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1.
Eur Heart J ; 42(18): 1742-1756, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748830

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. The NOD-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in animal models. Components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway such as interleukin-1ß can therapeutically be targeted. Associations of genetically determined inflammasome-mediated systemic inflammation with CVD and mortality in humans are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We explored the association of genetic NLRP3 variants with prevalent CVD and cardiovascular mortality in 538 167 subjects on the individual participant level in an explorative gene-centric approach without performing multiple testing. Functional relevance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been evaluated in monocyte-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Genetic analyses identified the highly prevalent (minor allele frequency 39.9%) intronic NLRP3 variant rs10754555 to affect NLRP3 gene expression. rs10754555 carriers showed significantly higher C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A plasma levels. Carriers of the G allele showed higher NLRP3 inflammasome activation in isolated human PBMCs. In carriers of the rs10754555 variant, the prevalence of coronary artery disease was significantly higher as compared to non-carriers with a significant interaction between rs10754555 and age. Importantly, rs10754555 carriers had significantly higher risk for cardiovascular mortality during follow-up. Inflammasome inducers (e.g. urate, triglycerides, apolipoprotein C3) modulated the association between rs10754555 and mortality. CONCLUSION: The NLRP3 intronic variant rs10754555 is associated with increased systemic inflammation, inflammasome activation, prevalent coronary artery disease, and mortality. This study provides evidence for a substantial role of genetically driven systemic inflammation in CVD and highlights the NLRP3 inflammasome as a therapeutic target.

3.
Gut ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a common, potentially lethal inborn disorder caused by mutations in alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). Homozygosity for the 'Pi*Z' variant of AAT (Pi*ZZ genotype) causes lung and liver disease, whereas heterozygous 'Pi*Z' carriage (Pi*MZ genotype) predisposes to gallstones and liver fibrosis. The clinical significance of the more common 'Pi*S' variant remains largely undefined and no robust data exist on the prevalence of liver tumours in AATD. DESIGN: Baseline phenotypes of AATD individuals and non-carriers were analysed in 482 380 participants in the UK Biobank. 1104 participants of a multinational cohort (586 Pi*ZZ, 239 Pi*SZ, 279 non-carriers) underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. Associations were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Among UK Biobank participants, Pi*ZZ individuals displayed the highest liver enzyme values, the highest occurrence of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (adjusted OR (aOR)=21.7 (8.8-53.7)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=44.5 (10.8-183.6)). Subjects with Pi*MZ genotype had slightly elevated liver enzymes and moderately increased odds for liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=1.7 (1.2-2.2)) and cholelithiasis (aOR=1.3 (1.2-1.4)). Individuals with homozygous Pi*S mutation (Pi*SS genotype) harboured minimally elevated alanine aminotransferase values, but no other hepatobiliary abnormalities. Pi*SZ participants displayed higher liver enzymes, more frequent liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=3.1 (1.1-8.2)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=6.6 (1.6-26.9)). The higher fibrosis burden was confirmed in a multinational cohort. Male sex, age ≥50 years, obesity and the presence of diabetes were associated with significant liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Our study defines the hepatobiliary phenotype of individuals with the most relevant AATD genotypes including their predisposition to liver tumours, thereby allowing evidence-based advice and individualised hepatological surveillance.

4.
Liver Int ; 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bacterial infections (BI) affect the natural course of cirrhosis and were suggested to be a landmark event marking the transition to the decompensated stage. Our specific aim was to evaluate the impact of BI on the natural history of compensated cirrhosis. METHODS: We analyzed 858 patients with cirrhosis, evaluated for the INCA trial (EudraCT 2013-001626-26) in 2 academic medical centers between February 2014 and May 2019. Only patients with previously compensated disease were included. They were divided into 4 groups: compensated without BI, compensated with BI, 1st decompensation without BI, and 1st decompensation with BI. RESULTS: About 425 patients (median 61 [53-69] years) were included in the final prospective analysis. At baseline, 257 patients were compensated (12 [4.7%] with BI), whereas 168 patients presented with their 1st decompensation (42 [25.0%] with BI). In patients who remained compensated MELD scores were similar in those with and without BI. Patients with their first decompensation and BI had higher MELD scores than those without BI. Amongst patients who remained compensated, BI had no influence on transplant-free survival, whereas patients with their 1st decompensation and concurrent BI had significantly reduced transplant-free survival as compared with those without BI. The development of BI or decompensation during follow-up had a greater impact on survival than each of these complications at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: In compensated patients with cirrhosis, the 1st decompensation associated to BI has worse survival than decompensation without BI. By contrast, BI without decompensation does not negatively impact survival of patients with compensated cirrhosis.

5.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A common genetic variant near MBOAT7 (rs641738C>T) has been previously associated with hepatic fat and advanced histology in NAFLD; however, these findings have not been consistently replicated in the literature. We aimed to establish whether rs641738C>T is a risk factor across the spectrum of NAFLD and to characterise its role in the regulation of related metabolic phenotypes through a meta-analysis. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of studies with data on the association between rs641738C>T genotype and liver fat, NAFLD histology, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipids or insulin. These included directly genotyped studies and population-level data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We performed a random effects meta-analysis using recessive, additive and dominant genetic models. RESULTS: Data from 1,066,175 participants (9,688 with liver biopsies) across 42 studies were included in the meta-analysis. rs641738C>T was associated with higher liver fat on CT/MRI (+0.03 standard deviations [95% CI 0.02-0.05], pz = 4.8×10-5) and diagnosis of NAFLD (odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [95% CI 1.05-1.3], pz = 0.003) in Caucasian adults. The variant was also positively associated with presence of advanced fibrosis (OR 1.22 [95% CI 1.03-1.45], pz = 0.021) in Caucasian adults using a recessive model of inheritance (CC + CT vs. TT). Meta-analysis of data from previous GWAS found the variant to be associated with higher ALT (pz = 0.002) and lower serum triglycerides (pz = 1.5×10-4). rs641738C>T was not associated with fasting insulin and no effect was observed in children with NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: Our study validates rs641738C>T near MBOAT7 as a risk factor for the presence and severity of NAFLD in individuals of European descent. LAY SUMMARY: Fatty liver disease is a common condition where fat builds up in the liver, which can cause liver inflammation and scarring (including 'cirrhosis'). It is closely linked to obesity and diabetes, but some genes are also thought to be important. We did this study to see whether one specific change ('variant') in one gene ('MBOAT7') was linked to fatty liver disease. We took data from over 40 published studies and found that this variant near MBOAT7 is linked to more severe fatty liver disease. This means that drugs designed to work on MBOAT7 could be useful for treating fatty liver disease.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 159(2): 534-548.e11, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Homozygosity for the Pi∗Z variant of the gene that encodes the alpha-1 antitrypsin peptide (AAT), called the Pi∗ZZ genotype, causes a liver and lung disease called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Heterozygosity (the Pi∗MZ genotype) is a risk factor for cirrhosis in individuals with liver disease. Up to 4% of Europeans have the Pi∗MZ genotype; we compared features of adults with and without Pi∗MZ genotype among persons without preexisting liver disease. METHODS: We analyzed data from the European Alpha-1 Liver Cohort, from 419 adults with the Pi∗MZ genotype, 309 adults with the Pi∗ZZ genotype, and 284 individuals without the variant (noncarriers). All underwent a comprehensive evaluation; liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) were made by transient elastography. Liver biopsies were analyzed to define histologic and biochemical features associated with the Pi∗Z variant. Levels of serum transaminases were retrieved from 444,642 participants, available in the United Kingdom biobank. RESULTS: In the UK biobank database, levels of serum transaminases were increased in subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype compared with noncarriers. In the Alpha-1 Liver Cohort, adults with Pi∗MZ had lower levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase in serum and lower LSMs than adults with the Pi∗ZZ variant, but these were higher than in noncarriers. Ten percent of subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype vs 4% of noncarriers had LSMs of 7.1 kPa or more (adjusted odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-11.8). Obesity and diabetes were the most important factors associated with LSMs ≥7.1 kPa in subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype. AAT inclusions were detected in liver biopsies of 63% of subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype, vs 97% of subjects with the Pi∗ZZ genotype, and increased with liver fibrosis stages. Subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype did not have increased hepatic levels of AAT, whereas levels of insoluble AAT varied among individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with the Pi∗MZ genotype have lower levels of serum transaminases, fewer AAT inclusions in liver, and lower liver stiffness than adults with the Pi∗ZZ genotype, but higher than adults without the Pi∗Z variant. These findings should help determine risk of subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype and aid in counseling.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1658, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015353

RESUMO

Colonic diverticulosis is a very common condition. Many patients develop diverticulitis or other complications of diverticular disease. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consistently identified three major genetic susceptibility factors for both conditions, but did not discriminate diverticulititis and diverticulosis in particular due the limitations of registry-based approaches. Here, we aimed to confirm the role of the identified variants for diverticulosis and diverticulitis, respectively, within a well-phenotyped cohort of patients who underwent colonoscopy. Risk variants rs4662344 in Rho GTPase-activating protein 15 (ARHGAP15), rs7609897 in collagen-like tail subunit of asymmetric acetylcholinesterase (COLQ) and rs67153654 in family with sequence similarity 155 A (FAM155A) were genotyped in 1,332 patients. Diverticulosis was assessed by colonoscopy, and diverticulitis by imaging, clinical symptoms and inflammatory markers. Risk of diverticulosis and diverticulitis was analyzed in regression models adjusted for cofactors. Overall, the variant in FAM155A was associated with diverticulitis, but not diverticulosis, when controlling for age, BMI, alcohol consumption, and smoking status (ORadjusted 0.49 [95% CI 0.27-0.89], p = 0.002). Our results contribute to the assessment specific genetic variants identified in GWAS in the predisposition to the development of diverticulitis in patients with diverticulosis.


Assuntos
Doença Diverticular do Colo/genética , Diverticulose Cólica/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Colágeno/genética , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alemanha , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
8.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 705-719.e18, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is among the most common genetic disorders. Severe AATD is caused by a homozygous mutation in the SERPINA1 gene that encodes the Glu342Lys substitution (called the Pi*Z mutation, Pi*ZZ genotype). Pi*ZZ carriers may develop lung and liver diseases. Mutation-associated lung disorders have been well studied, but less is known about the effects in liver. We assessed the liver disease burden and associated features in adults with this form of AATD. METHODS: We collected data from 554 Pi*ZZ adults (403 in an exploratory cohort, 151 in a confirmatory cohort), in 9 European countries, with AATD who were homozygous for the Pi*Z mutation, and 234 adults without the Pi*Z mutation (controls), all without pre-existing liver disease. We collected data on demographic parameters, comorbidities, lung- and liver-related health, and blood samples for laboratory analysis. Liver fibrosis was assessed non-invasively via the serum tests Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index and HepaScore and via transient elastography. Liver steatosis was determined via transient elastography-based controlled attenuation parameter. We performed histologic analyses of livers from transgenic mice that overexpress the AATD-associated Pi*Z variant. RESULTS: Serum levels of liver enzymes were significantly higher in Pi*ZZ carriers vs controls. Based on non-invasive tests for liver fibrosis, significant fibrosis was suspected in 20%-36% of Pi*ZZ carriers, whereas signs of advanced fibrosis were 9- to 20-fold more common in Pi*ZZ carriers compared to non-carriers. Male sex; age older than 50 years; increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, or γ-glutamyl transferase; and low numbers of platelets were associated with higher liver fibrosis burden. We did not find evidence for a relationship between lung function and liver fibrosis. Controlled attenuation parameter ≥280 dB/m, suggesting severe steatosis, was detected in 39% of Pi*ZZ carriers vs 31% of controls. Carriers of Pi*ZZ had lower serum concentrations of triglyceride and low- and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than controls, suggesting impaired hepatic secretion of lipid. Livers from Pi*Z-overexpressing mice had steatosis and down-regulation of genes involved in lipid secretion. CONCLUSIONS: In studies of AATD adults with the Pi*ZZ mutation, and of Pi*Z-overexpressing mice, we found evidence of liver steatosis and impaired lipid secretion. We identified factors associated with significant liver fibrosis in patients, which could facilitate hepatologic assessment and counseling of individuals who carry the Pi*ZZ mutation. ClinicalTrials.gov Number NCT02929940.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Mutação , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/complicações , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Europa (Continente) , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Homozigoto , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/diagnóstico , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/enzimologia , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética
9.
Gut ; 68(5): 854-865, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diverticular disease is a common complex disorder characterised by mucosal outpouchings of the colonic wall that manifests through complications such as diverticulitis, perforation and bleeding. We report the to date largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic risk factors for diverticular disease. DESIGN: Discovery GWAS analysis was performed on UK Biobank imputed genotypes using 31 964 cases and 419 135 controls of European descent. Associations were replicated in a European sample of 3893 cases and 2829 diverticula-free controls and evaluated for risk contribution to diverticulitis and uncomplicated diverticulosis. Transcripts at top 20 replicating loci were analysed by real-time quatitative PCR in preparations of the mucosal, submucosal and muscular layer of colon. The localisation of expressed protein at selected loci was investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We discovered 48 risk loci, of which 12 are novel, with genome-wide significance and consistent OR in the replication sample. Nominal replication (p<0.05) was observed for 27 loci, and additional 8 in meta-analysis with a population-based cohort. The most significant novel risk variant rs9960286 is located near CTAGE1 with a p value of 2.3×10-10 and 0.002 (ORallelic=1.14 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.24)) in the replication analysis. Four loci showed stronger effects for diverticulitis, PHGR1 (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.56), FAM155A-2 (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.42), CALCB (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33) and S100A10 (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33). CONCLUSION: In silico analyses point to diverticulosis primarily as a disorder of intestinal neuromuscular function and of impaired connective fibre support, while an additional diverticulitis risk might be conferred by epithelial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colo/genética , Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiologia , Doenças Diverticulares/genética , Epitélio/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Colo/patologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Doenças Diverticulares/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
10.
Gut ; 68(6): 1099-1107, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Homozygous alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency increases the risk for developing cirrhosis, whereas the relevance of heterozygous carriage remains unclear. Hence, we evaluated the impact of the two most relevant AAT variants ('Pi*Z' and 'Pi*S'), present in up to 10% of Caucasians, on subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or alcohol misuse. DESIGN: We analysed multicentric case-control cohorts consisting of 1184 people with biopsy-proven NAFLD and of 2462 people with chronic alcohol misuse, both cohorts comprising cases with cirrhosis and controls without cirrhosis. Genotyping for the Pi*Z and Pi*S variants was performed. RESULTS: The Pi*Z variant presented in 13.8% of patients with cirrhotic NAFLD but only in 2.4% of counterparts without liver fibrosis (p<0.0001). Accordingly, the Pi*Z variant increased the risk of NAFLD subjects to develop cirrhosis (adjusted OR=7.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 24.8)). Likewise, the Pi*Z variant presented in 6.2% of alcohol misusers with cirrhosis but only in 2.2% of alcohol misusers without significant liver injury (p<0.0001). Correspondingly, alcohol misusers carrying the Pi*Z variant were prone to develop cirrhosis (adjusted OR=5.8 (95% CI 2.9 to 11.7)). In contrast, the Pi*S variant was not associated with NAFLD-related cirrhosis and only borderline with alcohol-related cirrhosis (adjusted OR=1.47 (95% CI 0.99 to 2.19)). CONCLUSION: The Pi*Z variant is the hitherto strongest single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk factor for cirrhosis in NAFLD and alcohol misuse, whereas the Pi*S variant confers only a weak risk in alcohol misusers. As 2%-4% of Caucasians are Pi*Z carriers, this finding should be considered in genetic counselling of affected individuals.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Heterozigoto , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/genética , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Distribuição por Idade , Áustria , Biópsia por Agulha , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Alemanha , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/patologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
11.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 33(4): 423-430, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411119

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of intake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and in particular nonaspirin NSAIDs and compare it with other risk factors for the progression of diverticulosis to diverticulitis in patients who underwent colonoscopy. METHODS: A total of 194 patients who underwent complete colonoscopy in our center between 2012 and 2016 were recruited: 144 with diverticulosis without prior diverticulitis (median age 71 years, 59.7% men) and 50 with diverticulitis (median age 64 years, 54.0% men). Data concerning current and previous medication as well as concomitant diseases were collected using a structured questionnaire and by revision of patients medical charts. RESULTS: Patients with diverticulitis were significantly (p < 0.001) younger as compared to individuals with plain diverticulosis (median age 64 versus 71 years, respectively). The intake of NSAIDs significantly (p = 0.002) increased the risk of prior diverticulitis (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.9). In the multivariate model, both age (p < 0.001) and NSAIDs (p = 0.03) proved to be independent determinants of diverticulitis. When analyzing aspirin intake, it was not associated with diverticulitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates, in line with previous reports, that intake of NSAIDs is associated with diverticulitis. We show in particular that nonaspirin NSAIDs might be selectively associated with diverticulitis. These results point to divergent role of aspirin and nonaspirin NSAIDs in the development of diverticulitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Diverticulite/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Divertículo/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1864(4 Pt B): 1484-1490, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757171

RESUMO

Familial cholangiopathies are rare but potentially severe diseases. Their spectrum ranges from fairly benign conditions as, for example, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis to low-phospholipid associated cholelithiasis and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC). Many cholangiopathies such as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) or primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) affect first the bile ducts ("ascending pathophysiology") but others, such as PFIC, start upstream in hepatocytes and cause progressive damage "descending" down the biliary tree and leading to end-stage liver disease. In recent years our understanding of cholestatic diseases has improved, since we have been able to pinpoint numerous disease-causing mutations that cause familial cholangiopathies. Accordingly, six PFIC subtypes (PFIC type 1-6) have now been defined. Given the availability of genotyping resources, these findings can be introduced in the diagnostic work-up of patients with peculiar cholestasis. In addition, functional studies have defined the pathophysiological consequences of some of the detected variants. Furthermore, ABCB4 variants do not only cause PFIC type 3 but confer an increased risk for chronic liver disease in general. In the near future these findings will serve to develop new therapeutic strategies for patients with liver diseases. Here we present the latest data on the genetic background of familial cholangiopathies and discuss their application in clinical practice for the differential diagnosis of cholestasis of unknown aetiology. As look in the future we present "system genetics" as a novel experimental tool for the study of cholangiopathies and disease-modifying genes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Disease edited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni, Nicholas LaRusso and Peter Jansen.


Assuntos
Colestase/genética , Cálculos Biliares/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Bile/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colestase/diagnóstico , Colestase/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico , Cálculos Biliares/patologia , Humanos
13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 7026, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765628

RESUMO

Sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SC-CIP) is a progressive cholestatic disease of unknown aetiology characterized by chronic biliary infections. Hence we hypothesized that common NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain containing 2) gene variants, known risk factors for Crohn's disease and bacterial translocation in liver cirrhosis, increase the odds of developing SC-CIP. Screening of 4,641 endoscopic retrograde cholangiography procedures identified 17 patients with SC-CIP, who were then genotyped for the three common NOD2 mutations (Cohort 1, discovery cohort). To validate the association, we subsequently tested these NOD2 variants in 29 patients from SC-CIP cohorts of three additional medical centers (Cohort 2, replication cohort). In Cohort 1, the NOD2 variants were present in 5 of 17 SC-CIP patients (29.4%), which is twice the frequency of the general population. These results were replicated in Cohort 2 with 8 patients (27.6%) showing NOD2 mutations. In contrast, polymorphisms of hepatocanalicular transporter genes did not have major impact on SC-CIP risk. This first study on genetic susceptibility in SC-CIP patients shows an extraordinary high frequency of NOD2 variation, pointing to a critical role of inherited impaired anti-bacterial defense in the development of this devastating biliary disease.


Assuntos
Colangite Esclerosante/genética , Estado Terminal , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Hepatology ; 66(4): 1323-1334, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28520105

RESUMO

Understanding the dynamics of human liver metabolism is fundamental for effective diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases. This knowledge can be obtained with systems biology/medicine approaches that account for the complexity of hepatic responses and their systemic consequences in other organs. Computational modeling can reveal hidden principles of the system by classification of individual components, analyzing their interactions and simulating the effects that are difficult to investigate experimentally. Herein, we review the state-of-the-art computational models that describe liver dynamics from metabolic, gene regulatory, and signal transduction perspectives. We focus especially on large-scale liver models described either by genome scale metabolic networks or an object-oriented approach. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of each modeling approach and their value for clinical applications in diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of liver diseases as well as precision medicine in hepatology. (Hepatology 2017;66:1323-1334).


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Humanos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
16.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 3(5): 409-18, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26535118

RESUMO

Diverticular disease (DD) is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders. The pathogenesis of diverticulosis and DD is controversially discussed. Current studies call the traditional concept of a fibre-deficient diet causing the development of diverticula into question. Data from two recent twin studies have provided conclusive evidence for a strong genetic component to diverticulosis. Although genomewide association studies have provided new insights into the polygenic architecture of human diseases, genomic research in diverticulosis and DD has just been started. This is an astonishing fact given the high morbidity and mortality of the disease, as well as the substantial economic burden on health care systems. For this review, we provide an update of the molecular pathobiology and summarise recent evidence supporting the hypothesis that distinct, yet unidentified genetic variants contribute to the development of diverticulosis and DD.

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