Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 125
Filtrar
1.
RMD Open ; 7(2)2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a Gout, Hyperuricaemia and Crystal-Associated Disease Network (G-CAN) common language definition of gout, with the goal of increasing public understanding and awareness, and ensure consistent and understandable messages about gout. METHODS: A G-CAN working group that included patients, physicians and nongovernmental organisation (NGO) representatives was formed to develop a common language definition of gout for use with the public, media, healthcare providers and stakeholders. A literature search and interviews with patients, healthcare workers and stakeholders informed development of the definition. Following consultation with G-CAN members and partners, the definition was endorsed by the G-CAN board. RESULTS: The G-CAN common language definition of gout describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, symptoms and impact, risk factors, comorbidities, management and healthcare and workforce considerations. Detailed information is provided to support the content of the definition. After the publication of the English-language version, the definition will be available for translation into other languages by G-CAN members. CONCLUSION: G-CAN has developed a concise and easily understandable statement describing gout in language that can be used in conversations with the lay public, media, NGOs, funders, healthcare providers and other stakeholders.

2.
Can J Surg ; 64(2): E183-E190, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739803

RESUMO

Background: The number of Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS) applicants ranking surgical specialties as their first choice has declined over the past 20 years; concurrently, there has been a reduction in the number of hours spent teaching undergraduate medical education (UGME) anatomy, particularly with cadaveric dissection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that most influence selection of a surgical specialty, with specific focus on the impact of UGME anatomy training. Methods: A 36-item cross-sectional survey was designed by experts in medical education and distributed to all current surgical residents in Canada in October 2018. Responses were recorded on a 5-point Likert scale or by means of list ranking. We analyzed univariable outcomes with a t test for continuous outcomes and the χ2 test for dichotomous outcomes. Results: Of 1493 surgical residents, 228 responded to the survey (response rate 15.3%). Respondents reported experiences on core rotations and elective rotations, and access to a mentor as the most important factors in deciding to pursue a surgical residency. Anatomy training with or without cadaveric dissection was moderately influential in respondents' first-choice CaRMS discipline (mean Likert scale score 2.97 [standard deviation (SD) 1.34] and 2.87 [SD 1.26], respectively). General surgery residents' CaRMS applications were more likely to have been influenced by UGME anatomy training than the applications by residents in other surgical specialties (p < 0.001). The impact of UGME anatomy training did not vary between postgraduate years or between male and female residents. Conclusion: Canadian surgical residents' decision to apply to a surgical specialty did not seem to be strongly influenced by their UGME anatomy training, with or without cadaveric dissection, but, rather, by factors such as clinical experience and surgical mentorship. Further evaluation of groups that were more positively affected by their UGME anatomy training is warranted.

3.
Res Dev Disabil ; 113: 103934, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most commonly used intelligence tests - the Wechsler Scales - do not provide standardised procedures for assessing children with motor impairment, and as a result, may underestimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) of young people with CP. AIMS: To characterise a motor-free cognitive profile of adolescents with CP using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fifth edition (WISC-V) and explore the influence of clinical factors on cognitive abilities. METHODS AND PROCEDURE: The WISC-V was used to assess cognitive abilities in 70 adolescents (M = 14 years 6 months, SD = 10 months). Sixty-six adolescents (Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) Level I, n = 26 ; II, n = 23; III, n = 15; IV, n = 1; V, n = 1) obtained either a Motor-free IQ or index score using the motor-free method. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: MFIQ and index scores fell below the normative data and rates of borderline and impaired cognitive abilities were significantly higher in the CP group. Scores showed an uneven cognitive profile with a relative strength in verbal abilities. Severity of motor impairment and small for gestational age (SGA) were associated with lower IQ scores. A history of seizures was related to lower verbal abilities. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Cognitive abilities of adolescents with CP are significantly below expectation compared to normative data. Severity of motor impairment, SGA, and seizures need to be recognised by health professionals as risk factors for cognitive impairment. A substantial proportion of adolescents showed borderline cognitive abilities, constituting a group with CP which are relatively neglected in the literature.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 42(2): 200-212, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314489

RESUMO

The discovery of high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes, such as Breast cancer associated gene 1 (BRCA1) and Breast cancer associated gene 2 (BRCA2) has led to accurate identification of individuals for risk management and targeted therapy. The rapid decline in sequencing costs has tremendously increased the number of individuals who are undergoing genetic testing world-wide. However, given the significant differences in population-specific variants, interpreting the results of these tests can be challenging especially for novel genetic variants in understudied populations. Here we report the characterization of novel variants in the Malaysian and Singaporean population that consist of different ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese, Indian, and other indigenous groups). We have evaluated the functional significance of 14 BRCA2 variants of uncertain clinical significance by using multiple in silico prediction tools and examined their frequency in a cohort of 7840 breast cancer cases and 7928 healthy controls. In addition, we have used a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-based functional assay to assess the impact of these variants on BRCA2 function. We found these variants to be functionally indistinguishable from wild-type BRCA2. These variants could fully rescue the lethality of Brca2-null mESCs and exhibited no sensitivity to six different DNA damaging agents including a poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor. Our findings strongly suggest that all 14 evaluated variants are functionally neutral. Our findings should be valuable in risk assessment of individuals carrying these variants.

5.
NPJ Genom Med ; 5(1): 52, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293522

RESUMO

Sequencing-based genetic tests to identify individuals at increased risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers have resulted in the identification of more than 40,000 sequence variants of BRCA1 and BRCA2. A majority of these variants are considered to be variants of uncertain significance (VUS) because their impact on disease risk remains unknown, largely due to lack of sufficient familial linkage and epidemiological data. Several assays have been developed to examine the effect of VUS on protein function, which can be used to assess their impact on cancer susceptibility. In this study, we report the functional characterization of 88 BRCA2 variants, including several previously uncharacterized variants, using a well-established mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-based assay. We have examined their ability to rescue the lethality of Brca2 null mESC as well as sensitivity to six DNA damaging agents including ionizing radiation and a PARP inhibitor. We have also examined the impact of BRCA2 variants on splicing. In addition, we have developed a computational model to determine the probability of impact on function of the variants that can be used for risk assessment. In contrast to the previous VarCall models that are based on a single functional assay, we have developed a new platform to analyze the data from multiple functional assays separately and in combination. We have validated our VarCall models using 12 known pathogenic and 10 neutral variants and demonstrated their usefulness in determining the pathogenicity of BRCA2 variants that are listed as VUS or as variants with conflicting functional interpretation.

6.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206412

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate whether combined first-trimester screening (cFTS) biomarkers are associated with cerebral palsy (CP) and to identify CP characteristics associated with abnormal biomarker levels. METHOD: In this retrospective case-control data linkage study, we matched mothers of 435 singletons with CP from a population register to their cFTS records and selected 10 singleton pregnancy controls per case. We compared mean and abnormal levels (expressed as multiples of the median [MoMs]) of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (ß-hCG), and nuchal translucency between cases and controls and between CP subgroups. RESULTS: Compared with control pregnancies, CP pregnancies had lower mean levels of PAPP-A (0.95 vs 1.01 MoM, p=0.02) and ß-hCG (0.93 vs 0.99 MoM, p=0.02). Biomarker levels in CP pregnancies were 1.8 times more likely to be associated with abnormally low levels of PAPP-A (p<0.01), 1.4 times for ß-hCG (p=0.12), and 2.6 times for low PAPP-A and ß-hCG together (p=0.04). In cases with CP, an abnormally low PAPP-A level was associated with moderate preterm birth, low Apgar scores, and Gross Motor Function Classification System level V. Low ß-hCG was associated with very low birthweight. INTERPRETATION: Low first-trimester biomarker levels suggest a role for early pregnancy factors in some causal pathways to CP.

7.
ANZ J Surg ; 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive musculoskeletal pathology is ubiquitous among children with cerebral palsy (CP). Corrective surgery places them at risk of major blood loss and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Significant variability exists in uptake of perioperative patient blood management (PBM) strategies. This study aimed to examine factors contributing to RBC transfusion and assist in future development of care pathways. METHODS: A retrospective review at a tertiary paediatric hospital was undertaken to identify patients with CP undergoing either primary spinal fusion or single event, multilevel surgery (SEMLS) between 2010 and 2015. Solely soft tissue procedures were excluded. Data collected included demographics, Gross Motor Function Classification System level, surgical details, perioperative PBM and transfusion rates. Univariable analysis was performed to assess contributing factors to RBC transfusion. RESULTS: A total of 36 spinal fusion and 98 SEMLS patients were included. Preoperatively, 12% were anaemic, but only 19% had a ferritin checked. Overall, 49 patients (37%) received RBC transfusions. Intraoperative usage of tranexamic acid and cell salvage was 89% and 81%, respectively, for the spine cohort, and 22% and 3% for the SEMLS cohort. Successively higher Gross Motor Function Classification System levels, sodium valproate usage, longer surgical times, spinal fusion, pelvis instrumentation and more osteotomies were associated with RBC transfusion. CONCLUSION: More than one-third of CP patients who underwent major orthopaedic surgery received RBC transfusion. As expected, the more severely affected patients undergoing longer procedures were at highest risk. Significant improvements can be made in PBM to help optimize patients for surgery and minimize the need for transfusion.

8.
Can Med Educ J ; 11(4): e51-e61, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821302

RESUMO

Background: Previous literature has explored the underrepresentation of women in surgery. However, this research has often been quantitative or limited by considering only the perspectives and experiences of women at more advanced career stages. Here, we use a qualitative methodology and a sample of women and men across the career continuum to identify the role that gender plays in the decision to pursue a surgical career. Methods: We audio-recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews conducted with 12 women and 12 men ranging in their level of medical training from medical students to residents to staff surgeons. We used Braun and Clarke's six-step approach to thematic analysis to analyze the data, maintaining trustworthiness and credibility by employing strategies including reflexivity and participant input. Results: Our findings suggested that the characteristics of surgery and early exposure to the profession served as important factors in participants' decisions to pursue a surgical career. Although not explicitly mentioned by participants, each of these areas may implicitly be gendered. Gender-based factors explicitly mentioned by participants included the surgical lifestyle and experiences with gender discrimination, including sexual harassment. These factors were perceived as challenges that disproportionately affected women and needed to be overcome when pursuing a surgical career. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that gender is more likely to act as a barrier to a career in surgery than as a motivator, especially among women. This suggests a need for early experiences in the operating room and mentorship. Policy change promoting work-life integration and education to target gender discrimination is also recommended.

9.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(3): 346-357, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and intensity of persistent post-surgical pain (PPSP) after breast cancer surgery are uncertain. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to further elucidate this issue. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, from inception to November 2018, for observational studies reporting persistent pain (≥3 months) after breast cancer surgery. We used random-effects meta-analysis and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations approach to rate quality of evidence. RESULTS: We included 187 observational studies with 297 612 breast cancer patients. The prevalence of PPSP ranged from 2% to 78%, median 37% (inter-quartile range: 22-48%); the pooled prevalence was 35% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32-39%). The pooled pain intensity was 3.9 cm on a 10 cm visual analogue scale (95% CI: 3.6-4.2 cm). Moderate-quality evidence supported the subgroup effects of PPSP prevalence for localized pain vs any pain (29% vs 44%), moderate or greater vs any pain (26% vs 44%), clinician-assessed vs patient-reported pain (23% vs 36%), and whether patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy vs axillary lymph node dissection (26% vs 43%). The adjusted analysis found that the prevalence of patient-reported PPSP (any severity/location) was 46% (95% CI: 36-56%), and the prevalence of patient-reported moderate-to-severe PPSP at any location was 27% (95% CI: 10-43%). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-quality evidence suggests that almost half of all women undergoing breast cancer surgery develop persistent post-surgical pain, and about one in four develop moderate-to-severe persistent post-surgical pain; the higher prevalence was associated with axillary lymph node dissection. Future studies should explore whether nerve sparing for axillary procedures reduces persistent post-surgical pain after breast cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(7)2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630716

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare disorder caused by the loss of expression of genes on the paternal copy of chromosome 15q11-13. The main molecular subtypes of PWS are the deletion of 15q11-13 and non-deletion, and differences in neurobehavioral phenotype are recognized between the subtypes. This study aimed to investigate growth trajectories in PWS and associations between PWS subtype (deletion vs. non-deletion) and height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Growth data were available for 125 individuals with PWS (63 males, 62 females), of which 72 (57.6%) had the deletion subtype. There was a median of 28 observations per individual (range 2-85), producing 3565 data points distributed from birth to 18 years of age. Linear mixed models with cubic splines, subject-specific random effects and an autoregressive correlation structure were used to model the longitudinal growth data whilst accounting for the nature of repeated measures. Height was similar for males in both PWS subtypes, with non-deletion females being shorter than deletion females for older ages. Weight and BMI were estimated to be higher in the deletion subtype compared to the non-deletion subtype, with the size of difference increasing with advancing age for weight. These results suggest that individuals with deletion PWS are more prone to obesity.

11.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3593-3605, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641407

RESUMO

BRCA2 is a clinically actionable gene implicated in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition that has become a high priority target for improving the classification of variants of unknown significance (VUS). Among all BRCA2 VUS, those causing partial/leaky splicing defects are the most challenging to classify because the minimal level of full-length (FL) transcripts required for normal function remains to be established. Here, we explored BRCA2 exon 3 (BRCA2e3) as a model for calibrating variant-induced spliceogenicity and estimating thresholds for BRCA2 haploinsufficiency. In silico predictions, minigene splicing assays, patients' RNA analyses, a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) complementation assay and retrieval of patient-related information were combined to determine the minimal requirement of FL BRCA2 transcripts. Of 100 BRCA2e3 variants tested in the minigene assay, 64 were found to be spliceogenic, causing mild to severe RNA defects. Splicing defects were also confirmed in patients' RNA when available. Analysis of a neutral leaky variant (c.231T>G) showed that a reduction of approximately 60% of FL BRCA2 transcripts from a mutant allele does not cause any increase in cancer risk. Moreover, data obtained from mESCs suggest that variants causing a decline in FL BRCA2 with approximately 30% of wild-type are not pathogenic, given that mESCs are fully viable and resistant to DNA-damaging agents in those conditions. In contrast, mESCs producing lower relative amounts of FL BRCA2 exhibited either null or hypomorphic phenotypes. Overall, our findings are likely to have broader implications on the interpretation of BRCA2 variants affecting the splicing pattern of other essential exons. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that BRCA2 tumor suppressor function tolerates substantial reduction in full-length transcripts, helping to determine the pathogenicity of BRCA2 leaky splicing variants, some of which may not increase cancer risk.

12.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 56(8): 1194-1200, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412671

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the prevalence of, and factors associated with, anxiety in 6-18-year-old children with cerebral palsy (CP) and determine how often clinicians screen for and manage anxiety in this group. METHODS: Using a population CP register as the sampling pool, 569 families were approached by email, and 172 (mean age of children 12 years 7 months [SD 3 years 5 months]; 96 males) participated. Parents and, where able, children completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Parents also completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children's medical records were searched for previous anxiety diagnoses and treatments. RESULTS: Clinically significant anxiety was identified in 38% of children on parent reports and 46% on child reports. Girls were twice as likely to have anxiety (p = 0.02). Parent- and child-reported scores were strongly correlated (r = 0.853). Fewer parents of children with intellectual and communication impairments completed the survey. Based on the SCARED parent reports, anxiety was not identified by a clinician in 16 children (43%) with clinically significant anxiety. CONCLUSION: Anxiety symptoms are prominent among children with CP, indicating a need for routine screening. Available screening tools are unsuitable for children with more severe limitations in cognition and communication; further research is needed to address this gap.

13.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 10(6)2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471265

RESUMO

Burnout syndrome (BOS) in academic physicians is a psychological state resulting from prolonged exposure to job stressors. It leads to a decline in overall job performance, which could result in misjudgment and serious clinical errors. The current study identifies the prevalence, as well as the potential demographic and workload variables that contribute significantly to BOS in academic clinicians. We distributed a modified version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) scale to the academic clinicians in our institution; 326/900 responded, with 56.21% male and 43.46% female. The MBI scale comprised of three dimensions of burnout: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA). Higher scores in EE and DP and lower scores in PA were associated with a higher risk for burnout. In considering the work-life of academic clinicians, this study used a modified version of the MBI to reflect three hypothesized sources of burnout: interactions with students/trainees, interactions with patients, and interactions with administration, as reflected in these three dimensions. Along both the EE and DP dimensions of the MBI, burnout was highest for interactions with administration (51% and 44.8%), moderate for interactions with patients (26.4% and 34.5%), and lowest for interactions with students (11.7% and 9.8%). The highest scores along the personal accomplishment component was found for interactions with students and patients (33.7% and 33.4%). Regression analyses identified several factors associated with higher scores on the EE and DP scales: younger age, surgical specialty, low academic rank, academic main practice, female gender, numerous night shifts, and living alone. Furthermore, higher patient volume contributed significantly to the increasing PA. This study suggests that administrative interaction contributes significantly to burnout amongst physicians, followed by patient care and trainees. Furthermore, surgeons, females, single, early career, and younger faculty staff members are at higher risk of suffering from burnout. Further studies are needed to characterize the nature of administrative interactions that contribute to burnout and to solidify other contributing variables.

14.
J Physiother ; 66(2): 105-112, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291223

RESUMO

QUESTION: Does adding mobilisation with movement (MWM) to usual care (ie, exercises plus advice) improve outcomes after immobilisation for a distal radius fracture? DESIGN: A prospective, multicentre, randomised, clinical trial with concealed allocation, blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-seven adults (76% female, mean age 60 years) treated with casting after distal radius fracture. INTERVENTION: The control group received exercises and advice. The experimental group received the same exercises and advice, plus supination and wrist extension MWM. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was forearm supination at 4 weeks (immediately post-intervention). Secondary outcomes included wrist extension, flexion, pronation, grip strength, QuickDASH (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand), Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) and global rating of change. Follow-up time points were 4 and 12 weeks, with patient-rated measures at 26 and 52 weeks. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, supination was greater in the experimental group by 12 deg (95% CI 5 to 20) at 4 weeks and 8 deg (95% CI 1 to 15) at 12 weeks. Various secondary outcomes were better in the experimental group at 4 weeks: extension (14 deg, 95% CI 7 to 20), flexion (9 deg, 95% CI 4 to 15), QuickDASH (-11, 95% CI -18 to -3) and PRWE (-13, 95% CI -23 to -4). Benefits were still evident at 12 weeks for supination, extension, flexion and QuickDASH. The experimental group were more likely to rate their global change as 'improved' (risk difference 22%, 95% CI 5 to 39). There were no clear benefits in any of the participant-rated measures at 26 and 52 weeks, and no adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Adding MWM to exercise and advice gives a faster and greater improvement in motion impairments for non-operative management of distal radius fracture. REGISTRATION: ACTRN12615001330538.


Assuntos
Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Fraturas do Rádio/terapia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Adulto , Idoso , Moldes Cirúrgicos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 62(3): 346-353, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495925

RESUMO

AIM: To determine: the effectiveness of three anticholinergic medications in reducing drooling in children with developmental disabilities (such as cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder), the frequency and nature of side effects, and their impact on treatment discontinuation. METHOD: After prescription of benzhexol hydrochloride, glycopyrrolate, or scopolamine patches at a tertiary saliva control clinic, all carers of 110 consecutive, eligible patients were recruited over a 5-year period. They provided data for 52 weeks, or until drug discontinuation, on compliance, drooling, adverse effects, and reasons for cessation. We evaluated and compared best drooling response, side effects, and drug cessation rates using survival analysis, and the effect of baseline variables on the discontinuation rate using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Among 110 participants (71 males, 39 females; mean age 8y 5mo [SD 4y 3mo], range 1y 11mo-18y 11mo), benzhexol, glycopyrrolate, and scopolamine were prescribed 81, 62, and 17 times respectively, with respective response rates of 85%, 75%, and 65%. Poor head control and poor oromotor function were predictive of poor response. Side effects frequently prompted drug cessation in males more than females (hazard ratio 1.8 [95% confidence interval 1.0-3.2], p=0.048). Glycopyrrolate had the fewest side effects. INTERPRETATION: Benzhexol, glycopyrrolate, and scopolamine reduce drooling, but improvement is offset by adverse side effects. Overall, glycopyrrolate performs best. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: In drooling, glycopyrrolate produced the greatest improvement with fewer side effects compared with benzhexol and scopolamine. Poor head control and poor oromotor function were associated with poor response. Medication side effects were common and often led to treatment discontinuation. Behavioural issues instigated cessation of benzhexol more often in males than females.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Sialorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glicopirrolato/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Escopolamina/uso terapêutico , Sialorreia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Triexifenidil/uso terapêutico
16.
17.
J Pain ; 20(8): 980-993, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844507

RESUMO

Persistent postsurgical pain is defined as pain localized to the area of surgery of a duration of ≥2 months and is, unfortunately, a common complication after breast cancer surgery. Although there is insufficient evidence to support any preventative strategy, prior literature suggests the possible efficacy of intravenous lidocaine and perioperative pregabalin in preventing persistent pain after surgery. To determine feasibility of conducting a larger definitive trial, we conducted a multicenter 2 × 2 factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of 100 female patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. Patients were randomized to receive an intraoperative lidocaine infusion (1.5 mg/kg bolus followed by 2 mg/kg/h) or placebo and perioperative pregabalin (300 mg preoperatively, 75 mg twice daily for 9 days) or placebo. All feasibility criteria were surpassed; recruitment of 100 patients was accomplished within 42 weeks, with a follow-up rate of 100% and study drug compliance of ≥80%. At 3 months, 53% of patients reported persistent neuropathic pain. Although there was no interaction between lidocaine and pregabalin, lidocaine decreased the development of persistent neuropathic pain (43.1% vs 63.3%; relative risk = .68; 95% confidence interval = .47-1.0). Pregabalin did not reduce persistent pain (60% vs 46%; relative risk = 1.3; 95% confidence interval = .90-1.90) and neither pregabalin nor lidocaine impacted acute postoperative pain, opioid consumption, pain interference, or quality of life. Our pilot trial successfully demonstrated feasibility and provided promising data for conducting further trials of intraoperative lidocaine infusions during breast cancer surgeries. Clinical trial number: NCT02240199 PERSPECTIVE: This article reports the findings of a pilot randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effects of perioperative pregabalin and intraoperative lidocaine infusions in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. This trial demonstrated the feasibility of conducting a larger trial and provided promising data that these interventions may decrease the development of persistent pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Mastectomia Segmentar/efeitos adversos , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Neuralgia/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Pregabalina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 72(7): 1193-1197, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885525

RESUMO

Sialorrhea is a common problem in children with disability, often negatively affecting socialization, self-esteem, and burden of care. Saliva control surgery is an available option to manage this problem, particularly when other conservative methods have failed. As little is known about the long-term impact of surgery, we followed up 62 patients who had combined bilateral submandibular duct translocation and bilateral sublingual gland excision at our pediatric hospital between 1994 and 2014. Eligible individuals were identified through a search of ICD procedure codes. When families of patients were contacted successfully, they were invited to complete a 14-item questionnaire designed specifically for this study. The results indicated that long-term outcomes of surgery were very good; 13/62 (21%) individuals no longer had a drooling problem and another 30 (48%) experienced only mild to moderate drooling. Although 84% families reported some or major improvement in drooling, 9 families reported that they would not go through the experience again because of a difficult recovery period, lack of effectiveness of the intervention, changes in saliva consistency that caused coughing and gagging, and dental decay. None of the collected variables were predictive of good or poor outcome. The study indicated that surgical intervention is effective in the long term in the majority of cases and can be recommended to other families who attend our saliva control clinic.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Sialorreia/cirurgia , Glândula Sublingual/cirurgia , Glândula Submandibular/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sialorreia/diagnóstico , Sialorreia/etiologia , Sialorreia/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 55(10): 1230-1236, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697863

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the characteristics of emergency department (ED) presentations due to complications from gastrostomy or gastrojejunal feeding tubes among children with cerebral palsy (CP), the complexity of complications and the management approaches taken. METHODS: The Victorian CP Register was linked to the ED databases of Victoria's two tertiary paediatric hospitals, and data on presentations due to feeding tube complications were identified based on discharge diagnosis codes. Additional data on presentations were extracted from medical records. RESULTS: Over 5 years, there were 234 ED presentations due to feeding tube-related complaints among a CP cohort (n = 2183). ED notes were located for 183 of the 234 presentations. The majority of presentations (90%) involved children with severe gross motor impairment. A total of 46% of presentations (n = 84) was triaged as lower urgency, and 68% (n = 124) took place between 08:00 am and 06:00 pm. The most common presenting complaint was tube dislodgement (n = 105; 70%). No investigations were recorded in the majority of cases, and in almost 90% of cases, the feeding tube was successfully replaced in the ED, usually by an ED physician (n = 74) and less frequently by a surgeon (n = 9), gastroenterologist (n = 2) or nurse (n = 8); 9% (n = 17) resulted in a hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: Most ED presentations due to feeding tube complaints in children with CP are in children with severe gross motor impairment but are able to be managed in the ED. As such, it is likely that care givers and other health professionals could manage some of the complications experienced in primary health-care settings closer to home.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Intubação Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
20.
Can J Surg ; 62(2): 83-92, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697993

RESUMO

Background: Studies have shown an association between socioeconomic status and breast cancer treatment. We examined the relation between socioeconomic status and the treatment of breast cancer (surgical, systemic and radiation) in a universal health care system. Methods: Data from a single urban Canadian centre were collected for consecutive patients who received a diagnosis of breast cancer from January 2010 to December 2011. Variables included patient and disease factors, surgery type, systemic and radiation treatment, and breast reconstruction. Socioeconomic variables were obtained from 2006 Canadian census data. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of breast cancer treatment. Results: A total of 721 patients were treated for breast cancer during the study period. Socioeconomic variables were not related to type of breast surgery for breast cancer. Age less than 50 years, having a first-degree relative with breast cancer and income status were predictors of breast reconstruction. Employment status was a consistent predictor of systemic and radiation treatment. Conclusion: Employment consistently predicted systemic and radiation treatment, and age and income were predictors of breast reconstruction in a universal health care system. Further research is required to determine precisely how socioeconomic factors affect care and to minimize possible disparities in delivery of health care services.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Assistência de Saúde Universal , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Canadá , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Mamoplastia/estatística & dados numéricos , Mastectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...