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1.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662402

RESUMO

While some variation introgressed from Neanderthals has undergone selective sweeps, little is known about its functional significance. We used a Massively Parallel Reporter Assay (MPRA) to assay 5,353 high-frequency introgressed variants for their ability to modulate the gene expression within 170bp of endogenous sequence. We identified 2,548 variants in active putative cis-regulatory elements (CREs) and 292 expression-modulating variants (emVars). These emVars are predicted to alter the binding motifs of important immune transcription factors, are enriched for associations with neutrophil and white blood cell count, and are associated with the expression of genes that function in innate immune pathways including inflammatory response and antiviral defense. We combined the MPRA data with other datasets to identify strong candidates to be driver variants of positive selection including an emVar that may contribute to protection against severe COVID-19 response. We endogenously deleted two CREs containing expression-modulation variants linked to immune function, rs11624425 and rs80317430, identifying their primary genic targets as ELMSAN1, and PAN2 and STAT2 respectively, three genes differentially expressed during influenza infection. Overall, we present the first database of experimentally identified expression-modulating Neanderthal-introgressed alleles contributing to potential immune response in modern humans.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5242, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475398

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at >250 loci in the human genome to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. For each locus, identifying the functional variant(s) among multiple SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium is critical to understand molecular mechanisms underlying T2D genetic risk. Using massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA), we test the cis-regulatory effects of SNPs associated with T2D and altered in vivo islet chromatin accessibility in MIN6 ß cells under steady state and pathophysiologic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. We identify 1,982/6,621 (29.9%) SNP-containing elements that activate transcription in MIN6 and 879 SNP alleles that modulate MPRA activity. Multiple T2D-associated SNPs alter the activity of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-containing elements that are strongly induced by ER stress. We identify 220 functional variants at 104 T2D association signals, narrowing 54 signals to a single candidate SNP. Together, this study identifies elements driving ß cell steady state and ER stress-responsive transcriptional activation, nominates causal T2D SNPs, and uncovers potential roles for repetitive elements in ß cell transcriptional stress response and T2D genetics.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Alelos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Camundongos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Elementos Nucleotídeos Curtos e Dispersos/genética
4.
Cell ; 184(20): 5247-5260.e19, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534445

RESUMO

3' untranslated region (3'UTR) variants are strongly associated with human traits and diseases, yet few have been causally identified. We developed the massively parallel reporter assay for 3'UTRs (MPRAu) to sensitively assay 12,173 3'UTR variants. We applied MPRAu to six human cell lines, focusing on genetic variants associated with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and human evolutionary adaptation. MPRAu expands our understanding of 3'UTR function, suggesting that simple sequences predominately explain 3'UTR regulatory activity. We adapt MPRAu to uncover diverse molecular mechanisms at base pair resolution, including an adenylate-uridylate (AU)-rich element of LEPR linked to potential metabolic evolutionary adaptations in East Asians. We nominate hundreds of 3'UTR causal variants with genetically fine-mapped phenotype associations. Using endogenous allelic replacements, we characterize one variant that disrupts a miRNA site regulating the viral defense gene TRIM14 and one that alters PILRB abundance, nominating a causal variant underlying transcriptional changes in age-related macular degeneration.

5.
Nat Genet ; 53(8): 1166-1176, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326544

RESUMO

Effective interpretation of genome function and genetic variation requires a shift from epigenetic mapping of cis-regulatory elements (CREs) to characterization of endogenous function. We developed hybridization chain reaction fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with flow cytometry (HCR-FlowFISH), a broadly applicable approach to characterize CRISPR-perturbed CREs via accurate quantification of native transcripts, alongside CRISPR activity screen analysis (CASA), a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify CRE activity. Across >325,000 perturbations, we provide evidence that CREs can regulate multiple genes, skip over the nearest gene and display activating and/or silencing effects. At the cholesterol-level-associated FADS locus, we combine endogenous screens with reporter assays to exhaustively characterize multiple genome-wide association signals, functionally nominate causal variants and, importantly, identify their target genes.


Assuntos
Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Desoxirribonuclease I/genética , Desoxirribonuclease I/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Fator de Transcrição GATA1/genética , Humanos , Células K562 , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA Guia
6.
Science ; 371(6529)2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303686

RESUMO

Analysis of 772 complete severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomes from early in the Boston-area epidemic revealed numerous introductions of the virus, a small number of which led to most cases. The data revealed two superspreading events. One, in a skilled nursing facility, led to rapid transmission and significant mortality in this vulnerable population but little broader spread, whereas other introductions into the facility had little effect. The second, at an international business conference, produced sustained community transmission and was exported, resulting in extensive regional, national, and international spread. The two events also differed substantially in the genetic variation they generated, suggesting varying transmission dynamics in superspreading events. Our results show how genomic epidemiology can help to understand the link between individual clusters and wider community spread.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(2)2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372131

RESUMO

Genetic changes that altered the function of gene regulatory elements have been implicated in the evolution of human traits such as the expansion of the cerebral cortex. However, identifying the particular changes that modified regulatory activity during human evolution remain challenging. Here we used massively parallel enhancer assays in neural stem cells to quantify the functional impact of >32,000 human-specific substitutions in >4,300 human accelerated regions (HARs) and human gain enhancers (HGEs), which include enhancers with novel activities in humans. We found that >30% of active HARs and HGEs exhibited differential activity between human and chimpanzee. We isolated the effects of human-specific substitutions from background genetic variation to identify the effects of genetic changes most relevant to human evolution. We found that substitutions interacted in both additive and nonadditive ways to modify enhancer function. Substitutions within HARs, which are highly constrained compared to HGEs, showed smaller effects on enhancer activity, suggesting that the impact of human-specific substitutions is buffered in enhancers with constrained ancestral functions. Our findings yield insight into how human-specific genetic changes altered enhancer function and provide a rich set of candidates for studies of regulatory evolution in humans.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Neocórtex , Pan troglodytes/genética
8.
medRxiv ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869040

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a severe, ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 in Massachusetts with 111,070 confirmed cases and 8,433 deaths as of August 1, 2020. To investigate the introduction, spread, and epidemiology of COVID-19 in the Boston area, we sequenced and analyzed 772 complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the region, including nearly all confirmed cases within the first week of the epidemic and hundreds of cases from major outbreaks at a conference, a nursing facility, and among homeless shelter guests and staff. The data reveal over 80 introductions into the Boston area, predominantly from elsewhere in the United States and Europe. We studied two superspreading events covered by the data, events that led to very different outcomes because of the timing and populations involved. One produced rapid spread in a vulnerable population but little onward transmission, while the other was a major contributor to sustained community transmission, including outbreaks in homeless populations, and was exported to several other domestic and international sites. The same two events differed significantly in the number of new mutations seen, raising the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 superspreading might encompass disparate transmission dynamics. Our results highlight the failure of measures to prevent importation into MA early in the outbreak, underscore the role of superspreading in amplifying an outbreak in a major urban area, and lay a foundation for contact tracing informed by genetic data.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1237, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144282

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have associated thousands of genetic variants with complex traits and diseases, but pinpointing the causal variant(s) among those in tight linkage disequilibrium with each associated variant remains a major challenge. Here, we use seven experimental assays to characterize all common variants at the multiple disease-associated TNFAIP3 locus in five disease-relevant immune cell lines, based on a set of features related to regulatory potential. Trait/disease-associated variants are enriched among SNPs prioritized based on either: (1) residing within CRISPRi-sensitive regulatory regions, or (2) localizing in a chromatin accessible region while displaying allele-specific reporter activity. Of the 15 trait/disease-associated haplotypes at TNFAIP3, 9 have at least one variant meeting one or both of these criteria, 5 of which are further supported by genetic fine-mapping. Our work provides a comprehensive strategy to characterize genetic variation at important disease-associated loci, and aids in the effort to identify trait causal genetic variants.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Proteína 3 Induzida por Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/imunologia , Haplótipos/genética , Haplótipos/imunologia , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Herança Multifatorial/imunologia , Estudo de Prova de Conceito
11.
Cell ; 165(6): 1519-1529, 2016 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27259153

RESUMO

Although studies have identified hundreds of loci associated with human traits and diseases, pinpointing causal alleles remains difficult, particularly for non-coding variants. To address this challenge, we adapted the massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) to identify variants that directly modulate gene expression. We applied it to 32,373 variants from 3,642 cis-expression quantitative trait loci and control regions. Detection by MPRA was strongly correlated with measures of regulatory function. We demonstrate MPRA's capabilities for pinpointing causal alleles, using it to identify 842 variants showing differential expression between alleles, including 53 well-annotated variants associated with diseases and traits. We investigated one in detail, a risk allele for ankylosing spondylitis, and provide direct evidence of a non-coding variant that alters expression of the prostaglandin EP4 receptor. These results create a resource of concrete leads and illustrate the promise of this approach for comprehensively interrogating how non-coding polymorphism shapes human biology.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Técnicas Genéticas , Variação Genética , Alelos , Biblioteca Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espondilite Anquilosante/genética
12.
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet ; 17: 45-67, 2016 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27147089

RESUMO

As a species, we possess unique biological features that distinguish us from other primates. Here, we review recent efforts to identify changes in gene regulation that drove the evolution of novel human phenotypes. We discuss genotype-directed comparisons of human and nonhuman primate genomes to identify human-specific genetic changes that may encode new regulatory functions. We also review phenotype-directed approaches, which use comparisons of gene expression or regulatory function in homologous human and nonhuman primate cells and tissues to identify changes in expression levels or regulatory activity that may be due to genetic changes in humans. Together, these studies are beginning to reveal the landscape of regulatory innovation in human evolution and point to specific regulatory changes for further study. Finally, we highlight two novel strategies to model human-specific regulatory functions in vivo: primate induced pluripotent stem cells and the generation of humanized mice by genome editing.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Animais , Genoma , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos/genética , Primatas/genética
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(19): E2617-26, 2016 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27114548

RESUMO

Morphological innovations such as the mammalian neocortex may involve the evolution of novel regulatory sequences. However, de novo birth of regulatory elements active during morphogenesis has not been extensively studied in mammals. Here, we use H3K27ac-defined regulatory elements active during human and mouse corticogenesis to identify enhancers that were likely active in the ancient mammalian forebrain. We infer the phylogenetic origins of these enhancers and find that ∼20% arose in the mammalian stem lineage, coincident with the emergence of the neocortex. Implementing a permutation strategy that controls for the nonrandom variation in the ages of background genomic sequences, we find that mammal-specific enhancers are overrepresented near genes involved in cell migration, cell signaling, and axon guidance. Mammal-specific enhancers are also overrepresented in modules of coexpressed genes in the cortex that are associated with these pathways, notably ephrin and semaphorin signaling. Our results also provide insight into the mechanisms of regulatory innovation in mammals. We find that most neocortical enhancers did not originate by en bloc exaptation of transposons. Young neocortical enhancers exhibit smaller H3K27ac footprints and weaker evolutionary constraint in eutherian mammals than older neocortical enhancers. Based on these observations, we present a model of the enhancer life cycle in which neocortical enhancers initially emerge from genomic background as short, weakly constrained "proto-enhancers." Many proto-enhancers are likely lost, but some may serve as nucleation points for complex enhancers to evolve.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Morfogênese/genética , Neocórtex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Genéticos , Neocórtex/embriologia , Neocórtex/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6404, 2015 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25752243

RESUMO

Recent studies implicate chromatin modifiers in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through the identification of recurrent de novo loss of function mutations in affected individuals. ASD risk genes are co-expressed in human midfetal cortex, suggesting that ASD risk genes converge in specific regulatory networks during neurodevelopment. To elucidate such networks, we identify genes targeted by CHD8, a chromodomain helicase strongly associated with ASD, in human midfetal brain, human neural stem cells (hNSCs) and embryonic mouse cortex. CHD8 targets are strongly enriched for other ASD risk genes in both human and mouse neurodevelopment, and converge in ASD-associated co-expression networks in human midfetal cortex. CHD8 knockdown in hNSCs results in dysregulation of ASD risk genes directly targeted by CHD8. Integration of CHD8-binding data into ASD risk models improves detection of risk genes. These results suggest loss of CHD8 contributes to ASD by perturbing an ancient gene regulatory network during human brain development.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Modelos Neurológicos , Sistema Nervoso/embriologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
15.
Science ; 347(6226): 1155-9, 2015 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25745175

RESUMO

Human higher cognition is attributed to the evolutionary expansion and elaboration of the human cerebral cortex. However, the genetic mechanisms contributing to these developmental changes are poorly understood. We used comparative epigenetic profiling of human, rhesus macaque, and mouse corticogenesis to identify promoters and enhancers that have gained activity in humans. These gains are significantly enriched in modules of coexpressed genes in the cortex that function in neuronal proliferation, migration, and cortical-map organization. Gain-enriched modules also showed correlated gene expression patterns and similar transcription factor binding site enrichments in promoters and enhancers, suggesting that they are connected by common regulatory mechanisms. Our results reveal coordinated patterns of potential regulatory changes associated with conserved developmental processes during corticogenesis, providing insight into human cortical evolution.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Epigênese Genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Organogênese/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Animais , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Ratos
16.
Cell ; 155(5): 997-1007, 2013 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24267886

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental syndrome of unknown etiology. Recent studies employing exome- and genome-wide sequencing have identified nine high-confidence ASD (hcASD) genes. Working from the hypothesis that ASD-associated mutations in these biologically pleiotropic genes will disrupt intersecting developmental processes to contribute to a common phenotype, we have attempted to identify time periods, brain regions, and cell types in which these genes converge. We have constructed coexpression networks based on the hcASD "seed" genes, leveraging a rich expression data set encompassing multiple human brain regions across human development and into adulthood. By assessing enrichment of an independent set of probable ASD (pASD) genes, derived from the same sequencing studies, we demonstrate a key point of convergence in midfetal layer 5/6 cortical projection neurons. This approach informs when, where, and in what cell types mutations in these specific genes may be productively studied to clarify ASD pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiopatologia , Animais , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/patologia , Exoma , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Feto/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação , Neurônios/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Cell ; 154(1): 185-96, 2013 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23827682

RESUMO

The evolution of human anatomical features likely involved changes in gene regulation during development. However, the nature and extent of human-specific developmental regulatory functions remain unknown. We obtained a genome-wide view of cis-regulatory evolution in human embryonic tissues by comparing the histone modification H3K27ac, which provides a quantitative readout of promoter and enhancer activity, during human, rhesus, and mouse limb development. Based on increased H3K27ac, we find that 13% of promoters and 11% of enhancers have gained activity on the human lineage since the human-rhesus divergence. These gains largely arose by modification of ancestral regulatory activities in the limb or potential co-option from other tissues and are likely to have heterogeneous genetic causes. Most enhancers that exhibit gain of activity in humans originated in mammals. Gains at promoters and enhancers in the human limb are associated with increased gene expression, suggesting they include molecular drivers of human morphological evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Extremidades/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Acetilação , Animais , Genética Médica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Macaca mulatta/embriologia , Camundongos/embriologia , Organogênese , Transcriptoma
18.
Genome Res ; 23(8): 1224-34, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23704192

RESUMO

Cohesin is implicated in establishing tissue-specific DNA loops that target enhancers to promoters, and also localizes to sites bound by the insulator protein CTCF, which blocks enhancer-promoter communication. However, cohesin-associated interactions have not been characterized on a genome-wide scale. Here we performed chromatin interaction analysis with paired-end tag sequencing (ChIA-PET) of the cohesin subunit SMC1A in developing mouse limb. We identified 2264 SMC1A interactions, of which 1491 (65%) involved sites co-occupied by CTCF. SMC1A participates in tissue-specific enhancer-promoter interactions and interactions that demarcate regions of correlated regulatory output. In contrast to previous studies, we also identified interactions between promoters and distal sites that are maintained in multiple tissues but are poised in embryonic stem cells and resolve to tissue-specific activated or repressed chromatin states in the mouse embryo. Our results reveal the diversity of cohesin-associated interactions in the genome and highlight their role in establishing the regulatory architecture of development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genoma , Histonas/metabolismo , Botões de Extremidades/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Especificidade de Órgãos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
19.
Genome Res ; 22(6): 1069-80, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22421546

RESUMO

The regulatory elements that direct tissue-specific gene expression in the developing mammalian embryo remain largely unknown. Although chromatin profiling has proven to be a powerful method for mapping regulatory sequences in cultured cells, chromatin states characteristic of active developmental enhancers have not been directly identified in embryonic tissues. Here we use whole-transcriptome analysis coupled with genome-wide profiling of H3K27ac and H3K27me3 to map chromatin states and enhancers in mouse embryonic forelimb and hindlimb. We show that gene-expression differences between forelimb and hindlimb, and between limb and other embryonic cell types, are correlated with tissue-specific H3K27ac signatures at promoters and distal sites. Using H3K27ac profiles, we identified 28,377 putative enhancers, many of which are likely to be limb specific based on strong enrichment near genes highly expressed in the limb and comparisons with tissue-specific EP300 sites and known enhancers. We describe a chromatin state signature associated with active developmental enhancers, defined by high levels of H3K27ac marking, nucleosome displacement, hypersensitivity to sonication, and strong depletion of H3K27me3. We also find that some developmental enhancers exhibit components of this signature, including hypersensitivity, H3K27ac enrichment, and H3K27me3 depletion, at lower levels in tissues in which they are not active. Our results establish histone modification profiling as a tool for developmental enhancer discovery, and suggest that enhancers maintain an open chromatin state in multiple embryonic tissues independent of their activity level.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Extremidades/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Animais , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos , Extremidades/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética
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