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1.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 773-781, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/urina , Metabolômica/métodos , Esteroides/urina , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(4): D1-D13, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698136

RESUMO

The literature on an association between acromegaly and cancer is particularly abundant on either colorectal cancer or thyroid cancer, and an endless debate is ongoing whether patients with acromegaly should be submitted to specific oncology screening and surveillance protocols. The aim of the present work is to review the most recent data on the risk of either colorectal cancer or thyroid cancer in acromegaly and discuss the opportunity for specific screening in relation to the accepted procedures in the general population.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento , Monitorização Fisiológica , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Endocrinologia/métodos , Endocrinologia/normas , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/terapia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/normas , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Vigilância da População/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
3.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 35(1): 26-35, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207261

RESUMO

Adrenal masses are mainly detected unexpectedly by an imaging study performed for reasons unrelated to any suspect of adrenal diseases. Such masses are commonly defined as "adrenal incidentalomas" and represent a public health challenge because they are increasingly recognized in current medical practice. Management of adrenal incidentalomas is currently matter of debate. Although there is consensus on the need of a multidisciplinary expert team evaluation and surgical approach in patients with significant hormonal excess and/or radiological findings suspicious of malignancy demonstrated at the diagnosis or during follow-up, the inconsistency between official guidelines and the consequent diffuse uncertainty on management of small adrenal incidentalomas still represents a considerable problem in terms of clinical choices in real practice. The aim of the present work is to review the proposed strategies on how to manage patients with adrenal incidentalomas that are not candidates to immediate surgery. The recent European Society of Endocrinology/European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors guidelines have supported the view to avoid surveillance in patients with clear benign adrenal lesions <4 cm and/or without any hormonal secretion; however, newer prospective studies are needed to confirm safety of this strategy, in particular in younger patients.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900474

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The frequency of adrenal incidentalomas and their association with comorbid conditions have been assessed mostly in retrospective studies that may be prone to ascertainment bias. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is to evaluate the frequency of adrenal incidentalomas and their associated comorbid conditions. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted. SETTING: This study took place at a radiology department at a public hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Unselected outpatients who underwent an abdominal computed tomography (CT) from January 2017 to June 2018. Patients with known or suspected adrenal disease or malignancy were excluded. EXPOSURE: All abdominal CT scans were evaluated by an experienced radiologist. Hormonal workup including a 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test was performed in patients bearing adrenal incidentalomas. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Frequency of adrenal incidentalomas in abdominal CT of unselected patients; frequency of comorbid conditions, and hormonal workup in patients bearing adrenal incidentalomas. RESULTS: We recruited 601 patients, and in 7.3% of them an adrenal tumor was found serendipitously. The patients bearing an adrenal incidentaloma had higher body mass index (P = .009) and waist circumference (P = .004) and were more frequently diabetic (P = .0038). At multivariable regression analysis, diabetes was significantly associated with the presence of adrenal incidentalomas (P = .003). Autonomous cortisol secretion was observed in 50% of patients who did not suppress cortisol less than 50 nmol/L after 1 mg dexamethasone. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of adrenal incidentalomas is higher than previously reported. Moreover, adrenal incidentalomas are tied to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. This finding is free from ascertainment bias because patients with adrenal incidentalomas were drawn from a prospective cohort with the same risk of diabetes as the background population.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by a high risk of recurrence after radical resection. The role of adjuvant systemic therapy in radically resected patients is unclear. Mitotane, a steroidogenesis inhibitor, is the only drug approved for the systemic treatment of advanced ACC. In 2007, a retrospective case-control study provided the evidence that mitotane, administered for two years after successful surgery, could prolong recurrence-free survival. Adrenal insufficiency (AI), which occurs in almost all patients during the first 12 months of treatment, is an expected side effect of mitotane and requires steroid replacement therapy. Due to its long halflife, mitotane-induced AI persists several months after treatment discontinuation and is managed by cautious tapering of glucocorticoid replacement therapy. RESULTS: We report a case of symptomatic AI diagnosed after a severe allergic reaction occurring three years after the discontinuation of adjuvant mitotane therapy. CONCLUSION: The case suggests that mitotane-induced AI should be monitored for a long time to asses full recovery of adrenal function, in order to prevent adrenal crises.

6.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684071

RESUMO

Mitotane is used as a post-operative adjuvant treatment for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Monitoring of plasma mitotane concentrations is recommended, but we do not know what impact target concentrations have on patient outcome. To answer this question, we retrospectively analyzed patient records in the Lysosafe Online® database (HRA Pharma, France) for patients who were treated for ≥6 months and who had ≥3 measurements of plasma mitotane levels during follow-ups at 11 tertiary centers in Italy from 2005 to 2017. We identified 110 patients treated with adjuvant mitotane for a median of 46 months (IQR, interquartile range, 28-62) with a median maintenance dose of 2.0 g/day (IQR 1.5-2.5). Achievement of target mitotane concentrations (≥14 mg/L) required a median of 8 months (IQR 5-19). Female sex was associated inversely with the dose, while body mass index (BMI) was correlated positively. Multivariate analysis showed that the Ki67 index and time to achieve the target range of plasma mitotane were independent predictors of recurrence-free survival (RFS). In a separate multivariate model, considering only the maintenance phase (month 7 to month 36, M7-M36) of treatment, the time in the target range of plasma mitotane was associated with a significantly lower risk of recurrence (Hazard Ratio, HR = 0.93; 0.88-0.98, p < 0.01). The prognostic implications of the time in target range and the time needed to reach target mitotane concentrations support the use of mitotane monitoring and may inform practice.

7.
Hypertens Res ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586159

RESUMO

The available data on the natural history of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas after radical surgery are heterogeneous and discordant. The aim of our retrospective multicenter study was to find predictors of recurrence in patients with pheochromocytomas and sympathetic paragangliomas submitted to radical surgery in Piedmont (a region in northwest Italy). We collected data from 242 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2016. Forty-two patients (17.4%) had disease recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that genetic mutation (HR = 3.62; 95% CI 1.44-9.13; p = 0.006), younger age (HR = 0.97; 95% CI 0.95-0.99; p = 0.031) and larger tumor size (HR = 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.02; p = 0.015) were independently associated with a higher recurrence risk of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma; in pheochromocytomas, genetic mutation (HR = 3.4; 95% CI 1.00-11.48; p = 0.049), younger age (HR = 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-0.99; p = 0.02), higher tumor size (HR = 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.03; p = 0.043) and PASS value (HR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.03-1.3; p = 0.011) were associated with recurrence. Moreover, tumor size was the only predictor of metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (HR = 4.6; 95% CI 1.4-15.0; p = 0.012); tumor size (HR = 3.93; 95% CI 1.2-16.4; p = 0.026) and PASS value (HR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.06-1.53; p = 0.007) were predictors of metastatic pheochromocytoma. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the recurrence of pheochromocytoma and sympathetic paraganglioma develops more frequently in younger subjects, patients with a family history of chromaffin tissue neoplasms, mutations in susceptibility genes, larger tumors and higher values of PASS. We recommend genetic testing in all patients with PPGL and strict follow-up at least on an annual basis.

8.
Eur J Intern Med ; 68: 66-70, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of salivary cortisol measurement to study stress-related adrenal response is controversial. The study aim was to assess the role of salivary cortisol measurement to detect time-related changes of adrenal response in critically ill patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with organ failure, sepsis or trauma were prospectively recruited in the Emergency Department. Serum and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline (T0) and after 48 h (T48). In 33 patients ACTH test was also done. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were studied and classified as septic (22) or non-septic (33). We found a significant correlation between serum and salivary cortisol at T0 and T48. No patient had baseline serum cortisol < 276 nmol/L and salivary cortisol significantly decreased at T48 in almost all patients. A delta serum cortisol < 250 nmol/L after ACTH was found in only 4 patients who showed elevated baseline cortisol levels. CONCLUSION: We found that reduced baseline and post-ACTH cortisol levels are uncommon in our samples. In patients able to provide adequate saliva samples, salivary cortisol may be used to check the degree of stress-induced response and appears as a suitable tool for multiple measurements over time.

10.
Intern Emerg Med ; 14(7): 1073-1082, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778758

RESUMO

Resource allocation in our overcrowded hospitals would require classification of inpatients according to the severity of illness, the evolving risk and the clinical complexity. Reverse triage (RT) is a method used in disasters to identify inpatients according to their use of hospital resources. The aim of this observational prospective study is to evaluate the use of RT in medical inpatients of an Italian Hospital and to compare the RT score with National Early Warning Score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Cluster sampling was performed on high dependency unit (HDU), geriatrics (Ger) and internal medicine (IM) wards. We calculate RT, NEWS, SOFA and CCI from inpatient charts. Length of stay (LOS), transfer to a higher level of care, death and discharge date were collected after 30 days. We obtained demographics, comorbidities, severity and clinical complexity of 260 inpatients. We highlighted differences in NEWS, SOFA and CCI in the three divisions. On the contrary RT score was uniformly high (median 7), with 85% of patients with RT = 8. NEWS, SOFA and CCI were higher in patients with higher RT score. We used the sum of the interventions listed by RT (RT sum) as a proxy of the level of care needed. RT-sum showed moderate correlation with NEWS (r = 0.52 Spearman, p < 0.001). RT-sum was the highest in HDU, related to the evolving severity of HDU patients. Ger patients that showed the highest CCI score (with all patients in the CCI ≥ 3 category) had the second highest RT-sum. RT score showed similar values in the majority of the inpatients regardless of differences in NEWS, SOFA and CCI in different ward subgroups. RT-sum is related both to evolving severity (NEWS) and to clinical complexity (CCI). RT and NEWS could predict inpatient level of care and resource need associated with CCI.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Recursos em Saúde/classificação , Pacientes Internados/classificação , Triagem/métodos , Idoso , Escore de Alerta Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Gravidade do Paciente , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Triagem/tendências
11.
Minerva Endocrinol ; 44(1): 33-42, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963828

RESUMO

In current practice, an adrenal adenoma usually comes as an unexpected byproduct of an imaging study performed for unrelated reasons, without any prior suspect of adrenal disease. Therefore, these tumors currently represent a public health challenge because they are increasingly recognized due to the widespread use of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging for diagnostic purposes. In radiology series, the prevalence of adrenal adenomas increases steeply with age, from around 3% below the age of 50 years up to 10% in the ageing population. These tumors may have clinical relevance because they are able to secrete cortisol autonomously, independently from the pituitary control, in up to 20-30% of patients. In most of the cases the resulting cortisol excess is insufficient to produce a typical Cushing phenotype but may have clinical consequences, such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and osteoporosis. Despite some controversy on the most effective diagnostic algorithm to define this subtle hypercortisolism, there is mounting evidence that a simple approach by using the 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) may stratify patients for their cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional, retrospective studies showed that patients with increasingly higher cortisol following DST have an adverse cardiovascular risk profile and are at increased risk of death. Therefore, also a subtle autonomous cortisol excess is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, mainly of cardiovascular origin.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/terapia , Adenoma Adrenocortical/terapia , Síndrome de Cushing/terapia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/sangue , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adenoma Adrenocortical/sangue , Adenoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Síndrome de Cushing/sangue , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/patologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue
12.
Endocr Connect ; 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metyrapone has been approved for the treatment of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS), but only few retrospective clinical studies are available. The aim of our study was the prospective assessment of metyrapone as pre-operative treatment. DESIGN AND METHODS: Before adrenalectomy, 7 patients with ACTH-independent CS due to adrenal adenoma were prospectively treated with metyrapone for 3 months in 3 tertiary academic centers, with endocrine work-up and clinical evaluation at screening and at predefined evaluation time points (Day 14, 31, 48, 65, 82). RESULTS: In all patients, UFC levels decreased up to normal range from baseline to Day 82 [609 (188 - 1476) vs 69 (28 - 152) nmol/24 h, p <0.02], with a reduction of serum and salivary cortisol levels, and no significant increase of plasma ACTH and serum DHEAS levels. Clinical improvement was reported on quality of life [+16.7 (+4.2; +52.00) points, p <0.04) and pressure control [systolic pressure, -25 (-52;-10) mmHg, p <0.01; diastolic pressure, -16 (-50; +2 mmHg), p <0.03)]. No significant change in weight, electrolytes, glycemic and lipid profile was reported. Although in women a significant increase of testosterone and androstenedione was reported, no worsening of clinical hyperandrogenism was observed. All drug-related adverse events (nausea, fatigue, low grade fever, edema of lower limbs and facial rash) were grade 1 or 2 and generally transient. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective pilot study demonstrated that metyrapone is effective in normalizing biochemical and clinical parameters in patients with CS due to adrenal adenoma before surgical intervention, with minimal side effects.

13.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e13281, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reverse triage (RT) identifies patients eligible for discharge and have been proposed to cope with daily surge. Nevertheless, early discharge could increase the rate of readmission. Our aim is to test the effectiveness and safety of RT alone and with readmission screening tools (Identification Senior At Risk [ISAR], HOSPITAL, and Groeningen Frailty Index [GFI] scores) to predict appropriate discharge. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively assessed every 4 days (t0 ) inpatients of medical divisions (High Dependency Unit (HDU), Internal Medicine (IM), and Geriatrics (Ger)) of an Italian Hospital. RT score was calculated for each patient and an RT ≤3 identified those eligible for safe discharge. ISAR, HOSPITAL, and GFI were then applied. We assessed reinstituting of interventions and transferring to an increased level of care unit at 4 days as an ethical proxy of consequential medical events following hypothetical discharge. Date of effective discharge, death, and readmission were measured at 4, 7, 15, and 30 days after the first evaluation. RESULTS: Twenty-five (9.6%) out of 260 patients in our sample had an RT ≤3. Twenty-four (96%) of them compared with 205 (87%) of the RT >3 group (P = NS) were discharged. Patients with RT ≤3 were discharged significantly earlier (3.5 vs 8 days after t0 [P = 0.0002]). In the RT ≤3 group, all but one patient were alive and healthy at 7, 15, and 30 days. The HOSPITAL score seemed to have the best concordance with RT (84%), in comparison with the ISAR (52%) and the GFI (48%) scores. RT showed a low sensitivity (22%) and high specificity (95%), which was even higher when using RT associated with readmission screening tools. CONCLUSIONS: Reverse triage proved to be a safe and conservative tool, with high specificity alone and with readmission screening tools. RT correctly identifies patients that will be discharged earlier.

14.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; 47(2): 395-407, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754640

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive tumor. ACC may be associated with different syndromes of hormone excess, most frequently Cushing's syndrome with or without hypersecretion of androgens. Recent data suggest that cortisol excess is a negative prognostic factor in advanced and localized ACC. Surgery with radical intent, when feasible, is the most effective treatment for ACC with hypercortisolism. Mitotane is the medical treatment of choice, both postoperatively and in inoperable or metastatic cases. Because of its slow onset of action, combination with other antisecretory agents (ie, metyrapone) is helpful to achieve more rapid and effective control of hypercortisolism.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Adrenocortical , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Cushing , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/complicações , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/cirurgia , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/cirurgia , Humanos
15.
Case Rep Endocrinol ; 2018: 2353172, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515921

RESUMO

Adrenal insufficiency is a potentially life-threatening condition when it occurs acutely, as in adrenal hemorrhage. Generally it is not reversible and requires chronic replacement therapy. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare genetic disease characterized by alterations in heme biosynthesis that result in accumulation of precursors in tissues. A crisis can be triggered by many conditions such as surgery and infections. Symptoms are similar to those of acute hypoadrenalism. Moreover, both conditions are characterized by hyponatremia. We describe the case of a postmenopausal woman known to be affected by AIP who developed after surgery a primary adrenal insufficiency associated with adrenal enlargement; the latter completely reverted in six months.

16.
Endocrine ; 61(3): 403-406, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516370

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acute porphyrias are metabolic disorders of heme biosynthesis characterized by acute life-threatening attacks. The diagnosis is often missed since clinical presentation is aspecific mimicking other medical and surgical conditions. Variegate porphyria (VP) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease with incomplete penetrance due to decreased activity of the Protoporphyrinogen Oxydase (PPOX) gene; most VP mutations are family specific. We report the case of a 40 year-old woman who presented many times to the emergency department complaining of unexplained abdominal pain and laboratory investigations showed repeatedly hyponatremia. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) was confirmed and measurement of urine porphobilinogen and delta-aminolevulinic acid disclosed the diagnosis of acute porphyria. The genetic analysis of PPOX gene was performed. METHODS: The entire coding sequence and exon/intron boundaries of PPOX gene were amplified in 5 different Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) fragments. In silico prediction of the pathogenicity of the mutation was determined by using different tools, Polyphen2, SNPs&GO, SNPs3D. RESULTS: The genetic analysis of PPOX gene revealed a novel missense variant c.1376 G > A (p.Cys459Tyr) in heterozygous state. The same variant was later found in one of her cousins with skin lesions and other three younger asymptomatic relatives. We provided evidence that this novel mutation is likely to be pathogenetic. CONCLUSIONS: Our case highlights the importance of considering VP in the differential diagnosis of SIAD and underlines the role of genetic screening in the management of such patients. The finding of a novel mutation of PPOX gene in our index case has allowed to recognize an affected family.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/genética , Flavoproteínas/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Porfiria Variegada/genética , Protoporfirinogênio Oxidase/genética , Adulto , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(9): 3491-3498, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28911143

RESUMO

Context: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with overall poor prognosis. The Ki67 labeling index (LI) has a major prognostic role in localized ACC after complete resection, but its estimates may suffer from considerable intra- and interobserver variability. VAV2 overexpression induced by increased Steroidogenic Factor-1 dosage is an essential factor driving ACC tumor cell invasion. Objective: To assess the prognostic role of VAV2 expression in ACC by investigation of a large cohort of patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 171 ACC cases (157 primary tumors, six local recurrences, eight metastases) from seven European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors centers were studied. Outcome Measurements: H-scores were generated to quantify VAV2 expression. VAV2 expression was divided into two categories: low (H-score, <2) and high (H-score, ≥2). The Ki67 LI retrieved from patients' pathology records was also categorized into low (<20%) and high (≥20%). Clinical and immunohistochemical markers were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: VAV2 expression and Ki67 LI were significantly correlated with each other and with PFS and OS. Heterogeneity of VAV2 expression inside the same tumor was very low. Combined assessment of VAV2 expression and Ki67 LI improved patient stratification to low-risk and high-risk groups. Conclusion: Combined assessment of Ki67 LI and VAV2 expression improves prognostic prediction in ACC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/sangue , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/sangue , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-vav/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/terapia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Biópsia por Agulha , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Internacionalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-vav/sangue , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 177(4): 361-367, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mitotane, a drug used to treat adrenocortical cancer (ACC), inhibits multiple enzymatic steps of adrenocortical steroid biosynthesis, potentially causing adrenal insufficiency. Recent studies in vitro have also documented a direct inhibitory effect of mitotane at the pituitary level. The present study was aimed to assess the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with ACC receiving mitotane. DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 16 patients on adjuvant treatment with mitotane after radical surgical resection of ACC, who underwent standard hormone evaluation and h-CRH stimulation. A group of 10 patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) served as controls for the CRH test. RESULTS: We demonstrated a close correlation between cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) and plasma mitotane levels, and a non-significant trend between mitotane dose and either serum or salivary cortisol in ACC patients. We did not find any correlation between the dose of cortisone acetate and either ACTH or cortisol levels. ACTH levels were significantly higher in patients with PAI than that in patients with ACC, both in baseline conditions (88.99 (11.04-275.00) vs 24.53 (6.16-121.88) pmol/L, P = 0.031) and following CRH (158.40 (34.32-275.00) vs 67.43 (8.8-179.52) pmol/L P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: The observation of lower ACTH levels in patients with ACC than that in patients with PAI, both in basal conditions and after CRH stimulation, suggests that mitotane may play an inhibitory effect on ACTH secretion at the pituitary levels. In conclusion, the present study shows that mitotane affects the HPA axis at multiple levels and no single biomarker may be used for the assessment of adrenal insufficiency.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitotano/uso terapêutico , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/sangue , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/sangue , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/sangue , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitotano/sangue , Mitotano/farmacologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 24(9): 495-504, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710115

RESUMO

It is debated if acromegalic patients have an increased risk to develop malignancies. The aim of the present study was to assess the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of different types of cancer in acromegaly on a large series of acromegalic patients managed in the somatostatin analogs era. It was evaluated the incidence of cancer in an Italian nationwide multicenter cohort study of 1512 acromegalic patients, 624 men and 888 women, mean age at diagnosis 45 ± 13 years, followed up for a mean of 10 years (12573 person-years) in respect to the general Italian population. Cancer was diagnosed in 124 patients, 72 women and 52 men. The SIRs for all cancers was significantly increased compared to the general Italian population (expected: 88, SIR 1.41; 95% CI, 1.18-1.68, P < 0.001). In the whole series, we found a significantly increased incidence of colorectal cancer (SIR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.07-2.58, P = 0.022), kidney cancer (SIR 2.87; 95% CI, 1.55-5.34, P < 0.001) and thyroid cancer (SIR 3.99; 95% CI, 2.32-6.87, P < 0.001). The exclusion of 11 cancers occurring before diagnosis of acromegaly (all in women) did not change remarkably the study outcome. In multivariate analysis, the factors significantly associated with an increased risk of malignancy were age and family history of cancer, with a non-significant trend for the estimated duration of acromegaly before diagnosis. In conclusion, we found evidence that acromegaly in Italy is associated with a moderate increase in cancer risk.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 176(4): 453-461, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence is limited regarding outcome of patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome (ECS) due to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). DESIGN: We assessed the prognostic factors affecting the survival of patients with NETs and ECS. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinicopathological features, severity of hormonal syndrome, treatments from a large cohort of patients with NETs and ECS collected from 17 Italian centers. RESULTS: Our series included 110 patients, 58.2% female, with mean (±s.d.) age at diagnosis of 49.5 ± 15.9 years. The main sources of ectopic ACTH were bronchial carcinoids (BC) (40.9%), occult tumors (22.7%) and pancreatic (p)NETs (15.5%). Curative surgery was performed in 56.7% (70.2% of BC, 11% of pNETs). Overall survival was significantly higher in BC compared with pNETs and occult tumors (P = 0.033) and in G1-NETs compared with G2 and G3 (P = 0.007). Negative predictive factors for survival were severity of hypercortisolism (P < 0.02), hypokalemia (P = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.0146) and distant metastases (P < 0.001). Improved survival was observed in patients who underwent NET removal (P < 0.001). Adrenalectomy improved short-term survival. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple factors affect prognosis of ECS patients: type of NET, grading, distant metastases, severity of hypercortisolism, hypokalemia and diabetes mellitus. BCs have the highest curative surgical rate and better survival compared with occult tumors and pNETs. Hypercortisolism plays a primary role in affecting outcome and quality of life; therefore, prompt and vigorous treatment of hormonal excess by NET surgery and medical therapy should be a key therapeutic goal. In refractory cases, adrenalectomy should be considered as it affects outcome positively at least in the first 2 years.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/complicações , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Síndrome de Cushing/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/sangue , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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