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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566187

RESUMO

Parental divorce is one of the most stressful life events for youth and is often associated with (long-lasting) emotional and behavioral problems (EBP). However, not much is known about the timing of the emergence of these EBP in adolescents relative to the moment of parental divorce, and its longitudinal effects. We therefore assessed this timing of EBP in adolescents of divorce and its longitudinal effects. We used the first four waves of the TRacking Adolescent's Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort, which included 2230 10-12 years olds at baseline. EBP were measured through the Youth Self-Report (YSR), as internalizing and externalizing problems. We applied multilevel analysis to assess the effect of divorce on EBP. The levels of both internalizing and externalizing problems were significantly higher in the period after parental divorce (ß = 0.03, and 0.03, respectively; p < 0.05), but not in the period before divorce, with a persistent and increasing effect over the follow-up periods compared to adolescents not experiencing divorce. Adolescents tend to develop more EBP in the period after parental divorce, not before. These effects are long-lasting and underline the need for better care for children with divorcing parents.

2.
Eur J Public Health ; 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School health services (SHS) can be defined as health services provided to enrol pupils by health professionals and/or allied professions. The aim of this study was to explore the current state of the governance, organization and workforce of SHS and their provision of preventive activities in European countries. METHODS: Observational study. Data were collected as part of the Horizon 2020-funded project 'Models of Child Health Appraised'. Only 1 expert from each of the 30 included European countries answered a closed-items questionnaire during the years 2017 and 2018. RESULTS: All countries (except Spain and the Czech Republic, which do not have formal SHS) provided school-based individual screening and health-enhancing measures. The majority performed height, weight, vision and hearing checks; some integrated other assessments of limited evidence-based effectiveness. Most countries also delivered health education and promotion activities in areas, such as sexual health, substance use and healthy nutrition. Almost all countries seemed to suffer from a shortage of school health professionals; moreover, many of these professionals had no specific training in the area of school health and prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Many EU countries need better administrative and legal support. They should promote evidence-based screening procedures and should hire and train more school health professionals. Overall, they need to adapt to the evolving health priorities of pupils, adopt a more holistic paradigm and extend their activities beyond traditional screening or vaccination procedures.

3.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 84, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moderately-late preterm (MLP) children (gestational age [GA] 32-36 weeks) are followed-up within community services, which often use developmental milestones as indicators of delay. We aimed to examine associations of parental report of smiling-age and walking-age with developmental delay upon school entry for MLP and full-term children. METHODS: This study regards a community-based cohort study, including 1241 children. Parent-reported smiling-age (n = 514) and walking-age (n = 1210) were recorded in preventive child healthcare. To determine developmental delay at school entry (at age 4) we used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) total and domain scores. We assessed the association of smiling-age and walking-age with dichotomized ASQ-scores, using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: For MLP children, each week later corrected smiling-age was associated with a relative increased likelihood of delays of 31, 43, 36 and 35% in the personal-social, problem-solving, gross motor and general developmental functioning, respectively. Each month later corrected walking-age was associated with a relative increased likelihood of delays of 10, 15 and 13% in the personal-social, gross motor and general developmental functioning, respectively. All corrected smiling-ages and walking-ages were within normal full-term ranges. For full-term children, we only found that later walking-age was associated with delays in the personal-social and gross motor domains. CONCLUSIONS: Smiling-age and walking-age are associated with developmental delay in several domains for MLP and full-term children. Professionals could use these milestones to identify children that may benefit from closer monitoring of their development. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry name and registration number: controlled-trials.com , ISRCTN80622320 .

4.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Near-infrared spectroscopy is used in the assessment of regional splanchnic oxygen saturation (rsSO2), but solid reference values are scarce. We aimed to establish reference values of rsSO2 for preterm infants during the first week after birth, both crude and modeled based on predictors. METHODS: We included infants with gestational age (GA) <32 weeks and/or birth weight <1200 g. We excluded infants who developed necrotizing enterocolitis or sepsis or who died. In the first week after birth, we determined a daily 2-h mean of rsSO2 to assess its associations with sex, GA, postnatal age (PNA), small-for-gestational age (SGA) status, patent ductus arteriosus, hemoglobin, nutrition, and head circumference at birth and translated those into a prediction model. RESULTS: We included 220 infants. On day 1, the mean ± SD rsSO2 value was 48.2% ± 16.6. The nadir of rsSO2 was on day 4 (38.7% ± 16.6 smoothed line) to 5 (37.4%±17.3, actual data), after which rsSO2 increased to 44.2% ± 16.6 on day 7. The final model of the reference values of rsSO2 included the following coefficients: rsSO2 = 3.2 - 7.0 × PNA + 0.8 × PNA2 - 4.0 × SGA + 1.8 × GA. CONCLUSIONS: We established reference values of rsSO2 for preterm infants during the first week after birth. GA, PNA, and SGA affect these values and need to be taken into account. IMPACT: Regional splanchnic oxygen saturation is lower in infants with a lower gestational age and in small-for-gestational age infants. Regional splanchnic oxygen saturation decreases with a higher postnatal age until day 4 after birth and then increases until day 7 after birth. Gestational age, postnatal age, and small-for-gestational age status affect regional splanchnic oxygen saturation and need to be taken into account when interpreting regional splanchnic oxygen saturations using NIRS. Reference values for infant regional splanchnic oxygen saturation can be computed with a formula based on these variables, as provided by this study.

5.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus regarding the definition of pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study assessed the impact of alternative definitions on the prevalence, children identified, and association with socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: Data were from the prospective multigenerational Dutch Lifelines Cohort Study. At baseline, 9754 children participated, and 5085 (52.1%) with average follow-up of 3.0 (SD = 0.75) years were included in the longitudinal analyses; median ages were 12 (IQR = 10-14) and 14 years (IQR = 12-15), respectively. We computed MetS prevalence according to five published definitions and measured the observed proportion of positive agreement. We used logistic regression to assess the SES-MetS association, adjusted for age and sex. Longitudinal models were also adjusted for baseline MetS. RESULTS: MetS prevalence and positive agreement varied between definitions, from 0.7 to 3.0% and from 0.34 (95% CI: 0.28; 0.41) to 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58; 0.75) at baseline, respectively. We consistently found a socioeconomic gradient; in the longitudinal analyses, each additional year of parental education reduced the odds of having MetS by 8% (95% CI: 1%; 14%) to 19% (95% CI: 7%; 30%). CONCLUSIONS: Alternative MetS definitions had differing prevalence estimates and agreed on 50% of the average number of cases. Additionally, regardless of the definition, low SES was a risk factor for MetS. IMPACT: Little is known about the impact of using different definitions of pediatric metabolic syndrome on study results. Our study showed that the choice of pediatric metabolic syndrome definition produces very different prevalence estimates. We also showed that the choice of definition influences the socioeconomic gradient. However, low socioeconomic status was consistently a risk factor for having pediatric metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, studies using different definitions of metabolic syndrome could be reasonably compared when investigating the association with socioeconomic status but not always validly when comparing prevalence studies.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited health literacy (LHL) is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Interventions are needed to improve this situation, but evidence on intervention targets and strategies is lacking. This systematic review aims to identify potential targets and strategies by summarizing the evidence on: (i) patient- and system-level factors potentially mediating the relation between LHL and health outcomes; and (ii) the effectiveness of health literacy interventions customized to CKD patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of peer-reviewed research articles in Medline, Embase and Web of Science, 2009-19. We assessed the quality of the studies and conducted a best-evidence synthesis. RESULTS: We identified 860 publications and included 48 studies. Most studies were of low quality (n = 26) and focused on dialysis and transplantation (n = 38). We found strong evidence for an association of LHL with smoking and having a suboptimal transplantation process. Evidence was weak for associations between LHL and a variety of factors related to self-care management (n = 25), utilization of care (n = 23), patient-provider interaction (n = 8) and social context (n = 5). Six interventions were aimed at improving knowledge, decision-making and health behaviours, but evidence for their effectiveness was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Study heterogeneity, low quality and focus on kidney failure largely impede the identification of intervention targets and strategies for LHL. More and higher quality studies in earlier CKD stages are needed to unravel how LHL leads to worse health outcomes, and to identify targets and strategies to prevent disease deterioration. Healthcare organizations need to develop and evaluate efforts to support LHL patients.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187306

RESUMO

Our aim was to develop a prediction model for infants from the general population, with easily obtainable predictors, that accurately predicts risk of future developmental delay at age 4 and then assess its performance. Longitudinal cohort data were used (N = 1983), including full-term and preterm children. Development at age 4 was assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Candidate predictors included perinatal and parental factors as well as growth and developmental milestones during the first two years. We applied multiple logistic regression with backwards selection and internal validation, and we assessed calibration and discriminative performance (i.e., area under the curve (AUC)). The model was evaluated in terms of sensitivity and specificity at several cut-off values. The final model included sex, maternal educational level, pre-existing maternal obesity, several milestones (smiling, speaking 2-3 word sentences, standing) and weight for height z score at age 1. The fit was good, and the discriminative performance was high (AUC: 0.837). Sensitivity and specificity were 73% and 80% at a cut-off probability of 10%. Our model is promising for use as a prediction tool in community-based settings. It could aid to identify infants in early life (age 2) with increased risk of future developmental problems at age 4 that may benefit from early interventions.

8.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199855

RESUMO

We aimed to obtain reliable reference charts for sleep duration, estimate the prevalence of sleep complaints across the lifespan and identify risk indicators of poor sleep. Studies were identified through systematic literature search in Embase, Medline and Web of Science (9 August 2019) and through personal contacts. Eligible studies had to be published between 2000 and 2017 with data on sleep assessed with questionnaires including ≥100 participants from the general population. We assembled individual participant data from 200,358 people (aged 1-100 years, 55% female) from 36 studies from the Netherlands, 471,759 people (40-69 years, 55.5% female) from the United Kingdom and 409,617 people (≥18 years, 55.8% female) from the United States. One in four people slept less than age-specific recommendations, but only 5.8% slept outside of the 'acceptable' sleep duration. Among teenagers, 51.5% reported total sleep times (TST) of less than the recommended 8-10 h and 18% report daytime sleepiness. In adults (≥18 years), poor sleep quality (13.3%) and insomnia symptoms (9.6-19.4%) were more prevalent than short sleep duration (6.5% with TST < 6 h). Insomnia symptoms were most frequent in people spending ≥9 h in bed, whereas poor sleep quality was more frequent in those spending <6 h in bed. TST was similar across countries, but insomnia symptoms were 1.5-2.9 times higher in the United States. Women (≥41 years) reported sleeping shorter times or slightly less efficiently than men, whereas with actigraphy they were estimated to sleep longer and more efficiently than man. This study provides age- and sex-specific population reference charts for sleep duration and efficiency which can help guide personalized advice on sleep length and preventive practices.

9.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 581372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178653

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to investigate the feasibility of live-performed music therapy for extremely and very preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and their parents, starting the 1st-2nd week after birth. They may benefit from live-performed music therapy as comforting non-pharmacological intervention. Study Design: We included infants born before 30 weeks' gestation in a single center NICU study. Live-performed music therapy was provided three times per week, tailored to the infant's medical condition. Parents were actively involved. Feasibility was determined as a combination of participation, drop-out, overstimulation (based on COMFORT-Neo scores), and evaluations of the intervention by parents and nurses (using a questionnaire on perceived effects on the parent, their infant and the NICU sound environment). Results: We included 18 infants (90% participation rate), with a gestational age of median 27 weeks (IQR 26-28 weeks), 61% males. One infant (5.6%) dropped-out. Differences of COMFORT-Neo scores during and after sessions compared with before sessions were non-significant; overstimulation by music therapy did not occur. Parents reported high satisfaction (highest score possible of 7) with the interventions and reported improvements in both infant and their own respiratory rates. Nurses also reported high satisfaction with the intervention and perceived a quieter NICU sound environment during and after sessions. Conclusion: Live-performed music therapy for extremely and very preterm infants is feasible and well-tolerated, and is experienced as an added value to developmental care. Future studies should assess both short-term and long-term effects, to determine whether this intervention should be part of routine care at the NICU and whether it is most beneficial to start shortly after birth.

10.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 276, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) is commonly used to group individuals on their development over time, but convergence issues and impossible values are common. This can result in unreliable model estimates. Constraining variance parameters across classes or over time can solve these issues, but can also seriously bias estimates if variances differ. We aimed to determine which variance parameters can best be constrained in Growth Mixture Modeling. METHODS: To identify the variance constraints that lead to the best performance for different sample sizes, we conducted a simulation study and next verified our results with the TRacking Adolescent Individuals' Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort. RESULTS: If variance parameters differed across classes and over time, fitting a model without constraints led to the best results. No constrained model consistently performed well. However, the model that constrained the random effect variance and residual variances across classes consistently performed very poorly. For a small sample size (N = 100) all models showed issues. In TRAILS, the same model showed substantially different results from the other models and performed poorly in terms of model fit. CONCLUSIONS: If possible, a Growth Mixture Model should be fit without any constraints on variance parameters. If not, we recommend to try different variance specifications and to not solely rely on the default model, which constrains random effect variances and residual variances across classes. The variance structure must always be reported Researchers should carefully follow the GRoLTS-Checklist when analyzing and reporting trajectory analyses.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125550

RESUMO

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used, based on evidence of its value for screening. This evidence primarily regards the single informant total difficulties scale and separate difficulties subscales. We assessed to what degree adolescents' SDQ profiles that combined all self- and parent-rated subscales were associated with use of care and psychiatric diagnoses, and examined the added value thereof over using only a single informant and the total scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify common SDQ profiles based on self- and parent-reports among adolescents aged 12-17 in mental healthcare (n = 4282), social care (n = 124), and the general population (n = 1293). We investigated associations of the profiles with 'care use' and 'DSM-IV diagnoses', depending on gender. We identified six common SDQ profiles: five profiles with varying types and severities of reported difficulties, pertaining to 95% of adolescents in care, and one without difficulties, pertaining to 55% of adolescents not in care. The types of reported difficulties in the profiles matched DSM-IV diagnoses for 88% of the diagnosed adolescents. The SDQ profiles were found to be more useful for predicting care use and diagnoses than SDQ scores reported by the adolescent as single informant and the total difficulties scale. The latter indicated the presence of problems among 42-63% of the adolescents in care, missing a substantial number of adolescents with reported emotional difficulties and borderline problem severity. These findings advocate the use of combined self- and parent-rated SDQ score profiles for screening.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126638

RESUMO

Limited health literacy (HL), depression and anxiety are common in dialyzed patients and affect health outcomes and self-management. We explored whether depression and anxiety mediate the association of HL with diet non-adherence (DN-A) in dialyzed patients. We performed a cross-sectional study in 20 dialysis clinics in Slovakia (n = 452; mean age: 63.6 years; males: 60.7%). Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to create three HL groups. Logistic regression adjusted for age, gender and education was used to explore whether depression and anxiety mediate the association of HL with DN-A. Patients in the moderate HL group were more likely to be non-adherent to diet (OR (Odds Ratio)/95% CI: 2.19/1.21-3.99) than patients in the high HL group. Patients in the low HL and moderate HL group more likely reported depression or anxiety. Patients reporting depression (OR/95% CI: 1.94/1.26-2.98) or anxiety (OR/95% CI: 1.81/1.22-2.69) were more likely to be non-adherent with diet. Adjustment for depression reduced the association between moderate HL and DN-A by 19.5%. Adjustment for anxiety reduced the association between moderate HL and DN-A by 11.8%. Anxiety and depression partly mediated the association of HL with DN-A. More attention should be paid to treating patients' psychological distress to ensure adequate adherence with recommended diet.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080793

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the motives for undertaking physical activity (PA) items from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study questionnaire among Slovak and Czech adolescents and to determine whether this reliability differs by gender, age group and country. We obtained data from 580 students aged 11 and 15 years old (51.2% boys) who participated in a test and retest study with a four-week interval in 2013 via the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. We estimated the test-retest reliability of all 13 dichotomized motives by using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and Cohen's Kappa statistics, for continuous and dichotomized motives, respectively. Test-retest reliability showed moderate agreement for nine motives (ICC from 0.41 to 0.60) and fair agreement for four motives (ICC from 0.33 to 0.40). Kappa statistics were similarly moderate to large (0.33 to 0.61), except for three motives with small or trivial correlations. The motives "To improve my health" and "To enjoy the feeling of using my body" had consistently low Kappas and correlations. Overall, the results of this study suggest that most questions on motives for PA on the HBSC questionnaire have acceptable test-retest characteristics for use among adolescents.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878227

RESUMO

Socioeconomic health inequalities are an important global public health problem. However, it is not well known to what extent socioeconomic inequalities culminate in impaired vitamin status and whether this is mediated by diet. We, therefore, aimed to assess vitamin status in a population already at increased risk of micronutrient deficiency, i.e., elderly with high and low socioeconomic status (SES), and to investigate whether potential differences therein were mediated by diet quality. Vitamin status in 1605 individuals (60-75 years) from the Lifelines- Micronutrients and Health inequalities in Elderly (MINUTHE) Study was assessed by measuring folic acid and the vitamins B6, B12, D, A, E, and K. Multinomial logistic and linear regression analyses were applied to test the associations between SES and vitamin status. Mediation analysis was used to explore the interrelationship between SES, diet quality, and vitamin status. Low SES was associated with poorer status of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and, notably, folic acid. Moreover, multivitamin deficiencies were more prevalent in the low SES group. Diet quality was found to mediate the associations of SES with folic acid (for 39.1%), vitamin B6 (for 37.1%), and vitamin B12 (for 37.2%). We conclude that low SES is a risk factor for a spectrum of vitamin deficiencies. Diet quality can partially explain the socioeconomic differences in vitamin status, suggesting that policymakers can mitigate socioeconomic inequality in nutritional status through improving diet quality.

15.
Int J Public Health ; 65(8): 1413-1421, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Education is an important tool to reduce health inequalities. Several factors influence the educational trajectory of children, with school satisfaction being one of them. The aim was to explore how learning difficulties, a disrupted social context and family affluence relate to school satisfaction. METHODS: We used data from the 2018 Slovak cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children-study (age 15 years; N = 913; 50.3% boys). School satisfaction was categorized as liking school and caring about education (satisfied), disliking school but caring about education or vice versa (inconsistent), and disliking school and not caring about education (indifferent). We explored the association of learning difficulties, disrupted social context and family affluence with school satisfaction using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Boys, and children having learning difficulties, or disruption in the social context and living in low affluence family were significantly less likely to be satisfied at school. CONCLUSIONS: The key is to create a stimulating and encouraging environment at school, where children successfully learn functional literacy and feel well. The more satisfaction pupils get from school, the more likely is a favourable educational trajectory for them.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992560

RESUMO

Care for adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) is frequently unequally distributed. Parents may play a role in the access to this care. Therefore, the aim was to explore the association between parental characteristics and their adolescent's enrollment in psychosocial care. We used data from the Care4Youth cohort study. Our sample consisted of 446 adolescents (mean age 13.22 years, 48% boys) and 382 parents (mean age 42.95 years, 14% males). EBP combined with enrollment created four groups: 1, no EBP/no care; 2, no EBP/care; 3, EBP/no care; 4, EBP/care. We assessed differences in parental characteristics among the groups. Group 2 had a significantly lower socioeconomic position (p < 0.01), more psychological distress (p < 0.001), poorer supervision (p < 0.001) and lower family social support (p < 0.05) than Group 1. Group 4 had a significantly lower socioeconomic position (p < 0.01) and poorer supervision (p < 0.001) than Group 1. Group 3 had significantly poorer supervision (p < 0.001) than Group 4. The poor supervision in Group 3 requires attention, as these adolescents receive no care. The quality of parental supervision should be addressed generally, e.g., by providing better parenting support and more parental training.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15597, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973233

RESUMO

The miRNA-206 and miRNA-23a play an important role in muscle tissue hypertrophy, regeneration and atrophy. Both of these miRNAs have been highlighted as promising adaptation predictors; however, the available evidence on associations is inconclusive. Therefore, our aim was to assess the expression levels of these two miRNAs as predictors of change in muscle function during strength training and physical inactivity among dialysed patients. For this purpose, 46 haemodialysis patients were monitored for 12-weeks of either intradialytic strength training (EXG, n = 20) or physical inactivity during dialysis (CON, n = 26). In both groups of patients, we assessed the baseline expression levels of miRNA-23a and miRNA-206 and the isometric force generated during hip flexion (HF) contraction before and after the 12-week period. Among the EXG group, the expression of miRNA-206 predicted the change in HF (R2 = 0.63, p = 0.0005) much more strongly than the expression of miRNA-23a (R2 = 0.21, p = 0.027). Interestingly, baseline miRNA-23a (R2 = 0.30, p = 0.006) predicted the change in HF much more than miRNA-206 (p = ns) among the CON group. Our study indicates that the baseline expression of miRNA-206 could predict the response to strength training, while miRNA-23a could serve as a potential predictive marker of functional changes during physical inactivity in dialysis patients.

18.
Int J Public Health ; 65(8): 1423-1429, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of teacher and classmate support with school satisfaction in adolescents, and whether gender modifies these associations. METHODS: Data were used from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected in 2018 among Slovak 15-year-old adolescents (N = 931; 50.6% boys). School satisfaction was measured by school engagement and attitudes towards education leading to three groups of adolescents: satisfied, inconsistent and indifferent. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the associations of teacher and classmate support with school satisfaction and its modification by gender. RESULTS: Adolescents who experienced support from teachers and classmates were less likely to feel indifferent (OR/95% CI: 0.77/0.70-0.85; and 0.76/0.67-0.85, respectively) or inconsistent (OR/95% CI: 0.84/0.77-0.92; and 0.73/0.65-0.81, respectively) than to feel satisfied than adolescents who did not experience such support. Adolescents who experienced support from teachers were less prone to feel indifferent than to feel inconsistent (OR/95% CI: 0.92/0.87-0.97). Gender did not modify the associations of social support with school satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Teacher and classmate support keep adolescents satisfied with school and education and might increase their chances for a healthy development.

19.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 408, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903831

RESUMO

Humans and their gut microbiota have co-evolved over thousands of years, resulting in the establishment of a complex host-microbiota ecosystem. Early life environmental factors, such as delivery mode, nutrition, and medication use, have been shown to substantially affect both host-microbiota interactions and health outcomes. However, the effects of urbanization (characterized by the spectrum of rural and urban populations) on these early life events have been overlooked. A deeper understanding of the relationship between urbanization and microbiota development will allow for the identification of novel biological and social approaches that can be implemented to prevent and treat disease and promote maternal and infant/child health. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize how factors associated with urbanization differentially impact delivery mode, nutrition, and medication use, and how these changes subsequently affect the gut microbiota and health outcomes of infants. This narrative review also describes the important evidence gaps associated with these relationships and recommends actions that can be taken to improve the health of mothers and infants worldwide.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ageing of people with intellectual disabilities, with associated morbidity like dementia, calls for new types of care. Person-centred methods may support care staff in providing this, an example being Dementia Care Mapping (DCM). DCM has been shown to be feasible in ID-care. We examined the experiences of ID-professionals in using DCM. METHODS: We performed a mixed-methods study, using quantitative data from care staff (N = 136) and qualitative data (focus-groups, individual interviews) from care staff, group home managers and DCM-in-intellectual disabilities mappers (N = 53). RESULTS: DCM provided new insights into the behaviours of clients, enabled professional reflection and gave new knowledge and skills regarding dementia and person-centred care. Appreciation of DCM further increased after the second cycle of application. CONCLUSION: DCM is perceived as valuable in ID-care. Further assessment is needed of its effectiveness in ID-care with respect to quality of care, staff-client interactions and job performance.

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