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1.
Heart Lung ; 50(5): 634-639, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in low-and-middle incomes countries remains limited. OBJECTIVES: To report the outcomes post PCI at discharge, 30 days and 12 months in Vietnam and identify the key factors associated with adverse outcomes at 12 months. METHODS: We used data from a single centre prospective cohort in Vietnam. Data regarding demographics, clinical presentation, procedural information, and outcomes of patients were collected and analysed. Primary outcomes were mortality and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. RESULTS: In total, 926 patients were included. Poor outcomes were relatively low in those undergoing PCI. Predictors of mortality and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 12 months post-PCI included being older than 75, being male, having acute myocardial infarction, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, prior cerebral vascular disease and having an unsuccessful PCI. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse outcomes of patients undergoing PCI in Vietnam are relatively low in comparison with those reported in other countries across the Asia Pacific region. Identification of factors associated with poor outcomes is beneficial for improving the quality of cardiac care and developing the prediction model of outcomes post-PCI in Vietnam.

2.
J Surg Educ ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965359

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plastic surgery residencies are among the most competitive programs for graduate medical education. While board scores and research output are well-studied indicators of match success, no studies describe the association between an applicant's medical school ranking and subsequent residency ranking. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of integrated plastic surgery residents for the 2019 to 2020 academic year was performed. Integrated plastic surgery residency programs were ranked according to 2020 Doximity Residency Navigator. AAMC-affiliated allopathic medical schools were ranked according to US News & World Report 2020 Best Medical Schools. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine if academic pedigree predicted placement at highly competitive plastic surgery residency programs. RESULTS: A total of 914 residents across 69 integrated plastic surgery residency programs were included. Ten medical schools accounted for 169 (18.4%) of all trainees. 159 (16.5%) matched at their home program for residency. Medical school ranking and medical school-affiliated integrated plastic surgery program ranking were significant predictors of match success and future residency competitiveness. The presence of an affiliated plastic surgery residency program predicted total number of medical school graduates who matriculated into plastic surgery residency (p < 0.0005). Graduates of top-ranked schools represented a disproportionate number of current plastic surgery residents (Top 10 program: 12.5%, Top 20: 24.1%, Top 40: 40.9%, Top 50: 49.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Both medical school ranking and home plastic surgery program ranking appeared to influence match success and future residency training program competitiveness. This is the first study to demonstrate these associations.

3.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors remains a major burden in terms of disease, disability, and death in the Australian population and mental health is considered as an important risk factor affecting cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary collaborative approach in primary care is required to ensure an optimal outcome for managing cardiovascular patients with mental health issues. Medicare introduced numerous primary care health services and medications that are subsidised by the Australian government in order to provide a more structured approach to reduce and manage CVD. However, the utilisation of these services nor gender comparison for CVD management in primary care has been explored. Therefore, the aim is to compare the provision of subsidised chronic disease management plans (CDMPs), mental health care and prescription of guideline-indicated medications to men and women with CVD in primary care practices for secondary prevention. METHODS: De-identified data for all active patients with CVD were extracted from 50 Australian primary care practices. Outcomes included the frequency of receipt of CDMPs, mental health care and prescription of evidence-based medications. Analyses adjusted for demography and clinical characteristics, stratified by gender, were performed using logistic regression and accounted for clustering effects by practices. RESULTS: Data for 14,601 patients with CVD (39.4% women) were collected. The odds of receiving the CDMPs was significantly greater amongst women than men (preparation of general practice management plan [GPMP]: (46% vs 43%; adjusted OR [95% CI]: 1.22 [1.12, 1.34]). Women were more likely to have diagnosed with mental health issues (32% vs 20%, p<0.0001), however, the adjusted odds of men and women receiving any government-subsidised mental health care were similar. Women were less often prescribed blood pressure, lipid-lowering and antiplatelet medications. After adjustment, only an antiplatelet medication or agent was less likely to be prescribed to women than men (44% vs 51%; adjusted OR [95% CI]: 0.84 [0.76, 0.94]). CONCLUSION: Women were more likely to receive CDMPs but less likely to receive antiplatelet medications than men, no gender difference was observed in the receipt of mental health care. However, the receipt of the CDMPs and the mental health treatment consultations were suboptimal and better use of these existing services could improve ongoing CVD management.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963372

RESUMO

AIMS: Rosuvastatin (10 mg per day) compared with placebo reduced major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events by 24% in 12 705 participants at intermediate CV risk after 5.6 years. There was no benefit of blood pressure (BP) lowering treatment in the overall group, but a reduction in events in the third of participants with elevated systolic BP. After cessation of all the trial medications, we examined whether the benefits observed during the active treatment phase were sustained, enhanced, or attenuated. METHODS AND RESULTS: After the randomized treatment period (5.6 years), participants were invited to participate in 3.1 further years of observation (total 8.7 years). The first co-primary outcome for the entire length of follow-up was the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or CV death [major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE)-1], and the second was MACE-1 plus resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart failure, or coronary revascularization (MACE-2). In total, 9326 (78%) of 11 994 surviving Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE)-3 subjects consented to participate in extended follow-up. During 3.1 years of post-trial observation (total follow-up of 8.7 years), participants originally randomized to rosuvastatin compared with placebo had a 20% additional reduction in MACE-1 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.99] and a 17% additional reduction in MACE-2 (95% CI 0.68-1.01). Therefore, over the 8.7 years of follow-up, there was a 21% reduction in MACE-1 (95% CI 0.69-0.90, P = 0.005) and 21% reduction in MACE-2 (95% CI 0.69-0.89, P = 0.002). There was no benefit of BP lowering in the overall study either during the active or post-trial observation period, however, a 24% reduction in MACE-1 was observed over 8.7 years. CONCLUSION: The CV benefits of rosuvastatin, and BP lowering in those with elevated systolic BP, compared with placebo continue to accrue for at least 3 years after cessation of randomized treatment in individuals without cardiovascular disease indicating a legacy effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00468923.

5.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA120033670, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to predict ischemic stroke (IS). However, further validation of PRS performance is required in independent populations, particularly older adults in whom the majority of strokes occur. METHODS: We predicted risk of incident IS events in a population of 12 792 healthy older individuals enrolled in the ASPREE trial (Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly). The PRS was calculated using 3.6 million genetic variants. Participants had no previous history of cardiovascular events, dementia, or persistent physical disability at enrollment. The primary outcome was IS over 5 years, with stroke subtypes as secondary outcomes. A multivariable model including conventional risk factors was applied and reevaluated after adding PRS. Area under the curve and net reclassification were evaluated. RESULTS: At baseline, mean population age was 75 years. In total, 173 incident IS events occurred over a median follow-up of 4.7 years. When PRS was added to the multivariable model as a continuous variable, it was independently associated with IS (hazard ratio, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.20-1.65] per SD of the PRS; P<0.001). The PRS alone was a better discriminator for IS events than most conventional risk factors. PRS as a categorical variable was a significant predictor in the highest tertile (hazard ratio, 1.74; P=0.004) compared with the lowest. The area under the curve of the conventional model was 66.6% (95% CI, 62.2-71.1) and after inclusion of the PRS, improved to 68.5 ([95% CI, 64.0-73.0] P=0.095). In subgroup analysis, the continuous PRS remained an independent predictor for large vessel and cardioembolic stroke subtypes but not for small vessel stroke. Reclassification was improved, as the continuous net reclassification index after adding PRS to the conventional model was 0.25 (95% CI, 0.17-0.43). CONCLUSIONS: PRS predicts incident IS in a healthy older population but only moderately improves prediction over conventional risk factors. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01038583.

6.
Nutrition ; 90: 111259, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mis-reporting is common in dietary assessment, leading to misinterpretation of disease risk and could be important in older adults with increased chronic disease risk. This study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of mis-reporting among older adults and its association with health outcomes including quality of life (QoL). METHODS: The study was conducted in 335 community-dwelling older adults at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, participating in the SCReening Evaluation of the Evolution of New Heart Failure Study dietary substudy. Diet was assessed using 4-day weighed food diaries, QoL measured through Short Form 36, and physical activity assessed using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition physical activity questionnaire. Dietary mis-reporting was defined based on Goldberg cutoffs, using individual physical activity levels. Odds ratios were determined to establish associations between mis-reporting and health outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of mis-reporting among older adults was 49.3%, with 44.5% of women mis-reporting their energy intake. The study found under-reporting of energy to be associated with body mass index, specifically being overweight (odds ratio: 3.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-6.15) and obese (odds ratio: 6.60; 95% CI, 3.05-4.26), as well as physical inactivity (odds ratio: 0.24; 95% CI, 0.14-0.43). Only physical inactivity predicted over-reporting of dietary intake (odds ratio: 7.52; 95% CI, 1.57-36.0). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary under-reporting was associated with being overweight, obese, and physically inactive in addition to the absence of comorbidities, reinforcing the need for further research in older adults to factor in dietary mis-reporting for meaningful diet-disease relationship analyses.

7.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA120030790, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The HOPE-3 trial (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation-3) found that antihypertensive therapy combined with a statin reduced first stroke among people at intermediate cardiovascular risk. We report secondary analyses of stroke outcomes by stroke subtype, predictors, treatment effects in key subgroups. METHODS: Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, 12 705 participants from 21 countries with vascular risk factors but without overt cardiovascular disease were randomized to candesartan 16 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg daily or placebo and to rosuvastatin 10 mg daily or placebo. The effect of the interventions on stroke subtypes was assessed. RESULTS: Participants were 66 years old and 46% were women. Baseline blood pressure (138/82 mm Hg) was reduced by 6.0/3.0 mm Hg and LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; 3.3 mmol/L) was reduced by 0.90 mmol/L on active treatment. During 5.6 years of follow-up, 169 strokes occurred (117 ischemic, 29 hemorrhagic, 23 undetermined). Blood pressure lowering did not significantly reduce stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80 [95% CI, 0.59-1.08]), ischemic stroke (HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.55-1.15]), hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.34-1.48]), or strokes of undetermined origin (HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.41-2.08]). Rosuvastatin significantly reduced strokes (HR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.52-0.95]), with reductions mainly in ischemic stroke (HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.37-0.78]) but did not significantly affect hemorrhagic (HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.59-2.54]) or strokes of undetermined origin (HR, 1.29 [95% CI, 0.57-2.95]). The combination of both interventions compared with double placebo substantially and significantly reduced strokes (HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.36-0.87]) and ischemic strokes (HR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.23-0.72]). CONCLUSIONS: Among people at intermediate cardiovascular risk but without overt cardiovascular disease, rosuvastatin 10 mg daily significantly reduced first stroke. Blood pressure lowering combined with rosuvastatin reduced ischemic stroke by 59%. Both therapies are safe and generally well tolerated. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00468923.

8.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 152, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the age-related decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in healthy individuals, we examined the association of all-cause death or cardiovascular event with the Kidney age - Chronological age Difference (KCD) score, whereby an individual's kidney age is estimated from their estimated GFR (eGFR) and the age-dependent eGFR decline reported for healthy living potential kidney donors. METHODS: We examined the association between death or cardiovascular event and KCD score, age-dependent stepped eGFR criteria (eGFRstep), and eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (eGFR60) in a community-based high cardiovascular risk cohort of 3837 individuals aged ≥60 (median 70, interquartile range 65, 75) years, followed for a median of 5.6 years. RESULTS: In proportional hazards analysis, KCD score ≥ 20 years (KCD20) was associated with increased risk of death or cardiovascular event in unadjusted analysis and after adjustment for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors. Addition of KCD20, eGFRstep or eGFR60 to a cardiovascular risk factor model did not improve area under the curve for identification of individuals who experienced death or cardiovascular event in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. However, addition of KCD20 or eGFR60, but not eGFRstep, to a cardiovascular risk factor model improved net reclassification and integrated discrimination. KCD20 identified individuals who experienced death or cardiovascular event with greater sensitivity than eGFRstep for all participants, and with greater sensitivity than eGFR60 for participants aged 60-69 years, with similar sensitivities for men and women. CONCLUSIONS: In this high cardiovascular risk cohort aged ≥60 years, the KCD score provided an age-adapted measure of kidney function that may assist patient education, and KCD20 provided an age-adapted criterion of eGFR-related increased risk of death or cardiovascular event. Further studies that include the full age spectrum are required to examine the optimal KCD score cut point that identifies increased risk of death or cardiovascular event, and kidney events, associated with impaired kidney function, and whether the optimal KCD score cut point is similar for men and women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00400257 , NCT00604006 , and NCT01581827 .

9.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 33: 100745, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786363

RESUMO

Background: Fibrinolysis is an important reperfusion strategy in the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when timely access to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is unavailable. Rescue PCI is generally thought to have worse outcomes than PPCI in STEMI. We aimed to determine short- and long-term outcomes of patients with rescue PCI versus PPCI for treatment of STEMI. Methods and results: Patients admitted with STEMI (excluding out-of-hospital cardiac arrest) within the Melbourne Interventional Group (MIG) registry between 2005 and 2018 treated with either rescue PCI or PPCI were included in this retrospective cohort analysis. Comparison of 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and long-term mortality between the two groups was performed. There were 558 patients (7.1%) with rescue PCI and 7271 with PPCI. 30-day all-cause mortality (rescue PCI 6% vs. PPCI 5%, p = 0.47) and MACE (rescue PCI 10.3% vs. PPCI 8.9%, p = 0.26) rates were similar between the two groups. Rates of in-hospital major bleeding (rescue PCI 6% vs. PPCI 3.4%, p = 0.002) and 30-day stroke (rescue PCI 2.2% vs. PPCI 0.8%, p < 0.001) were higher following rescue PCI. The odds ratio for haemorrhagic stroke in the rescue PCI group was 10.3. Long-term mortality was not significantly different between the groups (rescue PCI 20% vs. PPCI 19%, p = 0.33). Conclusions: With contemporary interventional techniques and medical therapy, rescue PCI remains a valuable strategy for treating patients with failed fibrinolysis where PPCI is unavailable and it has been suggested in extenuating circumstances where alternative revascularisation strategies are considered.

10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(6): 1629-1637, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic medications may increase risk of dementia and stroke, but prospective studies in healthy older people are lacking. OBJECTIVE: Compare risk of incident dementia and stroke by anticholinergic burden among initially healthy older people. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Primary care (Australia and USA). PARTICIPANTS: 19,114 community-dwelling participants recruited for the ASPREE trial, aged 70+ years (65+ if US minorities) without major cardiovascular disease, dementia diagnosis, or Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score below 78/100. MEASUREMENTS: Baseline anticholinergic exposure was calculated using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) score. Dementia was adjudicated using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders volume IV criteria, and stroke using the World Health Organization definition. RESULTS: At baseline, 15,000 participants (79%) had an ACB score of zero, 2930 (15%) a score of 1-2, and 1184 (6%) a score of ≥ 3 (indicating higher burden). After a median follow-up of 4.7 years and adjusting for baseline covariates, a baseline ACB score of ≥ 3 was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.06, 2.35), or dementia (adjusted HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01, 1.82), especially of mixed etiology (adjusted HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.06, 2.21). Results were similar for those exposed to moderate/highly anticholinergic medications. LIMITATIONS: Residual confounding and reverse causality are possible. Assessment of dose or duration was not possible. CONCLUSIONS: High anticholinergic burden in initially healthy older people was associated with increased risk of incident dementia and ischemic stroke. A vascular effect may underlie this association. These findings highlight the importance of minimizing anticholinergic exposure in healthy older people.

11.
Am J Cardiol ; 148: 36-43, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667454

RESUMO

There are conflicting data on whether patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) have poorer outcomes compared with non-insulin treated diabetic (non-ITDM) patients following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We therefore compared clinical outcomes following PCI in ITDM versus non-ITDM patients. We prospectively collected data on 4,579 patients with diabetes underwent PCI between 2005 and 2014 in a large multicenter registry and dichotomized them as having ITDM (n = 1,111) or non-ITDM (n = 3,468). The non-ITDM group was further divided into diet control only (diet-DM; n = 786) and those taking oral hypoglycemic agents (OHG-DM; n = 2,639), and clinical outcomes were compared with ITDM patients. Median follow-up for long-term mortality was 4.2 years (IQR 2.0 to 6.6 years). ITDM patients were more likely to be female, obese, and have severe renal impairment (all p <0.001). Procedural characteristics were similar other than a greater use of drug-eluting stents in ITDM patients. On multivariable analysis, ITDM was an independent predictor of 12-month major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02 to1.55, p = 0.03). Dividing the non-ITDM group further by treatment, a progressively higher rate of 12-month MACCE across the 3 groups was observed (13.5% vs 17.9% vs 21.8%; p <0.001). Long-term mortality was similar in the diet-DM and OHG-DM groups, but significantly higher in the ITDM group on Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank p <0.001). In conclusion, there is a clear gradient of adverse outcomes with escalation of therapy from diet control to OHGs to insulin.

13.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(7): 1002-1013, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of age in an all-comers population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Age is an important consideration in determining appropriateness for invasive cardiac assessment and perceived clinical outcomes. METHODS: We analysed data from 29,012 consecutive patients undergoing PCI in the Melbourne Interventional Group (MIG) registry between 2005 and 2017. 25,730 patients <80 year old (78% male, mean age 62±10 years; non-elderly cohort) were compared to 3,282 patients ≥80 year old (61% male, mean age 84±3 years; elderly cohort). RESULTS: The elderly cohort had greater prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and previous myocardial infarction (all p<0.001). Elderly patients were more likely to present with acute coronary syndromes, left ventricular ejection fraction <45% and chronic kidney disease (p<0.0001). In-hospital, 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality (over a median of 3.6 and 5.1 years for elderly and non-elderly cohorts, respectively) were higher in the elderly cohort (5.2% vs. 1.9%; 6.4% vs. 2.2%; and 43% vs. 14% respectively, all p<0.0001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (HR 3.8, 95% CI: 3.4-4.3), cardiogenic shock (HR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.6-3.4), ejection fraction <30% (HR 2.5, 95% CI: 2.1-2.9); and age ≥80 years (HR 2.8, 95% CI: 2.6-3.1) were independent predictors of long-term all-cause mortality (all p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The elderly cohort is a high-risk group of patients with increasing age being associated with poorer long-term mortality. Age, thus, should be an important consideration when individualising treatment in elderly patients.

14.
Coron Artery Dis ; 32(4): 288-294, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the review was to assess whether CHA2DS2-VASc score is predictive of mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: The CHA2DS2-VASc score is validated in predicting stroke risk in atrial fibrillation. The optimum management strategy for these patients undergoing PCI is still debated. METHODS: The CHA2DS2-VASc score was calculated in consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI in a large Australian registry between 2007 and 2013. Patients were divided into low (1-2), intermediate (3-4) and high (≥5) groups. Clinical and procedural data, 30-day, 1-year and long-term outcomes were compared between the groups. RESULTS: A total of 564 patients were included in our analysis. Patients with high CHA2DS2-VASc scores had higher mortality rates at 1-year (2, 8, 15; P = 0.002) and long-term (6, 20, 37; P < 0.001). High-risk patients were more likely to have renal impairment and multivessel disease. Increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score was associated with increased risk of stroke (0, 2, 6; P = 0.03). However, only 41.9% received anticoagulation, with no difference across the risk groups. When compared to low-risk, intermediate [HR 3.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-9.92; P = 0.015] and high (hazard ratio 7.82; 95% CI, 2.88-21.24; P < 0.001) CHA2DS2-VASc scores were significant predictors of long-term mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI are associated with significantly worse outcomes. Despite being high-risk, the patients in this cohort are likely undertreated with anticoagulation. Close clinical follow-up with greater utilization of anticoagulation and optimal medical therapy has the potential to improve long-term outcomes.

15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504953

RESUMO

Late-life depression is common and often inadequately managed using existing therapies. Depression is also associated with increased markers of inflammation, suggesting a potential role for anti-inflammatory agents. ASPREE-D is a sub-study of ASPREE, a large multi-centre, population-based, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aspirin vs placebo in older Australian and American adults (median follow-up: 4.7 years) of whom 1879 were depressed at baseline. Participants were given 100 mg daily dose of aspirin or placebo. Depressive symptoms were assessed annually using the validated, self-rated short version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. There was a significant increase in depressive scores (0.6; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9; χ2 (1) = 10.37; p = 0.001) and a decreased score in the mental health component of a quality of life scale (-0.7; 95% CI -1.4 to -0.1; χ2 (1) = 4.74; p = 0.029) in the aspirin group compared to the placebo group. These effects were greater in the first year of follow-up and persisted throughout the study, albeit with small to very small effect sizes. This study failed to demonstrate any benefit of aspirin in the long-term course of depression in this community-dwelling sample of older adults over a 5-year period, and identified an adverse effect of aspirin in the course of depression in those with pre-existing depressive symptoms.

16.
J Hum Hypertens ; 35(4): 308-314, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462391

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of night-time BP-lowering drug treatment on the risk of major CVD and mortality, we systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials comparing night-time versus morning dosing. Two studies were found relevant to the clinical question (the MAPEC and Hygia trials). They were similar in study design and population and were conducted by the same study group. As the Hygia trial had more power with a significantly larger sample size, we did not perform a meta-analysis. Both studies reported a reduction of ~50% in major CVD events and all-cause mortality with night-time dosing and a reduction of 60% in CVD mortality. The results from these studies support the implementation of night-time BP-lowering drug treatment in the prevention of CVD and mortality. However there is an on-going discussion on the validity and methodology of MAPEC and Hygia trials, the interpretation of the results should be cautious. Stronger evidence is needed prior to changing clinical practice. Questions that remain to be answered relate to the generalisability of the results across different populations at different levels of BP related risk and the importance of morning versus evening timing of medication on CVD prevention as determined though a well-designed randomised controlled trial.

17.
Qual Life Res ; 30(4): 1037-1048, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389487

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous research has demonstrated that lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, especially in-patient groups. The association of HRQoL with all-cause mortality in community samples requires further investigation. This study aimed to examine whether HRQoL predicts all-cause mortality in older healthy community-dwelling people from Australia and the United States (U.S.) enrolled in the Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial. We also explored whether this association varies by gender or country. METHOD: A prospective cohort of 19,106 individuals aged 65-98 years, who were without a dementia diagnosis or a known major life-limiting disease, and completed the 12-item short-form-HRQoL at recruitment (2010-2014). They were followed until June 2017. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to determine the association between the physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) of HRQoL and all-cause mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviours and clinical measures. Hazards ratios were estimated for every 10-unit increase in PCS or MCS. RESULTS: There were 1052 deaths over a median 4.7-years (interquartile range 3.6-5.7) of follow-up, with 11.9 events per 1000 person-years. Higher PCS was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77, 0.89) in the entire sample, while higher MCS was associated with lower mortality among U.S. participants only (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63, 0.95). Gender differences in the association of either PCS or MCS with mortality were not observed. CONCLUSION: Our large study provides evidence that HRQoL is inversely associated with all-cause mortality among initially healthy older people.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
18.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285090

RESUMO

It is well recognized that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and multi-vessel coronary artery disease (MVD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have poorer long-term outcomes compared with those undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the relative impact of DM status and extent of coronary artery disease on long term mortality in patients undergoing PCI is unknown. We sought to compare patients with DM undergoing PCI for single and multi-vessel disease to their non-DM counterparts. Overall, 34,690 consecutive patients undergoing PCI from the Melbourne Interventional Group registry (2005-2017) were included (mean age 64.5 ±12 years, 76.6% male). Our cohort was stratified by the presence of DM and extent of CAD (DM-SVD [single-vessel disease] [n=2,669], DM-MVD [n=6,118], no-DM-SVD [n=10,993], no-DM-MVD [n=14,910]). DM-SVD and no-DM-MVD cohorts demonstrated comparable baseline cardiovascular risk profiles, although the no-DM-MVD cohort had higher rates of prior MI, while the DM-SVD cohort had a higher proportion of patients with renal impairment. Over a median follow-up of 4.8 (IQR 2.0-8.2) years, 6031 (17.5%) patients died. Using the no-DM-SVD group as the reference category, adjusted risk of mortality was highest in the MVD-DM cohort (HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.71-2.09). Similar adjusted risk of long-term mortality was observed in the DM-SVD (HR 1.32, 95%CI 1.15-1.51) and no-DM-MVD (HR 1.30, 95%CI 1.20-1.40) groups. In conclusion, we found that the long-term mortality of patients with DM and SVD undergoing PCI was the risk equivalent of non-DM patients with MVD.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular events, dementia and cancer can contribute to physical disability with activities of daily living (ADL). It is unclear whether low-dose aspirin reduces this burden in aging populations. In a secondary analysis, we now examine aspirin's effects on incident and persistent ADL disability within a primary prevention aspirin trial in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The ASPREE (ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly) trial of daily 100mg aspirin versus placebo recruited 19,114 healthy adults aged 70+ years (65+ years if U.S. minority) in Australia and the U.S. Six basic ADLs were assessed every six months. Incident ADL disability was defined as inability or severe difficulty with ≥1 ADL; persistence was confirmed if the same ADL disability remained after six months. Proportional hazards modelling compared time to incident or persistent ADL disability for aspirin versus placebo; death without prior disability was a competing risk. RESULTS: Over a median 4.7 years, incident ADL disability was similar in those receiving aspirin (776/9525) and placebo (787/9589) with walking, bathing, dressing and transferring the most commonly reported. Only 24% of incident ADL disability progressed to persistent. Persistent ADL disability was lower in the aspirin group (4.3 versus 5.3 events/1000py; HR=0.81, 95% CI:0.66-1.00), with bathing and dressing the most common ADL disabilities in both groups. Following persistent ADL disability there were more deaths in the aspirin group (24 versus 12). DISCUSSION: Low-dose aspirin in initially healthy older people did not reduce risk of incident ADL disability, although there was evidence of reduced persistent ADL disability.

20.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 20: 100667, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210016

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe the baseline participant characteristics in the ASPREE-AMD study, investigating the effect of aspirin on AMD incidence and progression. Methods: Australian participants from the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial, randomized to 100 mg aspirin daily or placebo, had non-mydriatic, digital color fundus images graded according to the Beckman AMD classification. Associations with AMD were determined for baseline characteristics and genetic risk variants. Results: ASPREE-AMD sub-study enrolled 4993 participants with gradable macular images. Median age was 73.4 years (IQR, 71.5, 76.6), 52% were female, 10% had diabetes mellitus, 73% had hypertension, and 44% were former/current smokers. Early, intermediate and late AMD (detected in 20.6%, 16.1%, 1.1%, respectively), significantly associated with age, were also associated with increasing HDL levels: OR = 1.52 (95%CI, 1.26, 1.84), OR = 1.43 (1.17, 1.77) and OR = 1.96 (1.02, 3.76), respectively. Female sex was associated with early [OR = 1.37 (1.16, 1.62)], and intermediate [OR = 1.35 (1.12, 1.63)] AMD, as was previous regular use of aspirin, with OR = 1.46 (1.11, 1.92) and OR = 1.37 (1.01, 1.85), respectively. Current smoking had increased odds for late AMD, OR = 4.02 (1.42, 11.36). Genetic risk variant rs3750846 (ARMS2/HTRA1) was associated with each AMD stage (p < 0.001), risk variants rs570618 and rs10922109 (CFH) with intermediate and late AMD (p < 0.001), and rare variant rs147859257 (C3) with late AMD (p < 0.001). The randomized groups were well balanced for all analyzed AMD risk factors. Conclusions: Observed associations are typical of AMD. The ASPREE-AMD clinical trial provides a unique opportunity to determine the risks and benefits of low-dose aspirin for AMD incidence and progression in elderly population. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN 12613000755730.

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