besouros/embriologia , Besouros/genética , Digestão , Glucosídeos/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Inativação Metabólica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Lactonas/toxicidade , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/genética , Metabolismo Secundário , Sesquiterpenos/toxicidade , Taraxacum/toxicidade , beta-Galactosidase/genética
5.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(10)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682301

RESUMO

Production of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is restricted by postharvest decay, which limits the storage period. We isolated, identified, and characterized fungal pathogens causing decay in two passion fruit cultivars during two fruit seasons in China. Morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequences of ITS-rDNA regions identified eighteen isolates, which were pathogenic on yellow and purple fruit. Fusarium kyushuense, Fusarium concentricum, Colletotrichum truncatum, and Alternaria alternata were the most aggressive species. Visible inspections and comparative analysis of the disease incidences demonstrated that wounded and non-wounded yellow fruit were more susceptible to the pathogens than the purple fruit. Purple cultivar showed higher expression levels of defense-related genes through expression and metabolic profiling, as well as significantly higher levels of their biosynthesis pathways. We also found fungi with potential beneficial features for the quality of fruits. Our transcriptomic and metabolomics data provide a basis to identify potential targets to improve the pathogen resistance of the susceptible yellow cultivar. The identified fungi and affected features of the fruit of both cultivars provide important information for the control of pathogens in passion fruit industry and postharvest storage.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679089

RESUMO

Carnivorous plants feed on animal prey, mainly insects, to get additional nutrients. This carnivorous syndrome is widely investigated and reported. In contrast, reports on herbivores feeding on carnivorous plants and related defenses of the plants under attack are rare. Here, we studied the interaction of a pitcher plant, Nepenthes x ventrata, with a generalist lepidopteran herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis, using a combination of LC/MS-based chemical analytics, choice and feeding assays. Chemical defenses in N. x ventrata leaves were analyzed upon S. littoralis feeding. A naphthoquinone, plumbagin, was identified in Nepenthes defense against herbivores and as the compound mainly responsible for the finding that S. littoralis larvae gained almost no weight when feeding on Nepenthes leaves. Plumbagin is constitutively present but further 3-fold increased upon long-term (> 1 day) feeding. Moreover, in parallel de novo induced trypsin protease inhibitor (TI) activity was identified. In contrast to TI activity, enhanced plumbagin levels were not phytohormone inducible, not even by defense-related jasmonates although upon herbivory their level increased more than 50-fold in the case of the bioactive jasmonic acid-isoleucine. We conclude that Nepenthes is efficiently protected against insect herbivores by naphthoquinones acting as phytoanticipins, which is supported by additional inducible defenses. The regulation of these defenses remains to be investigated.


Assuntos
Planta Carnívora/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Sarraceniaceae/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Animais , Planta Carnívora/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Dieta , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/análise , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Sarraceniaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/fisiologia
7.
Plant Mol Biol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468901

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Calmodulin-like-proteins (CML) belong to a family of calcium-sensing proteins that are unique for plants and involved in many different developmental and stress-related reactions. In defense against herbivory, some pathogens and drought, CML37 acts as a positive and CML42 as a negative regulator, respectively. We provide evidence that both CMLs act antagonistically in the regulation of induced defense responses. A double knock-out line, cml37 x cml42, thus shows wild-type phenotypes upon all kind of stresses we used. A transient increase in the cytosolic calcium concentration is one of the first reactions that can be measured in plant cells upon abiotic as well as biotic stress treatments. These calcium signals are sensed by calcium binding proteins such as calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs), which transduce the sensed information into appropriate stress responses by interacting with downstream target proteins. In previous studies, CML37 has been shown to positively regulate the plants' defense against both the insect herbivore Spodoptera littoralis and the response to drought stress. In contrast, CML42 is known to negatively regulate those two stress responses. Here, we provide evidence that these two CMLs act antagonistically in the regulation of induced responses directed against drought and herbivory stress as well as in the defense against the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria brassicicola. Both CMLs shape the plant reactions by altering the phytohormone signaling. Consequently, the phytohormone-regulated production of defensive compounds like glucosinolates is also antagonistically mediated by both CMLs. The finding that CML37 and CML42 have antagonistic roles in diverse stress-related responses suggests that these calcium sensor proteins represent important tools for the plant to balance and fine-tune the signaling and downstream reactions upon environmental stress.

8.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(3): e21843, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490676

RESUMO

Gossypol is a toxic sesquiterpene dimer produced by cotton plants which deters herbivory by insects and vertebrates. Two highly reactive aldehyde groups contribute to gossypol toxicity by cross-linking herbivore proteins. We identified another consequence of consuming gossypol in two insect pests of cotton: increased amounts of fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs). Eight different FACs in the feces of larval Helicoverpa armigera and Heliothis virescens increased when larvae consumed artificial diet containing gossypol, but not a gossypol derivative lacking free aldehyde groups (SB-gossypol). FACs are produced by joining plant-derived fatty acids with amino acids of insect origin in the larval midgut tissue by an unknown conjugase, and translocated into the gut lumen by an unknown transporter. FACs are hydrolyzed back into fatty acids and amino acids by an aminoacylase (L-ACY-1) in the gut lumen. The equilibrium level of FACs in the lumen is determined by a balance between conjugation and hydrolysis, which may differ among species. When heterologously expressed, L-ACY-1 of H. armigera but not H. virescens was inhibited by gossypol; consistent with the excretion of more FACs in the feces by H. armigera. FACs are known to benefit the plant host by inducing anti-herbivore defensive responses, and have been hypothesized to benefit the herbivore by acting as a surfactant and increasing nitrogen uptake efficiency. Thus in addition to its direct toxic effects, gossypol may negatively impact insect nitrogen uptake efficiency and amplify the signal used by the plant to elicit release of volatile compounds that attract parasitoids.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Gossipol/farmacologia , Mariposas , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria , Amidoidrolases/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/metabolismo
9.
FEBS Open Bio ; 11(9): 2576-2585, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289256

RESUMO

Yellow to red colored betalains are a chemotaxonomic feature of Caryophyllales, while in most other plant taxa, anthocyanins are responsible for these colors. The carnivorous plant family Nepenthaceae belongs to Caryophyllales; here, red-pigmented tissues seem to attract insect prey. Strikingly, the chemical nature of red color in Nepenthes has never been elucidated. Although belonging to Caryophyllales, in Nepenthes, some molecular evidence supports the presence of anthocyanins rather than betalains. However, there was previously no direct chemical proof of this. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified cyanidin glycosides in Nepenthes species and tissues. Further, we reveal the existence of a complete set of constitutively expressed anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Nepenthes. Thus, here we finally conclude the long-term open question regarding red pigmentation in Nepenthaceae.

10.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 645030, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093609

RESUMO

Myrosinase enzymes play a key role in the chemical defense of plants of the order Brassicales. Upon herbivory, myrosinases hydrolyze the ß-S-linked glucose moiety of glucosinolates, the characteristic secondary metabolites of brassicaceous plants, which leads to the formation of different toxic hydrolysis products. The specialist flea beetle, Phyllotreta armoraciae, is capable of accumulating high levels of glucosinolates in the body and can thus at least partially avoid plant myrosinase activity. In feeding experiments with the myrosinase-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana tgg1 × tgg2 (tgg) mutant and the corresponding Arabidopsis Col-0 wild type, we investigated the influence of plant myrosinase activity on the metabolic fate of ingested glucosinolates in adult P. armoraciae beetles. Arabidopsis myrosinases hydrolyzed a fraction of ingested glucosinolates and thereby reduced the glucosinolate sequestration rate by up to 50% in adult beetles. These results show that P. armoraciae cannot fully prevent glucosinolate hydrolysis; however, the exposure of adult beetles to glucosinolate hydrolysis products had no impact on the beetle's energy budget under our experimental conditions. To understand how P. armoraciae can partially prevent glucosinolate hydrolysis, we analyzed the short-term fate of ingested glucosinolates and found them to be rapidly absorbed from the gut. In addition, we determined the fate of ingested Arabidopsis myrosinase enzymes in P. armoraciae. Although we detected Arabidopsis myrosinase protein in the feces, we found only traces of myrosinase activity, suggesting that P. armoraciae can inactivate plant myrosinases in the gut. Based on our findings, we propose that the ability to tolerate plant myrosinase activity and a fast glucosinolate uptake mechanism represent key adaptations of P. armoraciae to their brassicaceous host plants.

11.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(8): 1135-1144, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140651

RESUMO

Balancing selection is frequently invoked as a mechanism that maintains variation within and across populations. However, there are few examples of balancing selection operating on loci underpinning complex traits, which frequently display high levels of variation. We investigated mechanisms that may maintain variation in a focal polymorphism-leaf chemical profiles of a perennial wildflower (Boechera stricta, Brassicaceae)-explicitly interrogating multiple ecological and genetic processes including spatial variation in selection, antagonistic pleiotropy and frequency-dependent selection. A suite of common garden and greenhouse experiments showed that the alleles underlying variation in chemical profile have contrasting fitness effects across environments, implicating two ecological drivers of selection on chemical profile: herbivory and drought. Phenotype-environment associations and molecular genetic analyses revealed additional evidence of past selection by these drivers. Together, these data are consistent with balancing selection on chemical profile, probably caused by pleiotropic effects of secondary chemical biosynthesis genes on herbivore defence and drought response.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Seleção Genética , Brassicaceae/genética , Herbivoria , Folhas de Planta , Polimorfismo Genético
12.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 671286, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149771

RESUMO

Cruciferous plants in the order Brassicales defend themselves from herbivory using glucosinolates: sulfur-containing pro-toxic metabolites that are activated by hydrolysis to form compounds, such as isothiocyanates, which are toxic to insects and other organisms. Some herbivores are known to circumvent glucosinolate activation with glucosinolate sulfatases (GSSs), enzymes that convert glucosinolates into inactive desulfoglucosinolates. This strategy is a major glucosinolate detoxification pathway in a phloem-feeding insect, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a serious agricultural pest of cruciferous vegetables. In this study, we identified and characterized an enzyme responsible for glucosinolate desulfation in the globally distributed B. tabaci species MEAM1. In in vitro assays, this sulfatase showed a clear preference for indolic glucosinolates compared with aliphatic glucosinolates, consistent with the greater representation of desulfated indolic glucosinolates in honeydew. B. tabaci might use this detoxification strategy specifically against indolic glucosinolates since plants may preferentially deploy indolic glucosinolates against phloem-feeding insects. In vivo silencing of the expression of the B. tabaci GSS gene via RNA interference led to lower levels of desulfoglucosinolates in honeydew. Our findings expand the knowledge on the biochemistry of glucosinolate detoxification in phloem-feeding insects and suggest how detoxification pathways might facilitate plant colonization in a generalist herbivore.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13244, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168179

RESUMO

Two-component plant defenses such as cyanogenic glucosides are produced by many plant species, but phloem-feeding herbivores have long been thought not to activate these defenses due to their mode of feeding, which causes only minimal tissue damage. Here, however, we report that cyanogenic glycoside defenses from cassava (Manihot esculenta), a major staple crop in Africa, are activated during feeding by a pest insect, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, and the resulting hydrogen cyanide is detoxified by conversion to beta-cyanoalanine. Additionally, B. tabaci was found to utilize two metabolic mechanisms to detoxify cyanogenic glucosides by conversion to non-activatable derivatives. First, the cyanogenic glycoside linamarin was glucosylated 1-4 times in succession in a reaction catalyzed by two B. tabaci glycoside hydrolase family 13 enzymes in vitro utilizing sucrose as a co-substrate. Second, both linamarin and the glucosylated linamarin derivatives were phosphorylated. Both phosphorylation and glucosidation of linamarin render this plant pro-toxin inert to the activating plant enzyme linamarase, and thus these metabolic transformations can be considered pre-emptive detoxification strategies to avoid cyanogenesis.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Hemípteros , Manihot/metabolismo , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Nitrilas/metabolismo , Fosforilação
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2658, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976202

RESUMO

Many herbivorous insects selectively accumulate plant toxins for defense against predators; however, little is known about the transport processes that enable insects to absorb and store defense compounds in the body. Here, we investigate how a specialist herbivore, the horseradish flea beetle, accumulates glucosinolate defense compounds from Brassicaceae in the hemolymph. Using phylogenetic analyses of coleopteran major facilitator superfamily transporters, we identify a clade of glucosinolate-specific transporters (PaGTRs) belonging to the sugar porter family. PaGTRs are predominantly expressed in the excretory system, the Malpighian tubules. Silencing of PaGTRs leads to elevated glucosinolate excretion, significantly reducing the levels of sequestered glucosinolates in beetles. This suggests that PaGTRs reabsorb glucosinolates from the Malpighian tubule lumen to prevent their loss by excretion. Ramsay assays corroborated the selective retention of glucosinolates by Malpighian tubules of P. armoraciae in situ. Thus, the selective accumulation of plant defense compounds in herbivorous insects can depend on the ability to prevent excretion.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Besouros/metabolismo , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Túbulos de Malpighi/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Brassicaceae/parasitologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Açúcares/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 359: 129671, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001419

RESUMO

Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) has an important economic value as exotic ingredient in juice blends. We inoculated the passion fruit cultivar Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis's roots with the beneficial root-colonizing fungus Piriformospora indica under greenhouse conditions. The experiments were performed at three different locations and times (between 2017 and 2019). After transient initial growth retardation associated with a mild salicylic-acid (SA)-dependent defense activation and reduced sucrose metabolism, plant performance and growth are promoted during later stages. The elevated SA level in the aerial parts stimulates the plant immune system and promotes pathogen resistance in the adult plants and the fruit peels. P. indica stimulates the fruit size and fruit quality, and the higher amounts of defense-related secondary metabolites in the peels restrict growth of herbivorous insect larvae fed with peel extracts. We conclude that application of P. indica to passion fruits stimulates the plants' immune system and improves the fruits' quality.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Passiflora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Passiflora/microbiologia , Herbivoria
16.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(8): 2744-2764, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822379

RESUMO

The widespread ascomycetous fungus Diplodia pinea is a latent, necrotrophic pathogen in Pinus species causing severe damages and world-wide economic losses. However, the interactions between pine hosts and virulent D. pinea are largely not understood. In the present study, systemic defence responses were investigated in non-inoculated, asymptomatic needles and roots of D. pinea infected saplings of two P. sylvestris provenances under controlled greenhouse conditions. Here, we show that D. pinea infection induced a multitude of systemic responses of the phytohormone profiles and metabolic traits. Shared systemic responses of both pine provenances in needles and roots included increased abscisic acid and jasmonic acid levels. Exclusively in the roots of both provenances, enhanced salicylic acid and reduced indole-3-acetic acid levels, structural biomass, and elevated activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were observed. Despite these similarities, the two pine provenances investigated different significantly in the systemic responses of both, phytohormone profiles and metabolic traits in needles and roots. However, the different systemic responses did not prevent subsequent destruction of non-inoculated needles, but rather prevented damage to the roots. Our results provide a detailed view on systemic defence mechanisms of pine hosts that are of particular significance for the selection of provenances with improved defence capacity.

17.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009459, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765095

RESUMO

The host-pathogen combinations-Malus domestica (apple)/`Candidatus Phytoplasma mali´, Prunus persica (peach)/`Ca. P. prunorum´ and Pyrus communis (pear)/`Ca. P. pyri´ show different courses of diseases although the phytoplasma strains belong to the same 16SrX group. While infected apple trees can survive for decades, peach and pear trees die within weeks to few years. To this date, neither morphological nor physiological differences caused by phytoplasmas have been studied in these host plants. In this study, phytoplasma-induced morphological changes of the vascular system as well as physiological changes of the phloem sap and leaf phytohormones were analysed and compared with non-infected plants. Unlike peach and pear, infected apple trees showed substantial reductions in leaf and vascular area, affecting phloem mass flow. In contrast, in infected pear mass flow and physicochemical characteristics of phloem sap increased. Additionally, an increased callose deposition was detected in pear and peach leaves but not in apple trees in response to phytoplasma infection. The phytohormone levels in pear were not affected by an infection, while in apple and peach trees concentrations of defence- and stress-related phytohormones were increased. Compared with peach and pear trees, data from apple suggest that the long-lasting morphological adaptations in the vascular system, which likely cause reduced sap flow, triggers the ability of apple trees to survive phytoplasma infection. Some phytohormone-mediated defences might support the tolerance.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Malus/imunologia , Doenças por Fitoplasmas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/fisiologia , Prunus persica/imunologia , Produtos Agrícolas/imunologia , Malus/microbiologia , Phytoplasma/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Feixe Vascular de Plantas/microbiologia , Prunus persica/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
18.
J Exp Bot ; 72(10): 3864-3880, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711094

RESUMO

Flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols, are widespread plant secondary metabolites and important for plant adaptation to diverse abiotic and biotic stresses. Flavonoids can be variously hydroxylated and decorated; their biological activity is partly dependent on the degree of hydroxylation of the B-ring. Flavonoid biosynthesis is regulated by MYB transcription factors, which have been identified and characterized in a diversity of plants. Here we characterize a new MYB activator, MYB117, in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×tremuloides). When overexpressed in transgenic poplar plants, MYB117 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues. Transcriptome analysis of MYB117-overexpressing poplars confirmed the up-regulation of flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, as well as two flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) genes. We also identified up-regulated cytochrome b5 genes, required for full activity of F3'5'H . Phytochemical analysis demonstrated a corresponding increase in B-ring hydroxylation of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in these transgenics. Similarly, overexpression of F3'5'H1 directly in hybrid poplar also resulted in increased B-ring hydroxylation, but without affecting overall flavonoid content. However, the overexpression of the cytochrome b5 gene in F3'5'H1-overexpressing plants did not further increase B-ring hydroxylation. Our data indicate that MYB117 regulates the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in poplar, but also enhances B-ring hydroxylation by up-regulating F3'5'H1.


Assuntos
Populus , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hidroxilação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo
19.
New Phytol ; 231(1): 243-254, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586181

RESUMO

Cellular calcium (Ca) transients are endogenous signals involved in local and systemic signaling and defense activation upon environmental stress, including wounding and herbivory. Still, not all Ca2+ channels contributing to the signaling have been identified, nor are their modes of action fully known. Plant annexins are proteins capable of binding to anionic phospholipids and can exhibit Ca channel-like activity. Arabidopsis ANNEXIN1 (ANN1) is suggested to contribute to Ca transport. Here, we report that wounding and simulated-herbivory-induced cytosolic free Ca elevation was impaired in systemic leaves in ann1 loss-of-function plants. We provide evidence for a role of ANN1 in local and systemic defense of plants attacked by herbivorous Spodoptera littoralis larvae. Bioassays identified ANN1 as a positive defense regulator. Spodoptera littoralis feeding on ann1 gained significantly more weight than larvae feeding on wild-type, whereas those feeding on ANN1-overexpressing lines gained less weight. Herbivory and wounding both induced defense-related responses on treated leaves, such as jasmonate accumulation and defense gene expression. These responses remained local and were strongly reduced in systemic leaves in ann1 plants. Our results indicate that ANN1 plays an important role in activation of systemic rather than local defense in plants attacked by herbivorous insects.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Animais , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Herbivoria , Oxilipinas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Spodoptera
20.
Phytopathology ; 111(4): 703-712, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997606

RESUMO

Napier grass stunt (NGS) phytoplasma, a phloem-limited bacterium, infects Napier grass leading to severe yield losses in East Africa. The infected plants are strongly inhibited in growth and biomass production. In this study, phytoplasma-induced morphological changes of the vascular system and physiological changes were analyzed and compared with uninfected plants. The study showed that the phytoplasmas are more abundant in source leaves and range from 103 bacteria/µg total DNA in infected roots to 106 in mature Napier grass leaves. Using microscopical, biochemical, and physiological tools, we demonstrated that the ultrastructure of the phloem and sieve elements is severely altered in the infected plants, which results in the reduction of both the mass flow and the translocation of photoassimilates in the infected leaves. The reduced transport rate inhibits the photochemistry of photosystem II in the infected plants, which is accompanied by loss of chloroplastic pigments in response to the phytoplasma infection stress eventually resulting in yellowing of diseased plants. The phytoplasma infection stress also causes imbalances in the levels of defense-related antioxidants, glutathione, ascorbic acid, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and-in particular-hydrogen peroxide. This study shows that the infection of NGS phytoplasma in the phloem of Napier grass has an impact on the primary metabolism and activates a ROS-dependent defense response.


Assuntos
Phytoplasma , Floema , Doenças por Fitoplasmas , Doenças das Plantas , Folhas de Planta
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