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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk stratification of myocarditis is challenging due to variable clinical presentations. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the primary non-invasive imaging modality to investigate myocarditis while electrocardiograms (ECG) are routinely included in the clinical work-up. The association of ECG parameters with CMR tissue characterisation and their prognostic value were investigated in patients with clinically suspected myocarditis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients with suspected myocarditis who underwent CMR and ECG were analysed. Major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) included all-cause death, hospitalisation for heart failure, heart transplantation, documented sustained ventricular arrhythmia, or recurrent myocarditis. A total of 587 patients were followed for a median of 3.9 years. A wide QRS-T angle, low voltage and fragmented QRS were significantly associated with late gadolinium enhancement. Further, a wide QRS-T angle, low voltage and prolonged QTc duration were associated with MACE in the univariable analysis. In a multivariable model, late gadolinium enhancement (HR: 1.90, 95%CI: 1.17-3.10; p = 0.010) and the ECG parameters of a low QRS voltage (HR: 1.86, 95%CI: 1.01-3.42; p = 0.046) and QRS-T-angle (HR: 1.01, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01; p = 0.029) remained independently associated with outcome. The cumulative incidence of MACE was incrementally higher when findings of both CMR and ECG were abnormal (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with clinically suspected myocarditis, abnormal ECG parameters are associated with abnormal tissue characteristics detected by CMR. Further, ECG and CMR findings have independent prognostic implications for morbidity and mortality. Integrating both exams into clinical decision-making may play a role in risk stratification in this heterogeneous patient population.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation recurrence (AFR) is common after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), and the rate does not differ between radiofrequency (RF) and cryoballoon (CB) ablation. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the ablation modality used at the index PVI on the outcome after redo PVI in patients with paroxysmal AF. METHODS: In this prospective, single-center, non-randomized study, consecutive patients with paroxysmal AF who have undergone the index PVI with either RF ablation (RF group) or 2nd-generation CB (CB group) were included. The primary endpoint was freedom from recurrence of atrial arrhythmia lasting > 30 s. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients undergoing redo PVI for paroxysmal AF were included (median age 61 years; 24% female; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 57 ± 8%; left atrial volume index (LAVI) 34 ± 11 mm). Index PVI was done either with focal RF (n = 81) or with CB (n = 24) and redo PVI only with focal RF. Total procedure time (139 vs. 113 min, p = 0.10) and RF delivery time (1017 vs. 870 s, p = 0.33) of the redo PVI were not significantly different. After a median follow-up of 371 (185-470) days, there were no differences between the RF and CB groups regarding the AFR rate after the second PVI (24 vs. 23%, p = 0.89). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no difference between the groups regarding AFR freedom time (p = 0.81). In multivariable logistic regression, only coronary artery disease was identified as an independent long-term predictor of AFR (OR 4.15, 95% CI 1.17-14.71, p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: The ablation modality used at the index PVI has no impact on long-term outcome after redo PVI in patients with paroxysmal AF.

3.
Ann Intern Med ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905377

RESUMO

Background: The optimal noninvasive method for surveillance in symptomatic patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. Objective: To apply a novel approach using very low concentrations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) for exclusion of inducible myocardial ischemia in symptomatic patients with CAD. Design: Prospective diagnostic cohort study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01838148). Setting: University hospital. Patients: 1896 consecutive patients with CAD referred with symptoms possibly related to inducible myocardial ischemia. Measurements: Presence of inducible myocardial ischemia was adjudicated using myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography, as well as coronary angiography and fractional flow reserve measurements where available. Staff blinded to adjudication measured circulating hs-cTn concentrations. An hs-cTnI cutoff of 2.5 ng/L, derived previously in mostly asymptomatic patients with CAD, was assessed. Predefined target performance criteria were at least 90% negative predictive value (NPV) and at least 90% sensitivity for exclusion of inducible myocardial ischemia. Sensitivity analyses were based on measurements with an hs-cTnT assay and an alternative hs-cTnI assay with even higher analytic sensitivity (limit of detection, 0.1 ng/L). Results: Overall, 865 patients (46%) had inducible myocardial ischemia. The hs-cTnI cutoff of 2.5 ng/L provided an NPV of 70% (95% CI, 64% to 75%) and a sensitivity of 90% (CI, 88% to 92%) for exclusion of inducible myocardial ischemia. No hs-cTnI cutoff reached both performance characteristics predefined as targets. Similarly, using the alternative assays for hs-cTnI or hs-cTnT, no cutoff achieved the target performance: hs-cTnT concentrations less than 5 ng/L yielded an NPV of 66% (CI, 59% to 72%), and hs-cTnI concentrations less than 2 ng/L yielded an NPV of 68% (CI, 62% to 74%). Limitation: Data were generated in a large single-center diagnostic study using central adjudication. Conclusion: In symptomatic patients with CAD, very low hs-cTn concentrations, including hs-cTnI concentrations less than 2.5 ng/L, do not generally allow users to safely exclude inducible myocardial ischemia. Primary Funding Source: European Union, Swiss National Science Foundation, Kommission für Technologie und Innovation (Innosuisse), Swiss Heart Foundation, Cardiovascular Research Foundation Basel, University of Basel, University Hospital Basel, Roche, Abbott, and Singulex.

4.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(12): 1406-1414, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and management of left atrial (LA) thrombi detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). BACKGROUND: Little data are available on LA thrombi before PVI. METHODS: All patients scheduled for PVI between April 2010 and April 2018 undergoing pre-procedural TEE were analyzed. Management of LA thrombus was at the discretion of the treating physician. RESULTS: In this study, 1,753 pre-procedural TEE from 1,358 patients (mean age 61 ± 10 years, 28% female) were included. Anticoagulation was used in 86% of all TEE (51% with direct oral anticoagulants [DOAC], 35% with vitamin K antagonists [VKA]). Thrombi were found in 11 TEE (0.6%), all in the LA appendage. Of the 11 patients with a thrombus, 5 (46%) had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, 2 (18%) had a CHA2DS2-VASc (Congestive Heart Failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 Years, Diabetes Mellitus, Prior Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack or Thromboembolism, Vascular Disease, Age 65 to 74 Years, Sex) score of 1, and 5 (46%) were in sinus rhythm at the time of TEE. Of the 8 patients (72%) on anticoagulation therapy, 5 were treated with DOAC and 3 with VKA. Starting anticoagulation (n = 3), switching to VKA with a target international normalized ratio of 2.5 to 3 (n = 3), or switching to a DOAC (n = 1) or a different DOAC (n = 4) resulted in thrombus resolution in 9 of 11 patients (82%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation scheduled for PVI, LA thrombi are rare and present in <1%. Thrombi were found in patients on VKA and DOAC, in low-risk patients, and despite sinus rhythm. Thrombus resolution was achieved in the majority of patients by changing the anticoagulation regimen.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849077

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diaphragmatic myopotential oversensing (dMPO) by implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) is thought to be a rare condition that can be misdiagnosed as lead failure and lead to unnecessary lead replacement. We observed several cases of dMPO in patients with Sorin/LivaNova ICDs (MicroPort Sci.). We sought to systematically assess the incidence of dMPO in patients with Sorin/LivaNova ICDs. METHODS AND RESULTS: A predefined number of 100 consecutive patients with Sorin/LivaNova ICDs were prospectively included in the device clinic of our center. Stored arrhythmia episodes were checked for spontaneous dMPO. In addition, we performed provocation maneuvers by Valsalva. At least one episode of spontaneous or provoked dMPO was seen in 12 (12%) of the 100 patients included in the study (86% males, median age: 66 years). Nine of 89 patients (10%) with true bipolar and 3 of 11 patients (27%) with integrated bipolar sensing configuration were affected. Spontaneous dMPO was observed in 7 of 58 patients (12%) with sensitivity programmed to 0.4 mV and in 2 of 42 patients (5%) with sensitivity programmed to 0.6 mV (not significant). In three patients, dMPO could be provoked with no spontaneous episodes recorded. In two nonpacemaker-dependent patients with a CRT-D, ventricular pacing was temporarily inhibited. No antitachycardia therapy was triggered by dMPO in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: DMPO is frequent in patients with Sorin/LivaNova ICDs, especially with sensitivity programmed to 0.4 mV. It also frequently occurs with true bipolar sensing configuration. DMPO should not be misinterpreted as lead failure to avoid unnecessary lead replacement.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency catheter ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) is performed to eliminate symptoms and to prevent or reverse arrhythmia-induced cardiomyopathy. Preprocedural prediction of the chamber of VA origin is critical for patient counseling, procedure planning, and guidance of invasive mapping. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the performance of manual expert versus automated 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis in the prediction of VA origin. METHODS: Patients with ablation of idiopathic VA and sustained success were included. The VA origin was defined as the site where ablation caused arrhythmia suppression. Standard baseline 12-lead ECGs with documentation of the VA were analyzed manually in a blinded fashion by three electrophysiologists and three electrophysiology (EP) fellows. In addition, the same standard 12-lead ECG was analyzed by an automated computer algorithm using a vectorcardiographic approach. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients (median age, 47 [interquartile range, 37-58]; 68% female) were enrolled. The VA originated from the right ventricle in 24 (63%) and the left ventricle in 14 (37%) patients. The electrophysiologists and EP fellows identified the VA chamber of origin with a similar accuracy of 73% and 72% (P = .72). The automated algorithm showed a higher accuracy of 89% (P = .03 compared with electrophysiologists and EP fellows). This resulted in a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 86%. CONCLUSION: While the manual ECG analysis of the standard 12-lead ECG by both electrophysiologists and EP fellows correctly identified the chamber of VA origin in around 75% of cases, an automated vectorcardiographic computer algorithm achieved an accuracy of 89% with clinically acceptable diagnostic parameters.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(20): e012554, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590581

RESUMO

Background The incidence and predictors of atrial fibrillation (AF) progression are currently not well defined, and clinical AF progression partly overlaps with rhythm control interventions (RCIs). Methods and Results We assessed AF type and intercurrent RCIs during yearly follow-ups in 2869 prospectively followed patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF. Clinical AF progression was defined as progression from paroxysmal to nonparoxysmal or from persistent to permanent AF. An RCI was defined as pulmonary vein isolation, electrical cardioversion, or new treatment with amiodarone. During a median follow-up of 3 years, the incidence of clinical AF progression was 5.2 per 100 patient-years, and 10.9 per 100 patient-years for any RCI. Significant predictors for AF progression were body mass index (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05), heart rate (HR per 5 beats/min increase, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08), age (HR per 5-year increase 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13-1.27), systolic blood pressure (HR per 5 mm Hg increase, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.05), history of hyperthyroidism (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16-2.52), stroke (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.19-1.88), and heart failure (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.34-2.13). Regular physical activity (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.98) and previous pulmonary vein isolation (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.90) showed an inverse association. Significant predictive factors for RCIs were physical activity (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.20-1.68), AF-related symptoms (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.47-2.30), age (HR per 5-year increase, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.92), and paroxysmal AF (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.51-0.73). Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities were key predictors of clinical AF progression. A healthy lifestyle may therefore reduce the risk of AF progression.

8.
Clin Chem ; 65(11): 1426-1436, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to validate the clinical performance of the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I [VITROS® Immunodiagnostic Products hs Troponin I (hs-cTnI-VITROS)] assay. METHODS: We enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Final diagnoses were centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists considering all clinical information, including cardiac imaging: first, using serial hs-cTnT-Elecsys (primary analysis) and, second, using hs-cTnI-Architect (secondary analysis) measurements in addition to the clinically used (hs)-cTn. hs-cTnI-VITROS was measured at presentation and at 1 h in a blinded fashion. The primary objective was direct comparison of diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of hs-cTnI-VITROS vs hs-cTnT-Elecsys and hs-cTnI-Architect, and in a subgroup also hs-cTnI-Centaur and hs-cTnI-Access. Secondary objectives included the derivation and validation of an hs-cTnI-VITROS-0/1-h algorithm. RESULTS: AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 158 of 1231 (13%) patients. At presentation, the AUC for hs-cTnI-VITROS was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.93-0.96); for hs-cTnT-Elecsys, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.92-0.95); and for hs-cTnI-Architect, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94). AUCs for hs-cTnI-Centaur and hs-cTnI-Access were 0.95 (95% CI, 0.94-0.97). Applying the derived hs-cTnI-VITROS-0/1-h algorithm (derivation cohort n = 519) to the validation cohort (n = 520), 53% of patients were ruled out [sensitivity, 100% (95% CI, 94.1-100)] and 14% of patients were ruled in [specificity, 95.6% (95% CI, 93.4-97.2)]. Patients ruled out by the 0/1-h algorithm had a survival rate of 99.8% at 30 days. Findings were confirmed in the secondary analyses using the adjudication including serial measurements of hs-cTnI-Architect. CONCLUSIONS: The hs-cTnI-VITROS assay has at least comparable diagnostic accuracy with the currently best validated hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI assays. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00470587.

9.
Clin Chem ; 65(11): 1437-1447, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to derive and externally validate a 0/2-h algorithm using the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI)-Access assay. METHODS: We enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 2 prospective diagnostic studies using central adjudication. Two independent cardiologists adjudicated the final diagnosis, including all available medical information including cardiac imaging. hs-cTnI-Access concentrations were measured at presentation and after 2 h in a blinded fashion. RESULTS: AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 164 of 1131 (14.5%) patients in the derivation cohort. Rule-out by the hs-cTnI-Access 0/2-h algorithm was defined as 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration <4 ng/L in patients with an onset of chest pain >3 h (direct rule-out) or a 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration <5 ng/L and an absolute change within 2 h <5 ng/L in all other patients. Derived thresholds for rule-in were a 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration ≥50 ng/L (direct rule-in) or an absolute change within 2 h ≥20 ng/L. In the derivation cohort, these cutoffs ruled out 55% of patients with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.8% (95% CI, 99.3-100) and sensitivity of 99.4% (95% CI, 96.5-99.9), and ruled in 30% of patients with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 73% (95% CI, 66.1-79). In the validation cohort, AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 88 of 1280 (6.9%) patients. These cutoffs ruled out 77.9% of patients with an NPV of 99.8% (95% CI, 99.3-100) and sensitivity of 97.7% (95% CI, 92.0-99.7), and ruled in 5.8% of patients with a PPV of 77% (95% CI, 65.8-86) in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Safety and efficacy of the l hs-cTnI-Access 0/2-h algorithm for triage toward rule-out or rule-in of AMI are very high. TRIAL REGISTRATION: APACE, NCT00470587; ADAPT, ACTRN1261100106994; IMPACT, ACTRN12611000206921.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(6): 744-754, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients presenting with syncope to the emergency department (ED) is largely unknown. This information, however, is necessary to balance the potential medical benefit or harm of systematic PE screening in patients presenting with syncope to the ED. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the prevalence of PE in patients with syncope. METHODS: Unselected patients presenting with syncope to the ED were prospectively enrolled in a diagnostic multicenter study. Pre-test clinical probability for PE was assessed using the 2-level Wells score and the results of D-dimer testing using age-adapted cutoffs. Presence of PE was evaluated by imaging modalities, when ordered as part of the clinical assessment by the treating ED physician or by long-term follow-up data. RESULTS: Long-term follow-up was complete in 1,380 patients (99%) at 360 days and 1,156 patients (83%) at 720 days. Among 1,397 patients presenting with syncope to the ED, PE was detected at presentation in 19 patients (1.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87% to 2.11%). The incidence of new PEs or cardiovascular death during 2-year follow-up was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.5% to 1.5%). In the subgroup of patients hospitalized (47%), PE was detected at presentation in 15 patients (2.3%; 95% CI: 1.4% to 3.7%). The incidence of new PEs or cardiovascular death during 2-year follow-up was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4% to 2.0%). CONCLUSIONS: PE seems to be a rather uncommon cause of syncope among patients presenting to the ED. Therefore, systematic PE-screening in all patients with syncope does not seem warranted. (BAsel Syncope EvaLuation Study [BASEL IX]; NCT01548352).

12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(7): 842-854, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early and accurate detection of short-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an unmet clinical need. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that adding clinical judgment and electrocardiogram findings to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) measurement at presentation and after 1 h (ESC hs-cTn 0/1 h algorithm) would further improve its performance to predict MACE. METHODS: Patients presenting to an emergency department with suspected AMI were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter diagnostic study. The primary endpoint was MACE, including all-cause death, cardiac arrest, AMI, cardiogenic shock, sustained ventricular arrhythmia, and high-grade atrioventricular block within 30 days including index events. The secondary endpoint was MACE + unstable angina (UA) receiving early (≤24 h) revascularization. RESULTS: Among 3,123 patients, the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1 h algorithm triaged significantly more patients toward rule-out compared with the extended algorithm (60%; 95% CI: 59% to 62% vs. 45%; 95% CI: 43% to 46%; p < 0.001), while maintaining similar 30-day MACE rates (0.6%; 95% CI: 0.3% to 1.1% vs. 0.4%; 95% CI: 0.1% to 0.9%; p = 0.429), resulting in a similar negative predictive value (99.4%; 95% CI: 98.9% to 99.6% vs. 99.6%; 95% CI: 99.2% to 99.8%; p = 0.097). The ESC hs-cTnT 0/1 h algorithm ruled-in fewer patients (16%; 95% CI: 14.9% to 17.5% vs. 26%; 95% CI: 24.2% to 27.2%; p < 0.001) compared with the extended algorithm, albeit with a higher positive predictive value (76.6%; 95% CI: 72.8% to 80.1% vs. 59%; 95% CI: 55.5% to 62.3%; p < 0.001). For 30-day MACE + UA, the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1 h algorithm had a higher positive predictive value for rule-in, whereas the extended algorithm had a higher negative predictive value for the rule-out. Similar findings emerged when using hs-cTnI. CONCLUSIONS: The ESC hs-cTn 0/1 h algorithm better balanced efficacy and safety in the prediction of MACE, whereas the extended algorithm is the preferred option for the rule-out of 30-day MACE + UA. (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE]; NCT00470587).

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiac pacemakers are powered by batteries, which become exhausted after a few years. This is a problem in particular for leadless pacemakers since they are difficult to explant. Thus, autonomous devices powered by energy harvesters are desired. METHODS: We developed an energy harvester for endocardial implantation. The device contains a microgenerator to convert a flexible turbine runner's rotation into electrical energy. The turbine runner is driven by the intracardiac blood flow, a magnetic coupling allows hermetical sealing. The energy harvester has a volume of 0.34 cm 3 and a weight of 1.3 g. Computational simulations were performed to assess the hemodynamic impact of the implant. The device was studied on a mock circulation and an in-vivo trial was performed in a domestic pig. RESULTS: In this article we show that an energy harvester with a 2-bladed 14 mm diameter turbine runner delivers 10.2 ± 4.8 µW under realistic conditions (heart rate 80/min, stroke volume 75 ml) on the bench. An increased output power (> 80 µW) and power density (237.1 µW/cm 3) can be achieved by higher stroke volumes, increased heart rates or larger turbine runners. The device was successfully implanted in vivo. CONCLUSION: The device is the first flow-based energy harvester suitable for catheter-based implantation and provides enough energy to power a leadless pacemaker. SIGNIFICANCE: The high power density, the small volume, and the flexible turbine runner blades facilitate the integration of the energy harvester in a pacemaker. This would allow overcoming the need for batteries in leadless pacemakers.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(4): 483-494, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommends the 0/1-h algorithm for rapid triage of patients with suspected non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). However, its impact on patient management and safety when routinely applied is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine these important real-world outcome data. METHODS: In a prospective international study enrolling patients presenting with acute chest discomfort to the emergency department (ED), the authors assessed the real-world performance of the ESC 0/1-h algorithm using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T embedded in routine clinical care and its associated 30-day rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (the composite of cardiovascular death and MI). RESULTS: Among 2,296 patients, non-ST-segment elevation MI prevalence was 9.8%. In median, 1-h blood samples were collected 65 min after the 0-h blood draw. Overall, 94% of patients were managed without protocol violations, and 98% of patients triaged toward rule-out did not require additional cardiac investigations including high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T measurements at later time points or coronary computed tomography angiography in the ED. Median ED stay was 2 h and 30 min. The ESC 0/1-h algorithm triaged 62% of patients toward rule-out, and 71% of all patients underwent outpatient management. Proportion of patients with 30-day MACE were 0.2% (95% confidence interval: 03% to 0.5%) in the rule-out group and 0.1% (95% confidence interval: 0% to 0.2%) in outpatients. Very low MACE rates were confirmed in multiple subgroups, including early presenters. CONCLUSIONS: These real-world data document the excellent applicability, short time to ED discharge, and low rate of 30-day MACE associated with the routine clinical use of the ESC 0/1-h algorithm for the management of patients presenting with acute chest discomfort to the ED.

15.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 29(2): 020902, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223266

RESUMO

Introduction: Difference between high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T concentrations (hs-cTnT) before and after ablation procedure (delta concentration) reflects the amount of myocardial injury. The aim of the study was to investigate hs-cTnT prognostic power for predicting atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after repeat pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) procedure. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients with paroxysmal AF undergoing repeat PVI using a focal radiofrequency catheter were included in the study. Hs-cTnT was measured before and 18-24 hours after the procedure. Standardized 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up was performed. Cox-regression analysis was used to identify predictors of AF recurrence. Results: A total of 105 patients undergoing repeat PVI were analysed (24% female, median age 61 years). Median (interquartile range) hs-cTnT delta after repeat PVI was 283 (127 - 489) ng/L. After a median follow-up of 12 months, AF recurred in 24 (23%) patients. A weak linear relationship between the total radiofrequency energy delivery time and delta hs-cTnT was observed (Pearson R2 = 0.31, P = 0.030). Delta Hs-cTnT was not identified as a significant long-term predictor of AF recurrence after repeated PVI (P = 0.920). Conclusion: This was the first study evaluating the prognostic power of delta hs-cTnT in predicting AF recurrence after repeat PVI. Delta hs-cTnT does not predict AF recurrence after repeat PVI procedures. Systematic measurement of hs-cTnT after repeat PVI does not add information relevant to outcome.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Veias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Troponina T/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Open Heart ; 6(1): e000949, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168374

RESUMO

Introduction: Myocardial injury markers such as high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) reflects the amount of myocardial injury with ablation. The aim of the study was to identify the value of myocardial injury markers to predict outcomes after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using three different ablation technologies. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing PVI using a standard 3.5 mm irrigated-tip radiofrequency catheter (RF-group), an irrigated multielectrode radiofrequency catheter (IMEA-group) and a second-generation cryoballoon (CB-group) were analysed. Blood samples to measure injury markers were taken before and 18-24 hours after the ablation. Procedural complications were collected and standardised follow-up was performed. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of recurrence and complications. Results: 96 patients (RF group: n=40, IMEA-group: n=17, CB-group: n=39) undergoing PVI only were analysed (82% male, age 59±10 years). After a follow-up of 12 months, atrial fibrillation (AF) recurred in 45% in the RF-group, 29% in the IMEA-group and 36% in the CB-group (p=0.492). Symptomatic pericarditis was observed in 20% of patients in the RF-group, 15% in the IMEA-group and 5% in the CB-group (p=0.131). None of the injury markers was predictive of AF recurrence or PV reconnection after a single procedure. However, hs-cTnT was identified as a predictor of symptomatic pericarditis (OR: 1.003 [1.001 to 1.005], p=0.015). Conclusion: Hs-cTnT and CK-MB were significantly elevated after PVI, irrespective of the ablation technology used. None of the myocardial injury markers were predictive for AF recurrence or PV reconnection, but hs-cTnT release predicts the occurrence of symptomatic pericarditis after PVI.

17.
Heart ; 105(20): 1559-1567, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the setting of left bundle branch block (LBBB) present an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the clinician. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the incidence of AMI and diagnostic performance of specific ECG and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) criteria in patients presenting with chest discomfort to 26 emergency departments in three international, prospective, diagnostic studies. The final diagnosis of AMI was centrally adjudicated by two independent cardiologists according to the universal definition of myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Among 8830 patients, LBBB was present in 247 (2.8%). AMI was the final diagnosis in 30% of patients with LBBB, with similar incidence in those with known LBBB versus those with presumably new LBBB (29% vs 35%, p=0.42). ECG criteria had low sensitivity (1%-12%) but high specificity (95%-100%) for AMI. The diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI concentrations at presentation (area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.91, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.96 and AUC 0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.95), as well as that of their 0/1-hour and 0/2-hour changes, was very high. A diagnostic algorithm combining ECG criteria with hs-cTnT/I concentrations and their absolute changes at 1 hour or 2 hours derived in cohort 1 (45 of 45(100%) patients with AMI correctly identified) showed high efficacy and accuracy when externally validated in cohorts 2 and 3 (28 of 29 patients, 97%). CONCLUSION: Most patients presenting with suspected AMI and LBBB will be found to have diagnoses other than AMI. Combining ECG criteria with hs-cTnT/I testing at 0/1 hour or 0/2 hours allows early and accurate diagnosis of AMI in LBBB. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: APACE: NCT00470587; ADAPT: ACTRN12611001069943; TRAPID-AMI: RD001107;Results.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 292: 1-12, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid and reliable diagnosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as a surrogate for acute coronary occlusion is critical for early reperfusion therapy. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the diagnostic performance of current guideline-recommended Electrocardiogram (ECG) STEMI criteria. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic multicenter study, we objectively quantified the extent of ST-segment elevation in all ECG leads using an automated software-based analysis of the digital 12-lead-ECG in adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected myocardial infarction (MI). Classification according to current guideline-recommended ECG criteria for STEMI at ED presentation was compared against a final diagnosis adjudicated by two independent cardiologists after reviewing all available medical records including serial ECGs, cardiac imaging and coronary angiograms. RESULTS: Among 2486 patients, 52 (2%) were found to have significant ST-segment elevation on ECG at ED presentation according to current guideline-recommended ECG criteria for STEMI. Eighty-one (3%) patients received a final adjudicated diagnosis of STEMI. Only 35% (28 of 81) of all patients with a final diagnosis of STEMI were correctly identified (PPV 54% (95% CI 41-66%), sensitivity 35% (95% Cl 24-46%), NPV 97.8% (95% CI 97.5-98.1%). Four reasons for missing STEMIs emerged: timing (significant STE at an earlier/later time point) in 25%, incorrect measurement points in 30%, non or borderline-significant STE in 36% and inferoposterior MI localisation in 9%. CONCLUSIONS: A computerized analysis of current guideline-recommended ECG criteria for STEMI showed suboptimal diagnostic performance when applied to a single 12­lead ECG performed at ED presentation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.

19.
Heart ; 105(18): 1423-1431, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess the relative incidence and compare characteristics and outcome of unstable angina (UA) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). DESIGN: Two independent prospective multicentre diagnostic studies (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE] and High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [High-STEACS]) enrolling patients with acute chest discomfort presenting to the emergency department. Central adjudication of the final diagnosis was done by two independent cardiologists using all clinical information including serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn). All-cause death and future non-fatal MI were assessed at 30 days and 1 year. RESULTS: 8992 patients were enrolled at 11 centres. UA was adjudicated in 8.9%(95% CI 8.0 to 9.7) and 2.8% (95% CI 2.3 to 3.3) patients in APACE and High-STEACS, respectively, and NSTEMI in 15.1% (95% CI 14.0 to 16.2) and 13.4% (95% CI 12.4 to 14.3). Coronary artery disease was pre-existing in 73% and 76% of patients with UA. At 30 days, all-cause mortality in UA was substantially lower as compared with NSTEMI (0.5% vs 3.7%, p=0.002 in APACE, 0.7% vs 7.4%, p=0.004 in High-STEACS). Similarly, at 1 year in UA all-cause mortality was 3.3% (95% CI 1.2 to 5.3) vs 10.4% (95% CI 7.9 to 12.9) in APACE, and 5.1% (95% CI 0.7 to 9.5) vs 22.9% (95% CI 19.3 to 26.4) in High-STEACS, and similar to non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). In contrast, future non-fatal MI in APACE was comparable in UA and NSTEMI (11.2%, 95% CI 7.8 to 14.6 and 7.9%, 95% CI 5.7 to 10.2), and higher than in NCCP (0.6%, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The relative incidence and mortality of UA is substantially lower than that of NSTEMI, while the rate of future non-fatal MI is similar.

20.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872619842988, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008655

RESUMO

AIM: Exercise stress testing is used to detect myocardial ischaemia, but is limited by low sensitivity and specificity. The authors investigated the value of the analysis of high-frequency QRS components as a marker of abnormal depolarization in addition to standard ST-deviations as a marker of abnormal repolarization to improve the diagnostic accuracy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients undergoing bicycle exercise stress nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging were prospectively enrolled. Presence of myocardial ischaemia, the primary diagnostic endpoint, was adjudicated using MPI and coronary angiography. Automated high-frequency QRS analysis was performed in a blinded fashion. The prognostic endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) during two years of follow-up. Exercise-induced ischaemia was detected in 147/662 patients (22%). The sensitivity of high-frequency QRS was similar to ST-deviations (46% vs. 43%, p=0.59), while the specificity was lower (75% vs. 87%, p<0.001). The combined use of high-frequency QRS and ST-deviations classified 59% of patients as 'rule-out' (both negative), 9% as 'rule-in' (both positive) and 32% in an intermediate zone (one test positive). The sensitivity for 'rule-out' and the specificity for 'rule-in' improved to 63% and 97% compared with ST-deviation analysis alone (both p<0.001). MACE-free survival was 90%, 80% and 42% in patients in the 'rule-out', intermediate and 'rule-in' groups ( p<0.001). After adjustment for age, gender, ST-deviations and clinical post-test probability of ischaemia, high-frequency QRS remained an independent predictor for the occurrence of MACEs. CONCLUSION: The use of high-frequency QRS analysis in addition to ST-deviation analysis improves the diagnostic accuracy during exercise stress testing and adds independent prognostic information.

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