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1.
Prev Vet Med ; 174: 104823, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734519

RESUMO

As part of the development of a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model of third-generation cephalosporins (3GC)-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg, a compartmental (SEIR) model for S. Heidelberg transmission within a typical Canadian commercial broiler chicken flock was developed. The model was constructed to estimate the within-flock prevalence and the bacterial concentration in the barn environment at pre-harvest, and to assess the effect of selected control measures. The baseline scenario predicted an average within-flock prevalence of 23.5 % (95 % tolerance interval: 15.7-31.4) and an average bacterial concentration of 3.579 (0-4.294) log CFU/g of feces in the barn environment at pre-harvest (on the day the flock is sent to slaughter). Because vertical introduction of S. Heidelberg into the barn was already uncommon in the baseline scenario, vaccination of broiler parent flocks appeared to have a negligible effect, while vaccination of broiler chicken flocks substantially reduced the bacterial concentration at pre-harvest. Cleaning and disinfection between batches markedly reduced the within-flock prevalence at pre-harvest, but the effect on bacterial concentration was limited outside of the beginning of the production period. Extending downtime between batches by 7 days had little effect on within-flock prevalence or bacterial concentration of S. Heidelberg when compared to the baseline scenario. This study provides a basis to describe S. Heidelberg dynamics within a broiler chicken flock and to predict the within-flock prevalence and bacterial concentration at pre-harvest, and includes a description of the limitations and data gaps. The results of these analyses and associated uncertainties are critical information for populating QMRA models of the downstream impacts on public health from on-farm and other food-chain practices. Specifically, the study findings will be integrated into a broader farm-to-fork QMRA model to support the risk-based control of S. Heidelberg resistant to 3GC in broiler chicken in Canada.

2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(11): ofz431, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696141

RESUMO

Background: A few extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) multilocus sequence types (STs) cause the majority of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). We examine the genomic epidemiology of major ExPEC lineages, specifically factors associated with intestinal acquisition. Methods: A total of 385 women with UTI caused by E. coli across Canada were asked about their diet, travel, and other exposures. Genome sequencing was used to determine both ST and genomic similarity. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the acquisition of and infection with major ExPEC STs relative to minor ExPEC STs. Results: ST131, ST69, ST73, ST127, and ST95 were responsible for 54% of all UTIs. Seven UTI clusters were identified, but genomes from the ST95, ST127, and ST420 clusters exhibited as few as 3 single nucleotide variations across the entire genome, suggesting recent acquisition. Furthermore, we identified a cluster of UTIs caused by 6 genetically-related ST1193 isolates carrying mutations in gyrA and parC. The acquisition of and infection with ST69, ST95, ST127, and ST131 were all associated with increased travel. The consumption of high-risk foods such as raw meat or vegetables, undercooked eggs, and seafood was associated with acquisition of and infection with ST69, ST127, and ST131, respectively. Conclusions: Reservoirs may aid in the dissemination of pandemic ExPEC lineages in the community. Identifying ExPEC reservoirs may help prevent future emergence and dissemination of high-risk lineages within the community setting.

3.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661323

RESUMO

To describe a historical baseline of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles for human clinical Campylobacter species isolates obtained by laboratory surveillance in the province of Saskatchewan from 1999 to 2006; to determine if there were differences in resistance between Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli; and to determine if there were changes in the annual resistance levels in the two species. One thousand three hundred seventy-eight Campylobacter isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the E-test method. Annual resistance levels in C. jejuni and C. coli were compared using logistic regression models. One thousand two hundred (87.1%) isolates were C. jejuni and 129 (9.4%) were C. coli. Resistance in C. jejuni isolates included ciprofloxacin (CIP: 9.4%), erythromycin (ERY: 0.5%), and tetracycline (33.3%). CIP resistance in C. jejuni was higher in 1999 (15.5%, odds ratio [OR] = 3.96, p = 0.01), 2000 (12.7%, OR = 3.10, p = 0.01), 2005 (10.2%, OR = 2.47, p = 0.05), and 2006 (13.0%, OR = 3.22, p = 0.01) compared with 2004 (4.4%). C. coli had significantly higher CIP resistance (15.5%, OR = 1.78, p = 0.03), ERY resistance (13.2%, OR = 60.12, p < 0.01), multidrug resistance (2.3%, OR = 36.29, p < 0.01), and CIP-ERY resistance (3.1%, OR = 50.23, p < 0.01) compared with C. jejuni. This represents the first and most current report of AMR of the collective human Campylobacter isolates from a province in Canada and provides a baseline against which current and future resistance patterns can be compared. Fluoroquinolone resistance in C. jejuni isolates fluctuated from 1999 to 2006, including an increased prevalence in 2005-2006, while macrolide/lincosamide resistance remained very low. Human clinical C. jejuni isolates from Saskatchewan demonstrated resistance to multiple antimicrobials but had significantly less fluoroquinolone and macrolide resistance than C. coli isolates.

4.
Microb Drug Resist ; 25(8): 1250-1256, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158059

RESUMO

Food-producing animals are recognized to play a role in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in Canada. However, the presence of resistant organisms in particular groups of animals, such as chickens raised in small-holder flocks, has not been studied. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to identify and characterize Escherichia coli possessing broad-spectrum ß-lactamase genes among a collection of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant isolates recovered from 205 small flocks in southern Ontario. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL; CTX-M-1) positive strains were isolated from 26 out of 205 flocks (12.7%), whereas 39 strains possessing AmpC (CMY-2) were grown from 31 out of 205 flocks (15.1%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed that the isolates were genetically heterogeneous. Further testing by multi-locus sequence typing confirmed that none of the PFGE-defined clusters belonged to ST131. Our results suggest that the dissemination of this resistance in bacteria isolated from chickens in small-holder flocks may be associated with the spread of plasmids rather than particular E. coli clones and that these isolates do not possess the ESBL types most commonly associated with human infections (CTX-M-15).


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/métodos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Ontário , Plasmídeos/genética
5.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231317

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) will soon replace traditional phenotypic methods for routine testing of foodborne antimicrobial resistance (AMR). WGS is expected to improve AMR surveillance by providing a greater understanding of the transmission of resistant bacteria and AMR genes throughout the food chain, and therefore support risk assessment activities. At this stage, it is unclear how WGS data can be integrated into quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) models and whether their integration will impact final risk estimates or the assessment of risk mitigation measures. This review explores opportunities and challenges of integrating WGS data into QMRA models that follow the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne AMR. We describe how WGS offers an opportunity to enhance the next-generation of foodborne AMR QMRA modeling. Instead of considering all hazard strains as equally likely to cause disease, WGS data can improve hazard identification by focusing on those strains of highest public health relevance. WGS results can be used to stratify hazards into strains with similar genetic profiles that are expected to behave similarly, e.g., in terms of growth, survival, virulence or response to antimicrobial treatment. The QMRA input distributions can be tailored to each strain accordingly, making it possible to capture the variability in the strains of interest while decreasing the uncertainty in the model. WGS also allows for a more meaningful approach to explore genetic similarity among bacterial populations found at successive stages of the food chain, improving the estimation of the probability and magnitude of exposure to AMR hazards at point of consumption. WGS therefore has the potential to substantially improve the utility of foodborne AMR QMRA models. However, some degree of uncertainty remains in relation to the thresholds of genetic similarity to be used, as well as the degree of correlation between genotypic and phenotypic profiles. The latter could be improved using a functional approach based on prediction of microbial behavior from a combination of 'omics' techniques (e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics). We strongly recommend that methodologies to incorporate WGS data in risk assessment be included in any future revision of the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne AMR.

6.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 131, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131285

RESUMO

Using data from the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS), we aimed to describe trends in antimicrobial use (AMU) in broiler chickens and turkeys, to compare AMU across species, to compare with trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and to assess the effects of various AMU/AMR units of measurement (metrics and indicators) on data integration. Data on AMU and AMR in enteric bacteria, collected from 2013 to 2017 from broiler chickens (n = 143 flocks) and turkeys (n = 145) were used. In broiler chickens, the total AMU in milligrams/population correction unit (mg/PCUBr) decreased by 6%, the number (n) of defined daily doses for animals using Canadian standards (nDDDvetCA) per 1,000 broiler chicken-days decreased by 12%, and nDDDvetCA/PCU decreased by 6%. In turkeys, the mg/PCUTk decreased by 1%, whereas the nDDDvetCA/1,000 turkey-days and the nDDDvetCA/PCU increased by 1 and 5%, respectively. The types of antimicrobial classes used in both species were similar. Using the frequency of flocks reporting use (i.e., number of flocks reporting use/number of flocks participating) as a measurement, the use of certain antimicrobials changed over time (e.g., Broilers, decreased cephalosporin use, virginiamycin use, emerging use of lincomycin-spectinomycin, and avilamycin; Turkeys: increased trimethoprim-sulfonamides and macrolide use). The trends in resistance to specific antimicrobials paralleled the frequency and quantity of use (e.g., ceftriaxone use decreased-ceftriaxone resistance decreased, and gentamicin use increased-gentamicin resistance increased) in some situations, but not others (decreased fluoroquinolone use-increased ciprofloxacin resistance). AMR data were summarized using the AMR indicator index (AMR Ix). The most notable AMR Ix trend was the decrease in ceftriaxone AMR Ix among Escherichia coli (0.19 to 0.07); indicative of the success of the poultry industry action to eliminate the preventive use of third generation cephalosporins. Other trends observed were the increase in ciprofloxacin AMR Ix among Campylobacter from 0.23 to 0.41 and gentamicin AMR Ix among E. coli from 0.11 to 0.22, suggestive of the persistence/emergence of resistance related to previous and current AMU not captured in our surveillance timeframe. These data highlight the necessity of multiple AMU and AMR indicators for monitoring the impact of stewardship activities and interventions.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036694

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin is a zoonotic pathogen that often leads to invasive bloodstream infections in humans that are multidrug resistant. Described here are the results of Canadian national surveillance of S Dublin from 2003 to 2015 in humans and bovines, principally collected through the Canadian Integrated Program for Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). An increase in human infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) S Dublin was observed in 2010, many of which were bloodstream infections. Phylogenomic analysis of human and bovine isolates revealed a closely related network that differed by only 0 to 17 single nucleotide variants (SNVs), suggesting some potential transmission between humans and bovines. Phylogenomic comparison of global publicly available sequences of S Dublin showed that Canadian isolates clustered closely with those from the United States. A high correlation between phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial susceptibility was observed in Canadian isolates. IS26 replication was widespread among U.S. and Canadian isolates and caused the truncation and inactivation of the resistance genes strA and bla TEM-1B A hybrid virulence and MDR plasmid (pN13-01125) isolated from a Canadian S Dublin isolate was searched against NCBI SRA data of bacteria. The pN13-01125 coding sequences were found in 13 Salmonella serovars, but S Dublin appears to be a specific reservoir. In summary, we have observed the rise of invasive MDR S Dublin in humans in Canada and found that they are closely related to bovine isolates and to American isolates in their mobile and chromosomal contents.

8.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(4): 406-416, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985994

RESUMO

The role of free-ranging wildlife in the epidemiology of enteropathogens causing clinical illness in humans and domestic animals is unclear. Salmonella enterica and anti-microbial resistant bacteria have been detected in the faeces of raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the carriage of these bacteria in other sympatric meso-mammals. Our objectives were to: (a) report the prevalence of Salmonella and associated anti-microbial resistance, Campylobacter spp, Clostridium difficile, and anti-microbial resistant Escherichia coli in the faeces of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in southern Ontario; and (b) compare the prevalence of these bacteria in the faeces of these meso-mammal hosts with raccoons from a previously reported study. Faecal swabs were collected from striped skunks and Virginia opossums on five swine farms and five conservation areas from 2011 to 2013. Salmonella was detected in 41% (9/22) and 5% (5/95) of faecal swabs from Virginia opossums and striped skunks, respectively. None of the Salmonella serovars carried resistance to anti-microbials. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. difficile, and anti-microbial resistant E. coli ranged from 6% to 22% in striped skunk and Virginia opossums. Using exact logistic regression, Salmonella was significantly more likely to be detected in faecal swabs of Virginia opossums than skunks and significantly less likely in faecal swabs from skunks than raccoons from a previously reported study. In addition, Campylobacter spp. was significantly more likely to be detected in raccoons than opossums. Salmonella Give was detected in 8/9 (89%) of Salmonella-positive Virginia opossum faecal swabs. Our results suggest that striped skunks and Virginia opossums have the potential to carry pathogenic enteric bacteria in their faeces. The high prevalence of Salmonella Give in Virginia opossum faecal swabs in this study as well as its common occurrence in other Virginia opossum studies throughout North America suggests Virginia opossums may be reservoirs of this serovar.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Feminino , Masculino , Mephitidae/microbiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gambás/microbiologia , Prevalência , Guaxinins/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão
9.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(4): 917-922, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021686

RESUMO

Wild birds are considered a potential source of zoonotic pathogens. We report on the occurrence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and antimicrobial-resistant, nonspecific Escherichia coli in ducks, grebes, and swans obtained by convenience while conducting related research with Canada Geese (Branta canadensis). Samples were obtained in southern Ontario, Canada, between 2013 and 2015 from hunter-caught birds, birds submitted for postmortem diagnosis, and fresh feces from live birds in parks. A secondary objective was to characterize Campylobacter genotypes using comparative genomic fingerprinting. Salmonella and E. coli isolates were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance test panel. A total of 71 samples were collected from 15 different waterfowl species. We detected Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli in 17, 3, and 84% of samples, respectively. Ten unique Campylobacter subtypes were identified, some of which had been identified previously in water, poultry, waterfowl, and human clinical cases. Both Salmonella isolates were pansusceptible and 15% of E. coli isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, including resistance to antimicrobials of highest importance to human health. Source attribution studies should examine the role of waterfowl in the dissemination of these pathogens.

10.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(1): 60-72, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288954

RESUMO

From May through October 2016, we conducted a repeated cross-sectional study examining the effects of temporal, spatial, flock and demographic factors (i.e. juvenile vs. adult) on the prevalence of Campylobacter and antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae among 344 fresh faecal samples collected from Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from four locations where birds nested in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter among all fresh faecal samples was 9.3% and was greatest in the fall when these birds became more mobile following the nesting season. Based on 40 gene comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF40), the increase in prevalence noted in the fall was matched by an increase in the number of unique CGF40 subtypes identified. Resistance to colistin was detected most commonly, in 6% of Escherichia coli isolates, and was highest in the late summer months. All colistin-resistant isolates were negative for the mcr-1 to mcr-5 genes; a chromosomal resistance mechanism (PmrB) was identified in all of these isolates. The prevalence of samples with E. coli exhibiting multi-class resistance or extended spectrum beta-lactamase was low (i.e. <2% of samples). The intra-class correlation coefficients, estimated from the variance components of multilevel logistic regression models, indicated that the shedding of Campylobacter and antimicrobial resistant E. coli among geese within a flock (i.e. birds collected from the same site on the same day) was moderately correlated. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal clusters identified using the spatial scan statistic, largely supported the findings from our multi-level models. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the fresh faecal samples collected suggesting that its prevalence in this population of birds was very low.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Gansos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
11.
Can J Vet Res ; 82(4): 312-315, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363381

RESUMO

Colistin is one of the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infections in humans, but transmissible colistin-resistance genes have emerged in bacteria from animals. The rapid and sensitive detection among animals of colonization with bacteria carrying these genes is critical in helping to control further spread. Here we describe a method for broth enrichment of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli from animal fecal and cecal samples followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the simultaneous detection of two of the main colistin-resistance genes, mcr-1 and mcr-2. The PCR uses a single set of nondegenerative primers, and mcr variants can be differentiated by melt-curve analysis. Overnight culture enrichment was effective for amplifying colistin-resistant E. coli, even when initially present in numbers as low as 10 bacteria per gram of sample. The mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes were not found in any of the Ontario swine and poultry samples investigated.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia
12.
Can J Vet Res ; 82(3): 163-177, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026640

RESUMO

Poultry has been identified as a reservoir of foodborne enteric pathogens and antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to describe and compare antimicrobial resistant isolates from an Ontario broiler chicken farm-level baseline project (2003 to 2004) to the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) Ontario abattoir and retail surveillance data from 2003, and to the most recent (2015) CIPARS Ontario chicken surveillance data in order to assess the impact of an industry-wide policy change in antimicrobial use. Ceftiofur resistance (TIO-R) prevalence in Salmonella decreased by 7% on farm between 2003 and 2004 and 2015. During the same timeframe, TIO-R E. coli prevalence decreased significantly by 16%, 11%, and 8% in farm, abattoir, and retail samples, respectively. Gentamicin resistant (GEN-R) E. coli, however, increased by 10% in farm and 15% in retail-derived isolates, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistant (TMSm-R) E. coli increased significantly by 20%, 18%, and 5% in farm, abattoir, and retail isolates, respectively. Similarly, ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIP-R) Campylobacter spp. significantly increased in retail isolates by 11% and increased in farm (33%) and abattoir isolates (7%). The decrease in TIO-R Salmonella/E. coli in recent years is consistent with the timing of an industry-led intervention eliminating the preventive use of ceftiofur, a third generation cephalosporin and class of antimicrobials deemed critically important to human medicine. The rise in GEN-R and TMSm-R prevalence is indicative of recent shifts in antimicrobial use. Our study highlights the importance of integrated surveillance in detecting emerging trends and determining the efficacy of interventions to improve food safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Matadouros , Animais , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Ontário , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 213: 82-88, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29292008

RESUMO

There is little information on the genetic basis of resistance to the critically important extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in Enterobacteriaceae from dogs in Canada. This study assessed the frequency of ESC resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from dogs in Ontario and the distribution of major ESC resistance genes in these bacteria. A total of 542 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 506 clinical samples from two diagnostic laboratories in Ontario. Eighty-eight ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and 217 Escherichia coli were isolated from 234 fecal samples from dogs collected at leash-free dog parks. These fecal isolates were tested for ESC resistance along with the clinical isolates. Isolates with reduced ESC susceptibility were screened for blaCMY, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV, and all CTX-M-positive isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing. The prevalence of ESC resistance in clinical Enterobacteriaceae was 10.4%. The average frequency of fecal carriage of ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in healthy dogs was 26.5%. The majority of ESC-resistant isolates were E. coli and the other major Enterobacteriaceae carrying ESC resistance genes were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The results show that the same ESC resistance genes can be found in clinical and fecal Enterobacteriaceae in dogs. The identified E. coli sequence types (including ST131 and ST648) and CTX-M variants (including CTX-M-14, -15, and -27) support the hypothesis of transfer of resistant bacteria between humans and dogs. CTX-M-1 was frequently found in canine fecal Enterobacteriaceae, while it is still rare in human Enterobacteriaceae in Canada, thus suggesting transfer of resistant bacteria to dogs from food animals or other sources.


Assuntos
Resistência às Cefalosporinas/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Infecções por Klebsiella/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 147: 53-57, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254727

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in zoonotic (e.g. Salmonella spp.), pathogenic, and opportunistic (e.g. E. coli) bacteria in animals represents a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and resistance genes to bacteria infecting humans and other animals. This study evaluated the prevalence of E. coli and Salmonella enterica, and the presence of associated AMR in commercial meat, companion, research, and shelter rabbits in Canada. Associations between antimicrobial usage and prevalence of AMR in bacterial isolates were also examined in commercial meat rabbits. Culture and susceptibility testing was conducted on pooled fecal samples from weanling and adult commercial meat rabbits taken during both summer and winter months (n=100, 27 farms), and from pooled laboratory (n=14, 8 laboratory facilities), companion (n=53), and shelter (n=15, 4 shelters) rabbit fecal samples. At the facility level, E. coli was identified in samples from each commercial rabbit farm, laboratory facility, and 3 of 4 shelters, and in 6 of 53 companion rabbit fecal samples. Seventy-nine of 314 (25.2%; CI: 20.7-30.2%) E. coli isolates demonstrated resistance to >1 antimicrobial agent. At least one E. coli isolate resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent was present in samples from 55.6% of commercial farms, and from 25% of each laboratory and shelter facilities, with resistance to tetracycline being most common; no resistance was identified in companion animal samples. Salmonella enterica subsp. was identified exclusively in pooled fecal samples from commercial rabbit farms; Salmonella enterica serovar London from one farm and Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from another. The S. Kentucky isolate was resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, streptomycin, and tetracycline, whereas the S. London isolate was pansusceptible. Routine use of antimicrobials on commercial meat rabbit farms was not significantly associated with the presence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli or S. enterica on farms; trends towards resistance were present when resistance to specific antimicrobial classes was examined. E. coli was widely prevalent in many Canadian domestic rabbit populations, while S. enterica was rare. The prevalence of AMR in isolated bacteria was variable and most common in isolates from commercial meat rabbits (96% of the AMR isolates were from commercial meat rabbit fecal samples). Our results highlight that domestic rabbits, and particularly meat rabbits, may be carriers of phenotypically antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and AMR genes, possibly contributing to transmission of these bacteria and their genes to bacteria in humans through food or direct contact, as well as to other co-housed animal species.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 203: 149-157, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619137

RESUMO

Antimicrobials are frequently used for the prevention of avian colibacillosis, with gentamicin used for this purpose in Québec until 2003. Ceftiofur was also used similarly, but voluntarily withdrawn in 2005 due to increasing resistance. Spectinomycin-lincomycin was employed as a replacement, but ceftiofur use was partially reinstated in 2007 until its definitive ban by the poultry industry in 2014. Gentamicin resistance frequency increased during the past decade in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Québec, despite this antimicrobial no longer being used. Since this increase coincided with the use of spectinomycin-lincomycin, co-selection of gentamicin resistance through spectinomycin was suspected. Therefore, relationships between spectinomycin, gentamicin, and ceftiofur resistance determinants were investigated here. The distribution of 13 avian pathogenic E. coli virulence-associated genes and their association with spectinomycin resistance were also assessed. A sample of 586 E. coli isolates from chickens with colibacillosis in Québec between 2009 and 2013 was used. The major genes identified for resistance to ceftiofur, gentamicin, and spectinomycin were blaCMY, aac(3)-VI, and aadA, respectively. The aadA and aac(3)-VI genes were strongly associated and shown to be located on a modified class 1 integron. The aadA and blaCMY genes were negatively associated, but when present together, were generally located on the same plasmids. No statistical positive association was observed between aadA and virulence genes, and virulence genes were only rarely detected on plasmids encoding spectinomycin resistance. Thus, the use of spectinomycin-lincomycin may likely select for gentamicin but not ceftiofur resistance, nor for any of the virulence-associated genes investigated.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Integrons , Plasmídeos , Quebeque , Espectinomicina/farmacologia , Virulência/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0179384, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658278

RESUMO

There is a paucity of data on the reason for and the quantity of antimicrobials used in broiler chickens in Canada. To address this, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) implemented surveillance of antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in broiler chicken flocks in 2013. Shortly after this (2014), the poultry industry banned the preventive use of ceftiofur in broiler chickens. The objectives of this analysis were to describe antimicrobial use (AMU) in Canadian broiler chickens between 2013 and 2015 (n = 378 flocks), compare these results to other animal species in Canada, to highlight the utility of farm surveillance data to evaluate the impact of a policy change, and to explore how different antimicrobial use metrics might affect data interpretation and communication. The surveillance data indicated that the poultry industry policy resulted in lower antimicrobial use and resistance, and they successfully captured information on when, where, why, and how much antimicrobials were being used. The majority of antimicrobials were administered via the feed (95%). The relative frequency of antimicrobial classes used in broiler chickens differed from those used in swine or in food animal production in general. Coccidiostats were the most frequently used antimicrobial classes (53% of total kg). Excluding coccidiostats, the top three most frequently used antimicrobial classes were bacitracin (53% of flocks), virginiamycin (25%) and avilamycin (21%), mainly used for the prevention of necrotic enteritis. Depending on the AMU metric utilized, the relative rankings of the top antimicrobials changed; hence the choice of the AMU metric is an important consideration for any AMU reporting. When using milligrams/Population Correction Unit (mg/PCU) the top three antimicrobial classes used were bacitracins (76 mg/PCU), trimethoprim-sulfonamides (24 mg/PCU), and penicillins (15 mg/PCU), whereas when using a number of Defined Daily Doses in animals using Canadian standards /1,000 chicken-days at risk (nDDDvetCA/1,000 CD) the ranking was bacitracins (223 nDDDvetCA/1,000 CD), streptogramins (118 nDDDvetCA/1,000 CD), and trimethoprim-sulfonamides (87 nDDDvetCA/1,000 CD). The median animal treatment days in feed for one cycle (ATD/cycle) during the three-year study were 34 ATD/cycle; this was equal to the mean age of the flocks at pre-harvest sampling day (days at risk), indicating that the studied flocks except those that were raised without antibiotics and organic, were fed with medicated rations throughout the observation period. Overall, more than half (59%) of antimicrobials used in broiler chickens were in classes not used in human medicine, such as ionophores and chemical coccidiostats aimed to prevent coccidiosis. Compared to grower-finisher pigs and in production animal species (national sales data), the mg/PCU of antimicrobials used in broiler chickens was relatively lower. The findings of this paper highlighted the importance of farm-level AMU surveillance in measuring the impact of interventions to reduce antimicrobials in poultry.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Canadá , Galinhas , Enterite/prevenção & controle
17.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0165303, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27829035

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to livestock, human and environmental health. Although resistant bacteria have been detected in wildlife, their role in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance is not clear. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal and climatic factors associated with carriage of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in raccoons and the environment. We collected samples from raccoon paws and feces and from soil, manure pit and dumpsters on five swine farms and five conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011-2013 and tested them for E. coli and susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials. Of samples testing positive for E. coli, resistance to ≥ 1 antimicrobials was detected in 7.4% (77/1044; 95% CI, 5.9-9.1) of raccoon fecal samples, 6.3% (23/365; 95% CI, 4.0-9.3) of paw samples, 9.6% (121/1260; 8.0-11.4) of soil samples, 57.4% (31/54; 95% CI, 43.2-70.8) of manure pit samples, and 13.8% (4/29; 95% CI, 3.9-31.7) of dumpster samples. Using univariable logistic regression, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of resistant E. coli in raccoon feces on conservation areas versus farms; however, E. coli isolates resistant to ≥ 1 antimicrobials were significantly less likely to be detected from raccoon paw samples on swine farms than conservation areas and significantly more likely to be detected in soil samples from swine farms than conservation areas. Resistant phenotypes and genotypes that were absent from the swine farm environment were detected in raccoons from conservation areas, suggesting that conservation areas and swine farms may have different exposures to resistant bacteria. However, the similar resistance patterns and genes in E. coli from raccoon fecal and environmental samples from the same location types suggest that resistant bacteria may be exchanged between raccoons and their environment.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Guaxinins/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Membro Anterior/microbiologia , Genótipo , Membro Posterior/microbiologia , Esterco/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia do Solo , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0161497, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27611198

RESUMO

Salmonella has been detected in the feces of many wildlife species, including raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella in wildlife living in different habitat types. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal, and climatic factors associated with the carriage of Salmonella in raccoons and their environment on swine farms and conservation areas. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we collected fecal samples from raccoons and environmental samples (soil, manure pits, dumpsters) on 5 swine farms and 5 conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011-2013. Salmonella was detected in 26% (279/1093; 95% CI 22.9-28.2) of raccoon fecal samples, 6% (88/1609; 95% CI 4.5-6.8) of soil samples, 30% (21/69; 95% CI 20.0-42.7) of manure pit samples, and 23% (7/31; 95% CI 9.6-41.0) of dumpster samples. Of samples testing positive for Salmonella, antimicrobial resistance was detected in 5% (14/279; 95% CI 2.8-8.3) of raccoon fecal, 8% (7/89; 95% CI 3.2-15.5) of soil, 10% (2/21; 95% CI 1.2-30.4) of manure pit, and 0/7 dumpster samples. Using multi-level multivariable logistic regression analyses, we found location type (swine farm or conservation area) was not a significant explanatory variable for Salmonella occurrence in raccoon feces or soil (p > 0.05). However, detection of Salmonella in raccoon feces was associated with rainfall, season, and sex with various interaction effects among these variables. We detected a variety of Salmonella serovars that infect humans and livestock in the feces of raccoons indicating that raccoons living near humans, regardless of location type, may play a role in the epidemiology of salmonellosis in livestock and humans in southwestern Ontario.


Assuntos
Demografia , Meio Ambiente , Fazendas , Guaxinins/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella , Estações do Ano , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Microbiologia Ambiental , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ontário/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
20.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0158515, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27391966

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance systems are generally not specifically designed to detect emerging resistances and usually focus primarily on resistance to individual drugs. Evaluating the diversity of resistance, using ecological metrics, allows the assessment of sampling protocols with regard to the detection of rare phenotypes, comprising combinations of resistances. Surveillance data of phenotypic AMR of Canadian poultry Salmonella Heidelberg and swine Salmonella Typhimurium var. 5- were used to contrast active (representative isolates derived from healthy animals) and passive (diagnostic isolates) surveillance and assess their suitability for detecting emerging resistance patterns. Although in both datasets the prevalences of resistance to individual antimicrobials were not significantly different between the two surveillance systems, analysis of the diversity of entire resistance phenotypes demonstrated that passive surveillance of diagnostic isolates detected more unique phenotypes. Whilst the most appropriate surveillance method will depend on the relevant objectives, under the conditions of this study, passive surveillance of diagnostic isolates was more effective for the detection of rare and therefore potentially emerging resistance phenotypes.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Teóricos , Vigilância da População , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonelose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Suínos
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