Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 275
Filtrar
1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e012630, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679444

RESUMO

Background Information is scarce regarding effects of antihypertensive medication on blood pressure variability (BPV) and associated clinical outcomes. We examined whether antihypertensive treatment changes BPV over time and whether such change (decline or increase) has any association with long-term mortality in an elderly hypertensive population. Methods and Results We used data from a subset of participants in the Second Australian National Blood Pressure study (n=496) aged ≥65 years who had 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure recordings at study entry (baseline) and then after a median of 2 years while on treatment (follow-up). Weighted day-night systolic BPV was calculated for both baseline and follow-up as a weighted mean of daytime and nighttime blood pressure standard deviations. The annual rate of change in BPV over time was calculated from these BPV estimates. Furthermore, we classified both BPV estimates as high and low based on the baseline median BPV value and then classified BPV changes into stable: low BPV, stable: high BPV, decline: high to low, and increase: low to high. We observed an annual decline (mean±SD: -0.37±1.95; 95% CI, -0.54 to -0.19; P<0.001) in weighted day-night systolic BPV between baseline and follow-up. Having constant stable: high BPV was associated with an increase in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 3.03; 95% CI, 1.67-5.52) and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio: 3.70; 95% CI, 1.62-8.47) in relation to the stable: low BPV group over a median 8.6 years after the follow-up ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Similarly, higher risk was observed in the decline: high to low group. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that in elderly hypertensive patients, average BPV declined over 2 years of follow-up after initiation of antihypertensive therapy, and having higher BPV (regardless of any change) was associated with increased long-term mortality.

2.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate legacy effects at 14-year follow-up of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in 'treatment-naive' or 'previous treatment' groups based on blood pressure (BP)-lowering treatment status at baseline. METHODS: A post-hoc observational study of the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial. We excluded participants with a previous history of CVD events. Cox proportional hazard model and 95% confidence interval were used to estimate the effects of treatment naive on mortality outcomes. Moreover, a subgroup analysis by estimated 10-year Framingham risk score was performed. RESULTS: In multivariable models adjusting for baseline and in-trial characteristics (BP values and number of BP medications as time-dependent variables), there was no statistically significant difference in 5 and 14-year all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.80-1.09) and hazard ratio 0.95 (0.88-1.03) and in 5 and 14-year CVD mortality hazard ratio 0.94 (0.72-1.23) and hazard ratio 0.93 (0.80-1.08). In subgroup by absolute CVD risk, no heterogeneity of the association between treatment naive and short-term or long-term all-cause or CVD mortality were found. All comparisons are between the treatment-naive and previous treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Physicians are concerned about 'legacy effects' of not treating individuals with a BP of 140 mmHg or over and low absolute risk. When treatment intensification was taken into consideration in the primary prevention population in this study, no adverse legacy effect as a result of baseline BP 'treatment naivety' was evident in 14 years of follow-up. The nonsignificant associations were consistent across the CVD risk subgroups. However, the results may be biased due to unobserved residual confounding and therefore should be interpreted with caution.

3.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(19): 1966-1975, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the most risk-adjustment model for 30-day all-cause mortality in order to report risk-adjusted outcomes. The study also explored whether the exclusion of extreme high-risk conditions of cardiogenic shock, intubated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), or the need for mechanical ventricular support affected the model's predictive accuracy. BACKGROUND: Robust risk-adjustment models are a critical component of clinical quality registries, allowing outcomes to be reported in a fair and meaningful way. The Victorian Cardiac Outcomes Registry encompasses all 30 hospitals in the state of Victoria, Australia, that undertake percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: Data were collected on 27,544 consecutive percutaneous coronary intervention procedures from 2014 to 2016. Twenty-eight patient risk factors and procedural variables were considered in the modeling process. The multivariable logistic regression analysis considered derivation and validation datasets, along with a temporal validation period. RESULTS: The model included risk-adjustment for cardiogenic shock, intubated OHCA, estimated glomerular filtration rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, angina type, mechanical ventricular support, ≥80 years of age, lesion complexity, percutaneous access site, and peripheral vascular disease. The C-statistic for the derivation dataset was 0.921 (95% confidence interval: 0.905 to 0.936), with C-statistics of 0.931 and 0.934 for 2 validation datasets reflecting the 2014 to 2016 and 2017 periods. Subgroup modeling excluding cardiogenic shock and intubated OHCA provided similar risk-adjusted outcomes (p = 0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Our study has developed a highly predictive risk-adjustment model for 30-day mortality that included high-risk presentations. Therefore, we do not need to exclude high-risk cases in our model when determining risk-adjusted outcomes.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e012860, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648578

RESUMO

Background Previous studies have reported a protective effect of obesity compared with normal body mass index (BMI) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, it is unclear whether this effect extends to the extremely obese. In this large multicenter registry-based study, we sought to examine the relationship between BMI and long-term clinical outcomes following PCI, and in particular to evaluate the association between extreme obesity and long-term survival after PCI. Methods and Results This cohort study included 25 413 patients who underwent PCI between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2017, who were prospectively enrolled in the Melbourne Interventional Group registry. Patients were stratified by World Health Organization-defined BMI categories. The primary end point was National Death Index-linked mortality. The median length of follow-up was 4.4 years (interquartile range 2.0-7.6 years). Of the study cohort, 24.8% had normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), and 3.3% were extremely obese (BMI ≥40 kg/m2). Patients with greater degrees of obesity were younger and included a higher proportion of diabetics (P<0.001). After adjustment for age and comorbidities, a J-shaped association was observed between different BMI categories and adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for long-term mortality (normal BMI, HR 1.00 [ref]; overweight, HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93, P<0.001; mild obesity, HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.94, P=0.002; moderate obesity, HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.80-1.12, P=0.54; extreme obesity HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.07-1.65, P=0.01). Conclusions An obesity paradox is still apparent in contemporary practice, with elevated BMI up to 35 kg/m2 associated with reduced long-term mortality after PCI. However, this protective effect appears not to extend to patients with extreme obesity.

5.
Glob Heart ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with renal disease have a markedly higher risk of cardiovascular disease as well as morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Little is known regarding the post-operative adverse outcomes following isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in the Australian population with renal disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different stages of renal disease on patients' risk of post-operative mortality and complications following isolated CABG in an Australian cohort. METHODS: Using the ANZSCTS (Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons) registry, data from 44,968 patients who underwent isolated CABG between 2001 and 2014 were used. The effect of renal disease stages on short- and long-term outcomes were examined using multivariable logistic and Cox's regression methods respectively. RESULTS: Three of 4 Australian patients (74.6%) who underwent isolated CABG had some degree of renal disease: 50.2% mild; 20.9% moderate; 2.1% severe; and 1.6% dialysis-dependent. Adjusted risk of 30-day mortality increased with deteriorating renal disease from mild (1.6-fold) to dialysis-dependent (4.6-fold). Worsening renal disease was also associated with higher risk of post-operative complications. Hazard ratio for long-term survival shows steady increase of mortality risk with worsening renal disease categories from 1.1-fold for mild to 3.9-fold for patients on dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing renal disease is significantly associated with 30-day and long-term mortality, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay as well as several other post-operative complications.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487318

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Measuring patient reported outcomes can improve the quality and effectiveness of healthcare interventions. The aim of this study was to identify the final set of items that can be included in a patient-reported outcome measure to assess recovery of patients following percutaneous coronary interventions. METHODS: A consecutive sample of 200 patients registered in the Victorian Cardiac Outcomes Registry participated in a telephone survey 30 days following their percutaneous cardiac procedure. Rasch analysis was used to select the best set of items to form a concise and psychometrically sound patient-reported outcome measure. Key measurement properties assessed included overall fit to the Rasch measurement model, unidimensionality, response formats (thresholds), targeting, internal consistency and measurement invariance. RESULTS: Five items were identified as being reliable and valid measures of patient-reported outcomes: pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, confidence in performing usual activities, feeling unhappy and having trouble sleeping. Data showed overall fit to a Rasch model of expected item functioning (χ2 16.99; p = 0.07) and all items demonstrated unidimensionality (t-test less than 0.05 threshold value). Internal consistency was acceptable (equivalent Cronbach's α 0.65) given there are only five items, but there was a ceiling effect (mean logit score -1.24) with compromised score precision for patients with better recovery. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a succinct set of items that can be used in a patient-reported outcome measure following percutaneous coronary interventions. This patient-report outcome measure has good structural validity and acceptable internal consistency. While further psychometric evaluations are recommended, the items identified capture the patient's perspective of their recovery following a percutaneous coronary intervention.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of epidemiological and clinical evidence has implicated air pollution as an emerging risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. Whilst individuals spend up to two-thirds of daily time in their domestic residential environment, very few studies have been designed to objectively measure the sub-clinical markers of cardiometabolic risk with exposure to domestic indoor air pollutants. This cross-sectional study aims to investigate associations between the components of domestic indoor air quality and selected sub-clinical cardiometabolic risk factors in a cohort of healthy adults living in Perth, Western Australia. METHODS: One hundred and eleven non-smoking adults (65% female) living in non-smoking households who were aged between 35-69 years were recruited for the project. Study subjects were invited to participate in all sections of the study, which included: Domestic indoor air monitoring along with the concurrent 24 h ambulatory monitoring of peripheral and central blood pressure and measures of central hemodynamic indices, standardized questionnaires on aspects relating to current health status and the domestic environment, a 24 h time-activity diary during the monitoring period, and clinic-based health assessment involving collection of blood and urine biomarkers for lipid and glucose profiles, as well as measures of renal function and an analysis of central pulse wave and pulse wave velocity. RESULTS: This study provides a standardized approach to the study of sub-clinical cardiometabolic health effects that are related to the exposure to indoor air pollution. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study may provide direction for future research that will further contribute to our understanding of the relationship that exists between indoor air pollution and sub-clinical markers of cardiometabolic risk.

8.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; : 1-13, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a global issue. Excessive weight gain in early pregnancy is independently associated with obesity in the next generation. Given the uptake of e-health, our primary aim was to pilot the feasibility of an e-health intervention, starting in the first trimester, to promote healthy lifestyle and prevent excess weight gain in early pregnancy. METHODS: Women were recruited between 8 and 11 weeks gestation and randomised to the intervention or routine antenatal care. The intervention involved an e-health program providing diet, physical activity and well-being advice over 12 weeks. RESULTS: Women (n = 57, 43.9% overweight/obese) were recruited at 9.38 ± 1.12 (control) and 9.06 ± 1.29 (intervention) weeks' gestation, mainly from obstetric private practices (81.2%). Retention was 73.7% for the 12-week intervention, 64.9% at birth and 55.8% at 3 months after birth.No difference in gestational weight gain or birth size was detected. Overall treatment effect showed a mean increase in score ranking the perceived confidence of dietary change (1.2 ± 0.46, p = 0.009) and score ranking readiness to exercise (1.21 ± 0.51, p = 0.016) over the intervention. At 3 months, infants weighed less in the intervention group (5405 versus 6193 g, p = 0.008) and had a lower ponderal index (25.5 ± 3.0 versus 28.8 ± 4.0 kg/m3) compared with the control group. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: A lifestyle intervention starting in the first-trimester pregnancy utilising e-health mode of delivery is feasible. Future studies need strategies to target recruitment of participants of lower socio-economic status and ensure maximal blinding. Larger trials (using technology and focused on early pregnancy) are needed to confirm if decreased infant adiposity is maintained.

9.
ANZ J Surg ; 89(9): 1061-1067, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes the temporal changes in risk profiles and outcomes among patients with aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in Australia between 2002 and 2015. METHODS: Using the Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons database, we identified first-recorded SAVR for AS over 14 years. Patients' surgical risk profiles, procedures, 30-day and 12-month outcomes were summarized before and after the introduction of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in Australia, in 2008. We applied multivariable regression models to investigate the changes over time on risk-adjusted 30-day mortality, re-hospitalization and 12-month mortality. RESULTS: We identify a total of 18 147 patients with AS who underwent SAVR; mostly men (64%) with a mean age of 72 years. The proportion of major cardiac surgeries devoted to SAVR increased from 14% in 2002 to 20% in 2015. More SAVRs were performed electively (80% in 2002 versus 86% in 2015), and the recipients were at lower surgical risk (mean multi-risk score 3.9% in 2002 versus 3.0% in 2015). The use of bioprosthetic aortic valves increased over time (67% in 2002 to 88% in 2015). We found no significant changes in 30-day mortality, a significant decrease in 30-day readmission and minor fluctuations in 12-month mortality over the study period. CONCLUSION: SAVR comprises an increasingly larger proportion of all adult cardiac surgeries in Australia. There has been a greater use of bioprosthetic aortic valves, a fall in 30-day readmission but no significant changes in mortality.

10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(12): 6291-6300, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408149

RESUMO

CONTEXT: There is a lack of understanding of what is normal in terms of sex steroid levels in older women. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether sex steroid levels vary with age in and establish reference ranges for women >70 years of age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional, community-based study. PARTICIPANTS: Included 6392 women ≥70 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sex steroids measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A reference group, to establish sex steroid age-specific reference ranges, excluded women using systemic or topical sex steroid, antiandrogen or glucocorticoid therapy, or an antiglycemic agent. RESULTS: The reference group of 5326 women had a mean age of 75.1 (±4.2) years, range of 70 to 94.7 years. Median values (range) were 181.2 pmol/L (3.7 to 5768.9) for estrone (E1), 0.38 nmol/L (0.035 to 8.56) for testosterone (T), 2.60 nmol/L (0.07 to 46.85) for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and 41.6 nmol/L (2.4 to 176.6) for SHBG. Estradiol and DHT were below method sensitivity in 66.1% and 72.7% of the samples, respectively. Compared with women aged 70 to 74 years, women aged ≥85 years had higher median levels of E1 (11.7%, P = 0.01), T (11.3%, P = 0.02), and SHBG (22.7%, P < 0.001) and lower DHEA (30% less, P < 0.001). Women with overweight and obesity had higher E1 (P < 0.001) and T (P < 0.03) and lower SHBG (P < 0.001) than did women with normal body mass index. Smokers had 17.2% higher median T levels (P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: From the age of 70 years, T and E1 increase with age, despite a steady decline in DHEA. Whether E1 and T are biomarkers for longevity or contribute to healthy aging merits investigation.

11.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(6): 833-841, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327488

RESUMO

Guidelines mandate emergent revascularization in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) irrespective of gender. We sought to compare the door-to-balloon times and the impact of timely reperfusion on clinical outcomes in women compared with men presenting with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). We analyzed data from 6,179 consecutive patients presenting with STEMI undergoing PPCI from the Melbourne Interventional Group registry (2005 to 2017). The primary outcome was long-term mortality. Of the 6,179 patients included 1,258 (20.3%) were female. Female patients were older (69 ± 13 vs 62 ± 12 years; p < 0.001), had more co-morbidities and had longer median symptom-to-balloon times (204 [interquartile range {IQR} 154 to 294] vs 181 [IQR 139 to 258] minutes; p < 0.001) and longer median door-to-balloon times (81 [IQR 55 to 102] vs 75 [IQR 51 to 102)] minutes; p < 0.001), while receiving less drug-eluting stents (39% vs 43%; p = 0.01) and having less radial access for PPCI (15% vs 21%; p < 0.001). Furthermore, female patients received less guideline-directed medical therapy than men with less prescription of aspirin (93.4% vs 95.4%; p = 0.02), statins (96.5% vs 97.6%; p < 0.05), and beta blockers (84.3% vs 89.4%; p < 0.001). Unadjusted in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates were higher in women (8.8% vs 6.2%, 9.8% vs 6.9%; p < 0.001). However, on Cox-proportional hazards modeling, gender was not an independent predictor of long-term mortality (hazards ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.18; p = 0.92) at a mean follow-up of 4.8 ± 3.5 years. In conclusion, in this large multicenter registry of patients with STEMI, women had longer ischemic times, higher risk profiles, and differing interventional approaches compared with men. Addressing these gender inequalities with early identification of symptoms, adherence to guideline-directed medical therapy, as well as higher rates of radial access and use of drug-eluting stents has the potential to further improve outcomes in women with STEMI.

12.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systems of care have been established to ensure patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) get timely access to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). In this study, we evaluated whether patients undergoing PPCI both in-hours and out-of-hours experience similar care and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Of 9,865 patients who underwent PCI for STEMI from 2005 to 2016 and were enrolled in the multi-centre Melbourne Interventional Group registry, patients who had initially presented to a non-PCI capable hospital, received thrombolysis or presented >12hourspost-symptom onset were excluded. Our final study cohort of 4,590 patients were dichotomised by whether PPCI was performed in-hours or out-of-hours, and compared. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The in-hours group included 1,865 patients (40.6%) while 2,725 patients (59.4%) had out-of-hours PPCI. Patients presenting out-of-hours had longer median door-to-balloon time (DTBT; 83 [IQR 61-109] vs. 60 [IQR 41-88] mins, p<0.01) and were more likely to receive a drug-eluting stent (p=0.001). Procedural characteristics were otherwise similar although rates of radial access were low overall (18.4%). No differences in in-hospital, 30-day or 12-month mortality were observed between the groups (p=NS). On Cox proportional hazards modelling, out-of-hours presentation was not an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.71-1.22). A landmark analysis of data from 2012 did not change the primary outcome. CONCLUSION: Despite a slightly longer DTBT, patients undergoing PPCI out-of-hours experienced similar care and clinical outcomes to the in-hours group. Given the majority of patients with STEMI present out-of-hours, these data have implications for STEMI systems of care.

13.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(1): 235-241, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors sought to identify factors associated with current chiefs and chairpersons in academic plastic surgery to encourage and shape future leaders of tomorrow. METHODS: Academic chairpersons in plastic surgery (n = 94) were identified through an Internet-based search of all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited residency training programs during the year 2015. Sex, ethnicity, academic rank, board certification, time since certification, medical school attended, residency program attended, fellowships training, advanced degrees, obtaining leadership roles at trainee's institution, and h-index were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 94 chiefs and chairpersons, 96 percent were male and 81 percent obtained full professor status, and 98 percent were certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery. Mean time since certification was 22 years (range, 7 to 45 years). Fifty-one percent graduated from 20 medical schools, whereas 42 percent graduated from only nine plastic surgery training programs. Fifty-six percent had pursued fellowship beyond their primary plastic surgery training. Eighteen percent had obtained advanced degrees. Twenty-nine percent of chiefs and chairpersons obtained leadership roles at the institution where they had completed plastic surgery training. The mean h-index was 17.6 (range, 1 to 63). Graduates of the nine most represented residency programs had a mean h-index of 21 versus 15 when compared with the remaining chief/chairpersons (p < 0.0062). CONCLUSION: Leaders in plastic surgery are more likely to be male, hold academic rank of professor, and have completed a fellowship after residency.


Assuntos
Liderança , Cirurgia Plástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Acreditação , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolsas de Estudo , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino
14.
Intern Med J ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a long-held belief in the association between the full moon and extremes of human behaviour and adverse health consequences. Small-scale studies are conflicting, however most suggest no clear association between lunar phase and occurrence of acute coronary syndromes. METHODS: We conducted a multi-centre retrospective study from the Melbourne Intervention Group registry, including 7,570 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) cases from 6 tertiary centres over a 12-year study period in Victoria, Australia and performed statistical analysis using Stata software. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes studied were the incidence of STEMI, the occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events and mortality at 1 and 5 years in cases of ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary or rescue percutaneous coronary intervention during the full moon between 2005-2017 in Victoria, Australia. RESULTS: This study demonstrated no significant difference in STEMI incidence (p=0.61) nor of major adverse cardiovascular events across all lunar phases. Subgroup analysis confirmed no difference in outcomes during the full moon compared to a composite of other lunar phases. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates showed similar 30-day outcomes across lunar phases (p=0.35) and when comparing full moon to a composite of other lunar phases (p=0.45). Similarly, there was no significant difference in survival at 1 and 5 years between lunar phases (p=0.68) or compared to the full moon phase (p=0.51). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed no significant difference in the incidence or cardiovascular outcomes and survival in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary or rescue percutaneous coronary intervention during the lunar phases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(22): 2846-2855, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High systolic blood pressure (SBP) increases cardiac afterload, whereas low diastolic blood pressure (DBP) may lead to impaired coronary perfusion. Thus, wide pulse pressure (high systolic, low diastolic [HSLD]) may contribute to myocardial ischemia and also be a predictor of adverse cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between pre-procedural blood pressure and long-term outcome following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: The study included 10,876 consecutive patients between August 2009 and December 2016 from the Melbourne Interventional Group registry undergoing PCI with pre-procedural blood pressure recorded. Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were excluded. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to SBP (high ≥120 mm Hg, low <120 mm Hg) and DBP (high >70 mm Hg, low ≤70 mm Hg). RESULTS: Mean pulse pressure was 60 ± 21 mm Hg. Patients with HSLD were older and more frequently women, with higher rates of hypercholesterolemia, renal impairment, diabetes, and multivessel and left main disease (all p ≤ 0.0001). There was no difference in 30-day major adverse cardiac events, but at 12 months the HSLD group had a greater incidence of myocardial infarction (p = 0.018) and stroke (p = 0.013). Long-term mortality was highest for HSLD (7.9%) and lowest for low systolic, high diastolic (narrow pulse pressure) at 2.1% (p = 0.0002). Cox regression analysis demonstrated significantly lower long-term mortality in the low systolic, high diastolic cohort (hazard ratio: 0.50; 99% confidence interval: 0.25 to 0.98; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Pulse pressure at the time of index PCI is associated with long-term outcomes following PCI. A wide pulse pressure may serve as a surrogate marker for risk following PCI and represents a potential target for future therapies.

16.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(15): 1594-1602, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index †Deceased. (BMI) is a risk factor for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). DESIGN: We investigated the threshold BMI and sex-specific waist circumference associated with increased HFpEF incidence in the SCReening Evaluation of the Evolution of New Heart Failure (SCREEN-HF) study, a cohort study of a community-based population at increased cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were age ≥60 years with one or more of self-reported hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, abnormal heart rhythm, cerebrovascular disease or renal impairment. Exclusion criteria were known heart failure, ejection fraction <50% or more than mild valve abnormality. Among 3847 SCREEN-HF participants, 73 were diagnosed with HFpEF at a median of 4.5 (interquartile range: 2.9-5.5) years after enrolment. RESULTS: HFpEF incidence rates were higher for BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2 than for BMI < 25 kg/m2, and for waist circumference >100 cm (men) or > 90 cm (women) than for waist circumference ≤94 cm (men) or ≤ 83 cm (women) in Poisson regression analysis. Semiparametric proportional hazards analyses confirmed these BMI and waist circumference thresholds, and exceeding these thresholds was associated with an attributable risk of HFpEF of 44-49%. CONCLUSIONS: Both central obesity and overweight were associated with increased HFpEF incidence. Although a randomised trial of weight control would be necessary to establish a causal relationship between obesity/overweight and HFpEF incidence, these data suggest that maintenance of BMI and waist circumference below these thresholds in a community similar to that of the SCREEN-HF cohort may reduce the HFpEF incidence rate by as much as 50%.

17.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(4): 747-757, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094087

RESUMO

AIMS: We investigated whether addition of diastolic dysfunction (DD) and longitudinal strain (LS) to Stage B heart failure (SBHF) criteria (structural or systolic abnormality) improves prediction of symptomatic HF in participants of the SCReening Evaluation of the Evolution of New Heart Failure study, a self-selected population at increased cardiovascular disease risk recruited from members of a health insurance fund in Melbourne and Shepparton, Australia. Both American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (ASE/EACVI) criteria and age-specific Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study criteria, for SBHF and DD, and ARIC criteria for abnormal LS, were examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were age ≥60 years with one or more of self-reported ischaemic or other heart disease, irregular or rapid heart rhythm, cerebrovascular disease, renal impairment, or treatment for hypertension or diabetes for ≥2 years. Exclusion criteria were known HF, or ejection fraction <50% or >mild valve abnormality detected on previous echocardiography or other imaging. Echocardiography was performed in 3190 participants who were followed for a median of 3.9 (interquartile range: 3.4, 4.5) years after echocardiography. Symptomatic HF was diagnosed in 139 participants at a median of 3.1 (interquartile range: 2.1, 3.9) years after echocardiography. ARIC structural, systolic, and diastolic abnormalities predicted HF in univariate and multivariable proportional hazards analyses, whereas ASE/EACVI structural and systolic, but not diastolic, abnormalities predicted HF. ARIC and ASE/EACVI SBHF criteria predicted HF with sensitivities of 81% and 55%, specificities of 39% and 76%, and C statistics of 0.60 (95% confidence interval: 0.57, 0.64) and 0.66 (0.61, 0.71), respectively. Adding ARIC DD to SBHF increased sensitivity to 94% with specificity of 24% and C statistic of 0.59 (0.57, 0.61), whereas addition of ASE/EACVI DD to SBHF increased sensitivity to 97% but reduced specificity to 9% and the C statistic to 0.52 (0.50, 0.54, P < 0.0001). Addition of LS to ARIC or ASE/EACVI SBHF criteria had minimal impact on prediction of HF. CONCLUSIONS: Age-specific ARIC DD criteria, but not ASE/EACVI DD criteria, predicted symptomatic HF, and addition of age-specific ARIC DD criteria to ARIC SBHF criteria improved prediction of symptomatic HF in asymptomatic individuals with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Addition of LS to ASE/EACVI or ARIC SBHF criteria did not improve prediction of symptomatic HF.

18.
CNS Drugs ; 33(7): 685-694, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statin use has been frequently associated with depressive symptoms in an older population. However, the nature of this association is uncertain in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of statin intake and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in healthy community-dwelling older adults living in Australia and the USA. METHODS: We analysed baseline data from 19,114 participants, over 70 years of age (over 65 years of age, if from an ethnic minority). The association of self-reported statin use and prevalence of depressive symptoms, as measured by a validated depression scale [Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10)], was determined using logistic regression models. Multivariable logistic models were implemented to account for important demographics and other lifestyle and socioeconomic factors, such as sex, age, living status, education and smoking history. RESULTS: A total of 5987 individuals were statin users. Of those, 633 (10.6%) had depressive symptoms (CES-D 10 cut-off ≥ 8), compared with 1246 (9.5%) of the non-statin users. In the unadjusted model, statin use was associated with an increase in prevalence of depressive symptoms (odds ratio 1.13, confidence interval 1.02-1.25, p = 0.02). However, after adjusting for important demographic and socioeconomic factors, the use of statins was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms (odds ratio 1.09, confidence interval 0.98-1.20, p = 0.11). In secondary analyses, only simvastatin was marginally associated with an increased prevalence of depressive symptoms. Statins were associated with a decreased prevalence of depressive symptoms in individuals with severe obesity (body mass index > 35 kg/m2) and an increased prevalence in participants between 75 and 84 years of age. CONCLUSION: This study in a large community-dwelling older population did not show any association of statins with late-life depressive symptoms, after accounting for important socioeconomic and demographic factors. Confounding by indication is an important issue to be addressed in future pharmacoepidemiologic studies of statins.

19.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(8): 1208-1216, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to estimate prevalence rates and factors associated with depressive symptoms indexed by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D-10) score in a large sample of community-dwelling healthy older adults from Australia and the United States. Convergent and divergent validity of the CES-D-10 were also examined. METHODS: A total of 19 114 individuals aged greater than or equal to 65 years old were enrolled from a primary prevention clinical trial. Depressive symptoms were classified using the CES-D-10 score greater than or equal to 8 and greater than or equal to 10. Gender-specific prevalence for subgroups according to sociodemographic characteristics were reported, and factors associated with depressive symptoms were estimated. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates of depressive symptoms were 9.8%, 95% CI, 8.5-11.2 and 5.0%, 95% CI, 4.0-6.0, according to the CES-D-10 score greater than or equal to 8 and greater than or equal to 10, respectively. Depressive symptoms were more common in women, individuals with less than 12 years of education, those living alone or in a residential care, ethnic minorities, current smokers, and former alcohol users. Convergent and divergent validities of the CES-D-10 were confirmed by observing strong negative association with the SF-12 mental health component and a modest negative association with SF-12 physical component, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Australian and US community-dwelling healthy older populations. These findings emphasize the high burden of the condition and factors associated with depressive symptoms, to better inform clinicians and help with early detection and treatment of depression in this age group.

20.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 72, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk prediction for patients with suspected coronary artery disease is complex due to the common occurrence of prior cardiovascular disease and extensive risk modification in primary care. Numerous markers have the potential to predict prognosis and guide management, but we currently lack robust 'real-world' evidence for their use. METHODS: Prospective, multicentre observational study of consecutive patients referred for elective coronary angiography. Clinicians were blinded to all risk assessments, consisting of conventional factors, radial artery pulse wave analysis, 5-minute heart rate variability, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Blinded, independent adjudication was performed for all-cause mortality and the composite of death, myocardial infarction or stroke, analysed with Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty-two patients were assessed with median age 66 years and 21% prior revascularization. Median baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 64%, and 62% had ≥ 50% stenosis on angiography. During 5.0 years median follow-up, 30% underwent percutaneous and 16% surgical revascularization. In multivariate analysis, only age and BNP were independently associated with outcomes. The adjusted hazard ratio per log unit increase in BNP was 2.15 for mortality (95% CI 1.45-3.19; p = 0.0001) and 1.27 for composite events (1.04-1.54; p = 0.018). Patients with baseline BNP > 100 pg/mL had substantially higher mortality and composite events (20.9% and 32.2%) than those with BNP ≤ 100 pg/mL (5.6% and 15.5%). BNP improved both classification and discrimination of outcomes (p ≤ 0.003), regardless of left ventricular systolic function. Conversely, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, pulse wave analysis and heart rate variability were unrelated to prognosis at 5 years after risk modification and treatment of coronary disease. CONCLUSIONS: Conventional risk factors and other markers of arterial compliance, inflammation and autonomic function have limited value for prediction of outcomes in risk-modified patients assessed for coronary disease. BNP can independently identify patients with subtle impairment of cardiac function that might benefit from more intensive management. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00403351 Registered on 22 November 2006.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Causas de Morte , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/análise , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA