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1.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218109

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major microvascular complication of diabetes. Obesity and hyperlipidemia, fueled by unhealthy food habits, are risk factors to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline and DN progression. Several studies recommend that diabetic patients should be screened early (in prediabetes) for kidney disease, in order to prevent advanced stages, for whom the current interventions are clearly inefficient. This ambition greatly depends on the existence of accurate early biomarkers and novel molecular targets, which only may arise with a more thorough knowledge of disease pathophysiology. We used a rat model of prediabetes induced by 23 weeks of high-sugar/high-fat (HSuHF) diet to characterize the phenotype of early renal dysfunction and injury. When compared with the control animals, HSuHF-treated rats displayed a metabolic phenotype compatible with obese prediabetes, displaying impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, along with hypertriglyceridemia, and lipid peroxidation. Despite unchanged creatinine levels, the prediabetic animals presented glomerular crescent-like lesions, accompanied by increased kidney Oil-Red-O staining, triglycerides content and mRNA expression of IL-6 and iNOS. This model of HSuHF-induced prediabetes can be a useful tool to study early features of DN, namely crescent-like lesions, an early signature that deserves in-depth elucidation.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963709

RESUMO

Unhealthy dietary habits are major modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease with increasing prevalence and serious consequences. Microvascular complications of diabetes, namely diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), retinopathy (DR), and nephropathy (DN), are associated with high morbidity rates and a heavy social and economic burden. Currently, available therapeutic options to counter the evolution of diabetic microvascular complications are clearly insufficient, which strongly recommends further research. Animal models are essential tools to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression, to unravel new therapeutic targets, as well as to evaluate the efficacy of new drugs and/or novel therapeutic approaches. However, choosing the best animal model is challenging due to the large number of factors that need to be considered. This is particularly relevant for models induced by dietary modifications, which vary markedly in terms of macronutrient composition. In this article, we revisit the rodent models of diet-induced DPN, DR, and DN, critically comparing the main features of these microvascular complications in humans and the criteria for their diagnosis with the parameters that have been used in preclinical research using rodent models, considering the possible need for factors which can accelerate or aggravate these conditions.

5.
Ageing Res Rev ; 57: 100983, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740222

RESUMO

Aging, the most important risk factor for many of the chronic diseases affecting Western society, is associated with a decline in mitochondrial function and dynamics. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondrial deacetylase that has emerged as a key regulator of fundamental processes which are frequently dysregulated in aging and related disorders. This review highlights recent advances and controversies regarding the yin and yang functions of SIRT3 in metabolic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the use of SIRT3 modulators as a therapeutic strategy against those disorders. Although most studies point to a protective role upon SIRT3 activation, there are conflicting findings that need a better elucidation. The discovery of novel SIRT3 modulators with higher selectivity together with the assessment of the relative importance of different SIRT3 enzymatic activities and the relevance of crosstalk between distinct sirtuin isoforms will be pivotal to validate SIRT3 as a useful drug target for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases.

6.
Trends Pharmacol Sci ; 40(12): 1021-1039, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704173

RESUMO

Sirtuins (SIRT1-7), a class of NAD+-dependent deacylases, are central regulators of metabolic homeostasis and stress responses. While numerous salutary effects associated with sirtuin activation, especially SIRT1, are well documented, other reports show health benefits resulting from sirtuin inhibition. Furthermore, conflicting findings have been obtained regarding the pathophysiological role of specific sirtuin isoforms, suggesting that sirtuins act as 'double-edged swords'. Here, we provide an integrated overview of the different findings on the role of mammalian sirtuins in neurodegenerative and cardiometabolic disorders and attempt to dissect the reasons behind these different effects. Finally, we discuss how addressing these obstacles may provide a better understanding of the complex sirtuin biology and improve the likelihood of identifying effective and selective drug targets for a variety of human disorders.

8.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540270

RESUMO

The human intestine contains an intricate ecological community of dwelling bacteria, referred as gut microbiota (GM), which plays a pivotal role in host homeostasis. Multiple factors could interfere with this delicate balance, including genetics, age, antibiotics, as well as environmental factors, particularly diet, thus causing a disruption of microbiota equilibrium (dysbiosis). Growing evidences support the involvement of GM dysbiosis in gastrointestinal (GI) and extra-intestinal cardiometabolic diseases, namely obesity and diabetes. This review firstly overviews the role of GM in health and disease, then critically reviews the evidences regarding the influence of dietary polyphenols in GM based on preclinical and clinical data, ending with strategies under development to improve efficiency of delivery. Although the precise mechanisms deserve further clarification, preclinical and clinical data suggest that dietary polyphenols present prebiotic properties and exert antimicrobial activities against pathogenic GM, having benefits in distinct disorders. Specifically, dietary polyphenols have been shown ability to modulate GM composition and function, interfering with bacterial quorum sensing, membrane permeability, as well as sensitizing bacteria to xenobiotics. In addition, can impact on gut metabolism and immunity and exert anti-inflammatory properties. In order to overcome the low bioavailability, several different approaches have been developed, aiming to improve solubility and transport of dietary polyphenols throughout the GI tract and deliver in the targeted intestinal regions. Although more research is still needed, particularly translational and clinical studies, the biotechnological progresses achieved during the last years open up good perspectives to, in a near future, be able to improve the use of dietary polyphenols modulating GM in a broad range of disorders characterized by a dysbiotic phenotype.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Inflamação , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/microbiologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
11.
Life Sci ; 234: 116738, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398418

RESUMO

AIMS: Oxidative stress has been linked to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The present study evaluated whether the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin attenuates glomerular lesions and oxidative stress evoked by chronic hyperglycemia, by a mechanism independent of insulin secretion and glycemia normalization. MAIN METHODS: A rat model of DN caused by streptozotocin injection was established and the effects of sitagliptin (5 mg/kg/day) were evaluated after two weeks of treatment. KEY FINDINGS: Sitagliptin treatment did not change body weight, glycemic and lipid profiles. However, histopathological observation revealed that sitagliptin attenuates diabetes-induced glomerular lesions on diabetic rats. Sitagliptin also ameliorated the increase in DPP-4 content and promoted the stabilization of GLP-1 in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, sitagliptin treatment significantly attenuated the increase of free-radical formation and the decrease of antioxidant defenses, attenuating therefore the oxidative stress in the kidneys of diabetic animals. SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that sitagliptin treatment alleviates kidney oxidative stress in type 1 diabetic rats, which could play a key role in reducing the progression of DN.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/farmacologia
12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405179

RESUMO

Half of human cancers harbor TP53 mutations that render p53 inactive as a tumor suppressor. In these cancers, reactivation of mutant p53 (mutp53) through restoration of wild-type-like function constitutes a valuable anticancer therapeutic strategy. In order to search for mutp53 reactivators, a small library of tryptophanol-derived oxazoloisoindolinones was synthesized and the potential of these compounds as mutp53 reactivators and anticancer agents was investigated in human tumor cells and xenograft mouse models. By analysis of their anti-proliferative effect on a panel of p53-null NCI-H1299 tumor cells ectopically expressing highly prevalent mutp53, the compound SLMP53-2 was selected based on its potential reactivation of multiple structural mutp53. In mutp53-Y220C-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, SLMP53-2-induced growth inhibition was mediated by cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress response. In these cells, SLMP53-2 restored wild-type-like conformation and DNA-binding ability of mutp53-Y220C by enhancing its interaction with the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), leading to the reestablishment of p53 transcriptional activity. Additionally, SLMP53-2 displayed synergistic effect with sorafenib, the only approved therapy for advanced HCC. Notably, it exhibited potent antitumor activity in human HCC xenograft mouse models with a favorable toxicological profile. Collectively, SLMP53-2 is a new mutp53-targeting agent with promising antitumor activity, particularly against HCC.

13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 6: 134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316985

RESUMO

The prevalence of age-related non-communicable chronic diseases has increased worldwide, being the leading causes of morbidity and death in many world regions, including in Europe. Innovative models and strategies focused on preventive care, including early identification of risk factors underlying disease onset and progression, and proper modification of lifestyle habits and behaviors, might contribute to promote quality of life, healthy living and active aging. Healthy Lifestyle Innovative Quarters for Cities and Citizens (HeaLIQs4cities) is an EIT Health-funded project aiming to engage, empower and educate citizens toward healthy lifestyles. One of the major objectives of this project was to develop a toolkit for a rapid and informal assessment of healthy lifestyles, to be used at different levels of care pathways, including in informal public environments. In this paper, we describe the methodology underlying the development of the toolkit, which resulted from the collaboration of an interdisciplinary focus group of academic experts, from medicine, sport sciences, psychology, health economics, and innovative technologies applied to health. The following eight components were included in the toolkit: (1) anthropometric assessment and cardiometabolic parameters; (2) physical activity and exercise; (3) well-being, social cohesion, and functional independence; (4) nutrition; (5) mental health; (6) smoking, drinking, and use of illicit substances; (7) sleep habits and quality; and (8) health and disease. A traffic light rating system indicating the risk score was used (low: green; moderate: yellow; and relevant: orange) for each of the 8 components, together with recommendations for the toolkit users. After completing the reduced version of the toolkit, individuals showing moderate or relevant risk in one or more of the 8 dimensions, were invited to participate in a more detailed assessment (toolkit long version), based on deeper and scientifically validated tools. The toolkit was incorporated in eVida, a web-based platform that focuses on delivering services to personalized health and well-being. The validation of the current toolkit has been applied in wide-ranging public events in three different European Regions. Large scale deployment of the toolkit is expected to profit from the Reference Site Collaborative Network of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Aging (EIP on AHA).

16.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 3021785, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911344

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are the main causes of death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on dialysis. The number and severity of CVD events remain inappropriate and difficult to explain by considering only the classic CVD risk factors. Our aim was to clarify the changes and the relationship of lipoprotein subfractions with other CVD risk factors, namely, body mass index (BMI) and adipokines, inflammation and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, and the burden of the most prevalent comorbidities, diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT). We studied 194 ESRD patients on dialysis and 22 controls; lipid profile, including lipoprotein subpopulations and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, leptin, and paraoxonase 1 activity were evaluated. Compared to controls, patients presented significantly lower levels of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), LDLc, oxLDL, and intermediate and small HDL and higher triglycerides, CRP, adiponectin, large HDL, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and intermediate-density lipoprotein- (IDL) B. Adiponectin levels correlated positively with large HDL and negatively with intermediate and small HDL, oxLDL/LDLc, and BMI; patients with DM (n = 17) and with DM+HT (n = 70), as compared to patients without DM or HT (n = 69) or only with HT (n = 38), presented significantly higher oxLDL, oxLDL/LDLc, and leptin and lower adiponectin. Obese patients (n = 45), as compared to normoponderal patients (n = 81), showed lower HDLc, adiponectin, and large HDL and significantly higher leptin, VLDL, and intermediate and small HDL. In ESRD, the higher adiponectin seems to favor atheroprotective HDL modifications and protect LDL particles from oxidative atherogenic changes. However, in diabetic and obese patients, adiponectin presents the lowest values, oxLDL/LDLc present the highest ones, and the HDL profile is the more atherogenic. Our data suggest that the coexistence of DM and adiposity in ESRD patients on dialysis contributes to a higher CVD risk, as showed by their lipid and adipokine profiles.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Falência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Falência Renal Crônica/patologia , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Arildialquilfosfatase/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Vitam Horm ; 110: 243-264, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798815

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with several complications that worsen with progression of disease; anemia, disturbances in iron metabolism and inflammation are common features. Inflammatory response starts early, releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute phase reactants and hepcidin. Hepcidin production is modulated by several factors, as hypoxia/anemia, erythropoietin and erythropoiesis products, transferrin saturation (TSAT) and liver iron levels, which are altered in CKD. Treatment of CKD anemia is based on pharmaceutical intervention, with erythropoietic stimulating agents and/or iron supplementation; however, in spite of the erythropoietic benefits, this therapy, on a regular basis, involves risks, namely iron overload. To overcome these risks, some therapeutic approaches are under study to target CKD anemia. Considering the actual alerts about risk of iron overload in dialysis patients, inhibition of hepcidin, the central key player in iron homeostasis, could be a pivotal strategy in the management of CKD anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia/etiologia , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Anemia/metabolismo , Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepcidinas/genética , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia
18.
Clin Biochem ; 63: 46-53, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Weight loss achieved by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) induces an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) but a small effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL), although changes in their quality (size and composition) are uncertain. Our aim was to study the impact of weight loss, achieved 13-months after LAGB, on inflammation and dyslipidemia, focusing on HDL and LDL subfractions, and oxidized LDL (oxLDL). DESIGN & METHODS: We evaluated standard lipid profile, HDL and LDL subfractions, oxLDL, interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), in twenty obese patients, before (T0) and 13-months after LAGB (T1), and in seventeen healthy controls. RESULTS: At T1, patients showed lower body weight (12% median weight loss) and anthropometric indices; reduction in TG, atherogenic indices, oxLDL, oxLDL/LDL ratio, CRP and IL-6, and enhancement in HDLc; an increase in large HDL and intermediate HDL subfractions, and a decrease in small HDL subfraction; LDL subfractions were not modified. Percentual change (%Δ) of oxLDL, from T0 to T1, correlated significantly and positively with %Δ of small HDL subfraction and with %Δ of body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss induced atheroprotective changes on inflammation, and lipid profile, enhancing larger HDL, the more atheroprotective subfraction, reducing the less protective subclass, small HDL, and reducing oxLDL and oxLDL/LDL ratio. Quality of lipoproteins appears useful cardiovascular risk biomarkers, deserving further studies.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Obesidade , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/cirurgia , Oxirredução
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(7): 1876-1897, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287404

RESUMO

The increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and life expectancy of diabetic patients fosters the worldwide prevalence of retinopathy and nephropathy, two major microvascular complications that have been difficult to treat with contemporary glucose-lowering medications. The gut microbiota (GM) has become a lively field research in the last years; there is a growing recognition that altered intestinal microbiota composition and function can directly impact the phenomenon of ageing and age-related disorders. In fact, human GM, envisaged as a potential source of novel therapeutics, strongly modulates host immunity and metabolism. It is now clear that gut dysbiosis and their products (e.g. p-cresyl sulfate, trimethylamine­N­oxide) dictate a secretory associated senescence phenotype and chronic low-grade inflammation, features shared in the physiological process of ageing ("inflammaging") as well as in T2DM ("metaflammation") and in its microvascular complications. This review provides an in-depth look on the crosstalk between GM, host immunity and metabolism. Further, it characterizes human GM signatures of elderly and T2DM patients. Finally, a comprehensive scrutiny of recent molecular findings (e.g. epigenetic changes) underlying causal relationships between GM dysbiosis and diabetic retinopathy/nephropathy complications is pinpointed, with the ultimate goal to unravel potential pathophysiological mechanisms that may be explored, in a near future, as personalized disease-modifying therapeutic approaches.

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