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2.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(4): e779-e783, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160192

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate recurrence, progression, and cancer-specific mortality of high-grade T1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer by assessing receipt of a low dose of the underexplored bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Moreau strain in a retrospective observational cohort study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2006 to December 2015, a total of 219 consecutive patients with high-grade T1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer received half-dose (40 mg; n = 109) or standard-dose (80 mg; n = 110) BCG Moreau strain after transurethral resection of the bladder. BCG therapy was initiated 2 or 3 weeks after transurethral resection of the bladder using the following protocol: 6 weekly doses, 12 monthly, 4 once every 3 months, and 2 once every 6 months, with a total of 24 doses. RESULTS: Comparing the half-dose and standard-dose treatment groups, in a median follow-up of 74.6 months, recurrence (n = 51, 46.8% vs. n = 60, 54.5%, P = .28), progression (n = 18, 16.5% vs. n = 16, 14.5%, P = .69), and disease-specific mortality (n = 9, 8.3% vs. n = 5, 4.5%, P = .26) were not significantly different on Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test, respectively. Charlson comorbidity index was an independent predictor of death from disease (hazard ratio = 1.341; 95% confidence interval, 1.033-1.740; P = .0274); no predictor of recurrence or progression was identified. Treatment intolerance occurred in 1 (0.9%) versus 6 (5.4%) patients (P = .12), respectively. No hospital admission or systemic BCG toxicity was reported. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the largest low-dose Moreau BCG strain study in high-grade T1 scenario. A half dose of BCG Moreau strain might be safe and effective in terms of tumor control, progression, or cancer-specific mortality with a low complication rate, which is central to the worldwide scenario of BCG shortage, and can help regulatory agencies approve efficient daughter BCG strains.

5.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(4): 775-781, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136110

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify how the most frequently used parameters in daily clinical practice diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) due to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) correlate to each other. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 452 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) of the UNICAMP urology outpatient clinic of LUTS. INCLUSION CRITERIA: patients with BOO due to BPH who agreed to participate in the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: patients with urinary tract infection, neurological diseases that compromised the lower urinary tract, prior prostatic surgery, radiotherapy or urethral stenosis. Patient assessment: history, international prostate symptoms score (IPSS), nocturnal quality of life score (NQoL) questionnaires, physical and digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA, transabdominal ultrasound with intravesical prostate protrusion (IPP), post-mictional residue and free urofl owmetry. RESULTS: There was no strong Spearman correlation among the studied variables. The only moderate correlations occurred between IPSS and NQoL (p<0001; c=0.56) and between IPP and prostate volume (p<0001; c=0.57). Weak correlations between IPP and post-mictional residue (p<0001; c=0.31) and free urofl owmetry (p<0001; c=-0.26); and between IPSS and free urofl owmetry (p<0001, c=-0.21) were observed. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found moderate, weak, very weak and absent correlation among the various parameters used in the diagnosis and management of BOO due to BPH. As the value of these tools is variable, the creation of a logical and objective algorithm was not possible and the treatment is based on the interpretation of clinical symptoms.

7.
World J Urol ; 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the underexplored context of cystoscopy adherent versus non-adherent patients in the follow-up of urothelial high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). METHODS: We performed a retrospective study (2005-2016) that evaluated patients´ demographical characteristics, histopathological data, recurrence, progression and cancer-specific mortality between adherent and non-adherents patients in the first 3 years of a proposed cystoscopy protocol. RESULTS: Among the 198 included patients, comparing cystoscopy non-adherent (n = 36, 18%) and adherent patients (n = 162, 82%), there was no demographic or histopathological differences; the rates of disease recurrence, progression and cancer-specific mortality were 15 (41.7%) versus 68 (42.2%), p = 0.58; 12 (33.3%) versus 28 (17.9%), p = 0.014 and 4 (11.1%) versus 19 (11.7%), p = 0.98, respectively. Cystoscopy non-adherence was associated with an inferior number of urinary cytology (p < 0.001) and 2.33 HR for cancer progression, p = 0.014, (95% CI 1.18-4.59). CONCLUSIONS: Non-adherence to follow-up cystoscopy in NMIBC is associated with more than twice progression risk. Future studies are needed to confirm our results and correlate cystoscopy non-adherence to other covariates.

8.
Urol Int ; 102(3): 326-330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate mini-sling long-term results and correlate them to failure predictors. Many studies show comparable results among different single-incision slings developed as an attempt to reduce complications while keeping good results, but there is a lack of evidence about mini-slings outcomes in the long term. METHODS: This prospective, single-center study evaluated 40 patients for long-term outcomes after mini-sling placement. Objective cure was defined as leakage of less than 1 g in 1-hour pad-test and no leakage at Valsalva maneuver. An objective improvement was defined as leakage of a maximum 50% of the preoperative test. Subjective continence was considered as a zero score at International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF). Patients were also evaluated for comorbidities and previous surgeries. RESULTS: The mean age was 56 (±9.3) years, the mean ICIQ-SF score was 16 (±2.98) before surgery and 3.5 (± 5) at last follow-up, showing sustained improvement in the long term, mean 100 (84-109) months follow-up. The objective results show 67.5% of success, 17.5% of improvement, and 15% of failure. Age and parity were not related to outcomes (p = 0.33), but previous surgeries increase failure rate with 5.66 OR (p = 0.04). Success, improvement, and failure rates were 85, 10, and 5% for treatment-naive patients versus 50, 25, and 25% for patients with previous surgeries, respectively. CONCLUSION: Mini-sling Ophira shows good long-term results with low complications rates in patients without previous anti-incontinence surgery. Randomized trials are necessary to compare mini-slings results to other mid-urethral slings in recurred stress urinary incontinence.

10.
11.
Int J Impot Res ; 30(4): 158-162, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925936

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to assess the impact of objective (stretched) and subjective penile size in the erectile function in a urological check-up program on a cross-sectional study including 689 men aged 35-70 years. IIEF-5 questionnaire, physical examination (penile length, prostate volume, blood pressure, body mass index-BMI), metabolic syndrome (MS), comorbidities, habits (sexual intercourse frequency, physical activity, alcohol, and tobacco use), level of education, serum glucose, total testosterone, estradiol, PSA, lipid profile, and self-perceptions (ejaculation time and subjective penile size) were examined in multivariate models using logistic and linear regressions. Penile objective mean length was 13.08 cm ± 2.32 and 67 (9.72%) patients referred small penis self-perception. Seventy-six (11.03%) participants had severe erectile dysfunction (ED), 75 (10.88%) had mild to moderate and moderate ED, 112 (16.25%) had mild ED and 426 (61.83%) had no ED. Risk factors for ED that held statistical significance were self-perceived small penis (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.35-3.69, p = .0017), sexual intercourse frequency (per week) (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.38-0.52, p < .0001), satisfactory ejaculation time (no vs. yes, OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.46-2.92, p < .0001), comorbidity (yes vs. no, OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.46-2.76, p < .0001), age >65 years (OR = 2.93, 95% CI 1.53-5.61, p < .0001), tobacco use (yes vs. no, OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-1.96, p < .0375), regular physical activity (no vs. yes, OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.13-2.23, p < .0083), serum total testosterone < 200 ng/dl (OR = 3.48, 95% CI 1.69-7.16, p = 0.0009), serum glucose > 100 mg/dl (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.18-2.43, p = 0.0044) and systolic blood pressure > 130 mmHg (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.16-2.19, p = 0.0037). Results suggest that in addition to previously reported risk factors, patient's subjective impressions of penile size negatively impacts sexual life in about 10% of men considered healthy, while objective penile length does not play significant role in erectile function.

12.
Transl Androl Urol ; 7(Suppl 2): S238-S239, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928622
13.
World J Urol ; 36(12): 1997-2008, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943218

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness and harms of bladder-preserving trimodal therapy (TMT) as a first-line treatment versus radical cystectomy (RC) plus radical pelvic lymphadenectomy in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in terms of overall survival. METHODS: We included parallel clinical trials and prospective and retrospective cohort studies that included patients older than 18 years old, diagnosed with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, who underwent TMT compared with RC. The planned comparison was TMT versus RC plus pelvic lymphadenectomy as first-line treatment. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) and secondary outcomes were salvage cystectomy and cancer-specific survival and progression-free survival. A search strategy was designed for MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Embase, and LILACS. We saturated information with conference abstracts, in progress clinical trials, literature published in non-indexed journals, and other sources of gray literature. Standardized tools assessed the risk of bias independently. We performed the statistical analysis in R v3.4.1 and effect sizes were reported in terms of hazard ratios (HR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Accordingly, we used a random effect model due to the statistical heterogeneity found in included studies. RESULTS: We found 2682 records with the search strategies and, finally, 11 studies were included in the quantitative analysis. The summary HR for OS was 1.06 95%CI (0.85-1.31) I2 = 77%, showing no statistical difference. Regarding cancer-specific survival, the summary HR was 1.23 95%CI (1.04-1.46) I2 = 14%. On the other side, for the progression-free survival, the summary HR was 1.11 95%CI (0.63-1.95) I2 = 78%. Only one study described HR for adverse events (1.37 95%CI 1.16-1.59). CONCLUSION: We found no differences in overall survival and progression-free survival between these two interventions. Nonetheless, we found that cancer-specific survival favored patients who received radical cystectomy.

15.
Arch. esp. urol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(1): 23-33, ene.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171824

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conseguir una formación médica de calidad para los residentes es una preocupación constante en la Confederación Americana de Urología (CAU), tercera sociedad urológica mundial. Se pretende analizar la diversidad de los programas estatales de formación, con intención de identificar oportunidades de mejora global en los mismos y analizar también la realidad profesional en los diferentes países. Métodos: Se revisan datos obtenidos en el II y III Foro Educativo CAU relacionados con la formación de postgrado e implicaciones laborales. Esta información se complementa con la opinión de representantes implicados con la formación académica en la Confederación Americana de Urología, que han analizado la realidad y estado actual de la formación urológica a través de una encuesta de 10 preguntas que describe diferentes aspectos de los programas de residencia en los países confederados en CAU. Resultados: Un total de 3.000 graduados médicos se forman como residentes en Urología en el entorno CAU. Cada año 670 residentes inician su programa de formación en America Latina, España y Portugal, un territorio que atiende casi 650 millones de habitantes, con una fuerza profesional activa de en torno a 16.800 profesionales. Se presentan datos detallados sobre la realidad formativa, laboral y acreditativa en los países que componen la CAU. También se analiza la proporción de residentes que llevan a cabo actividades de investigación y programa de doctorado durante la residencia. Finalmente se analiza la proporción de profesionales que reciben formación específica al finalizar la residencia, la importancia relativa de la misma y cuáles son los entornos más demandados para llevarla a cabo. Conclusiones: La formación postgrado actual en el entorno de la CAU es heterogénea en sus programas, así como en los modos de acreditación y de re-certificación. Las actividades académicas no parecen correctamente valoradas. Sin embargo, la formación específica sí ofrece mejores expectativas de desarrollo profesional (AU)


Objective: Achieving residents' medical training of quality is a constant concern in the Confederación Americana de Urología (CAU), the third Urological Society worldwide. We aim to analyze the diversity of state training programs, with the intention to identify opportunities for global improvement within them and also to analyse the professional reality in different countries.Methods: Data from 2nd and 3rd Foro Educativo CAU regarding postgraduate training and labour implications are reviewed. This information is complemented by the opinion of representatives involved with the academic training in Confederación Americana de Urología, who have analyzed the reality and current status of the urological training through a 10-question survey that describes different aspects of residency program in the countries confederated in CAU.Results: A total of 3,000 graduate doctors train as residents in Urology at the CAU environment. Each year 670 residents begin their training program in Latin America, Spain and Portugal, a territory that serves nearly 650 million people, with an active professional force of around 16.800 professionals. Detailed data on training, employment and supporting reality in the countries that comprise the CAU are presented. We also discuss the proportion of residents who carry out research and doctorate during the residency program. Finally, we examine the proportion of professionals who receive specific training at the end of their residence, the relative importance of this training and what are the most popular environments to carry it out. Conclusions: Current postgraduate training in CAU environment is heterogeneous in their programs, as well as in the modes of accreditation and recertification. Academic activities do not seem to be properly valued. However, specific training offers better expectations of professional development (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Urologia/educação , Internato e Residência/tendências , América Latina , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/educação , Urologia/tendências , Programas de Estudo , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Arch Esp Urol ; 71(1): 23-33, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29336329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Achieving residents' medical training of quality is a constant concern in the Confederación Americana de Urología (CAU), the third Urological Society worldwide. We aim to analyze the diversity of state training programs, with the intention to identify opportunities for global improvement within them and also to analyse the professional reality in different countries. METHODS: Data from 2nd and 3rd Foro Educativo CAU regarding postgraduate training and labour implications are reviewed. This information is complemented by the opinion of representatives involved with the academic training in Confederación Americana de Urología, who have analyzed the reality and current status of the urological training through a 10-question survey that describes different aspects of residency program in the countries confederated in CAU. RESULTS: A total of 3,000 graduate doctors train as residents in Urology at the CAU environment. Each year 670 residents begin their training program in Latin America, Spain and Portugal, a territory that serves nearly 650 million people, with an active professional force of around 16.800 professionals. Detailed data on training, employment and supporting reality in the countries that comprise the CAU are presented. We also discuss the proportion of residents who carry out research and doctorate during the residency program. Finally, we examine the proportion of professionals who receive specific training at the end of their residence, the relative importance of this training and what are the most popular environments to carry it out. CONCLUSIONS: Current postgraduate training in CAU environment is heterogeneous in their programs, as well as in the modes of accreditation and recertification. Academic activities do not seem to be properly valued. However, specific training offers better expectations of professional development.


Assuntos
Urologia/educação , Internato e Residência , América Latina , Autorrelato
17.
Br J Cancer ; 118(2): 213-223, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29123257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the role of prostaglandin receptors (e.g. prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2), EP4) and the efficacy of celecoxib in urothelial tumourigenesis and cancer progression. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry in bladder cancer (BC) tissue microarrays, in vitro transformation assay in a normal urothelial SVHUC line, and western blot/reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction/cell growth assays in BC lines. RESULTS: EP2/EP4 expression was elevated in BCs compared with non-neoplastic urothelial tissues and in BCs from those who were resistant to cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Strong positivity of EP2/EP4 in non-muscle-invasive tumours or positivity of EP2/EP4 in muscle-invasive tumours strongly correlated with disease progression or disease-specific mortality, respectively. In SVHUC cells, exposure to a chemical carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene considerably increased and decreased the expression of EP2/EP4 and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), respectively. Treatment with selective EP2/EP4 antagonist or celecoxib also resulted in prevention in 3-methylcholanthrene-induced neoplastic transformation of SVHUC cells. In BC lines, EP2/EP4 antagonists and celecoxib effectively inhibited cell viability and migration, as well as augmented PTEN expression. Furthermore, these drugs enhanced the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in BC cells. EP2/EP4 and PTEN were also elevated and reduced, respectively, in cisplatin-resistant BC sublines. CONCLUSIONS: EP2/EP4 activation correlates with induction of urothelial cancer initiation and outgrowth, as well as chemoresistance, presumably via downregulating PTEN expression.

18.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 16(3): e587-e593, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4 agonist bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), although not failure proof, has been the most efficient immunomodulatory treatment of immunogenic nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) for > 40 years. We investigated the role of the immunomodulatory molecule TLR7 agonist imiquimod through the BCG key receptors TLR2/4 and the main downstream molecules of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in NMIBC treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 Fischer-344 rats, 7 weeks old, received 4 doses of 1.5 mg/kg N-methyl-N-nitrosourea intravesically on weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6 for cancer induction. At week 8, the rats were randomized into 4 groups (10 per group) and treated intravesically once a week for 6 weeks: control (0.2 mL of vehicle); BCG (2 × 106 colony-forming units Connaught strain in 0.2 mL); imiquimod (20 mg/kg in 0.2 mL), and associated treatment BCG plus imiquimod in 0.2 mL. The bladders were extracted and analyzed for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, cell proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling [TUNEL]), and immunoblotting for TLR2, TLR4, p-P70S6K, and p-4E-BP1 proteins. RESULTS: The histopathology results showed that BCG and imiquimod decreased bladder tumorigenesis compared with the control group, with a proliferation decrease (Ki-67) and an apoptosis increase (TUNEL). BCG upregulated TLR2/4, imiquimod upregulated TLR4, and both downregulated P70S6K1. CONCLUSION: Imiquimod is able to efficiently decrease bladder carcinogenesis through upregulation of TLR7/4 and downregulation of P70S6K1 protein, generating new perspectives to boost BCG effects in the future.

19.
Med Oncol ; 35(1): 3, 2017 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209984

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of intravesical Thalidomide (immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic) added to BCG using an immune competent autochthonous orthotopic NMIBC animal model. Female Fischer 344 rats, 7 weeks of age, received every 2 weeks for four times, a dose of 1.5 mg/kg of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) intravesically. The rats were randomized into four groups (n = 10 per group) to receive intravesical treatment once a week for 6 weeks as follows: control (0.2 ml vehicle), BCG (2 × 106 CFU of Connaught strain in 0.2 ml), Thalidomide (20 mg/kg in 0.2 ml) and BCG-Thalidomide in 0.2 ml. At week 15, bladders were collected for histopathology, cell turnover index by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting quantification of 4E-BP1 and p70S6K1 for downstream mTOR proliferation signaling and HIF and VEGF for angiogenesis pathway. Thalidomide-BCG association showed a trend for normal histopathology and down-regulation of cell turnover, p70S6K1, HIF-1 and VEGF. 4E-BP1 was up-regulated by treatment, especially in the Thalidomide groups, supporting that its regulation occurs independently of p70S6K1 on mTOR pathway in NMIBC. Intravesical BCG-Thalidomide might represent a significant increment in NMIBC treatment, suggesting p70S6K1, HIF-1 and VEGF as potential molecular target candidates in a clinically relevant immune competent NMIBC model.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/farmacologia , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravesical , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(6): 1129-1135, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892915

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the overactive bladder (OAB) diagnosis using OAB-V8 and ICIQOAB questionnaires in women with different schooling and cultural levels. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and eighty six healthy women answered a clinical questionnaire filling out information about schooling, demographic and gynecological data. The OAB-V8 and ICIQ-OAB questionnaires were used to evaluate OAB diagnosis and symptoms; and the QS-F questionnaire, to determine the sexual function. All questionnaires were validated in Portuguese. Results: The mean age was 37.3 years-old. Regarding to schooling level, 23.1% had concluded primary education; 65.8%, secondary school; and 11.1% had higher education. Considering the OAB-V8 (score ≥8), 51.8% of evaluated women had OAB diagnosis. There was a positive linear correlation between the OAB-V8 and ICIQ-OAB questionnaires in its sections "a" (r=0.812, p<0.001) and "b" (r=759, p<0.001). There was a positive linear correlation between age and the amount of time used to answer the OAB-V8, ICIQ-OAB and QS-F questionnaires (p<0.001). The ICIQ-OAB was the hardest to answer for all schooling levels when compared to the other questionnaires. Women who had concluded primary and secondary education significantly demanded more help to answer all questionnaires than those with higher education (p<0.05). Furthermore, women with higher education took significantly less time answering all questionnaires when compared to their less educated counterparts (primary and secondary schooling), since they were quicker to answer each individual question. Conclusion: Educational level and ageing had an impact on women response using different questionnaires for OAB and sexual function evaluations.

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