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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231838, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153467

RESUMO

Abstract Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.


Resumo O uso de antibióticos inevitavelmente leva à resistência antimicrobiana. A seleção para resistência antimicrobiana ocorre principalmente no intestino de seres humanos e animais, bem como no meio ambiente, através da resistência natural e resíduos de antibióticos nos esgotos e no solo. Avaliamos a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias Gram-negativas de um sistema fluvial em uma comunidade rural da Bahia, Brasil. A água foi coletada nos rios Jiquiriçá e Brejões e no abastecimento de água encanada. Além disso, foram coletadas amostras randomizadas de fezes de moradores, vacas, porcos e cavalos próximos ao rio. As amostras foram triadas para bactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, cefotaxima e meropenem e identificadas bioquimicamente nos níveis de gênero e espécie. O rastreamento de fontes microbianas demonstrou que a contaminação fecal de ruminantes e humanos aumentou à medida que os rios se aproximavam do centro da vila e diminuía após a última residência. Bactérias resistentes a antibióticos foram identificadas em todas as amostras (n = 32). Nenhuma bactéria demonstrou ser resistente aos carbapenêmicos testados, contudo, foi encontrado enterobactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, ainda que essa classe de antibióticos não seja comumente usada na medicina veterinária dos animais dessa região. Considerando esses fatos, juntamente com o padrão de contaminação fecal avaliado, a fonte de contaminação humana foi considerada a mais provável na interação desses isolados resistentes.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 741-749, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153398

RESUMO

Abstract Birds play a key role in ecosystem dynamics, including urban and rural areas, bringing environmental quality improvements and ecological stability. Species contribute directly to natural regeneration of vegetation and succession processes, by offering ecosystem services as seed dispersal, an important role in human-modified areas. We studied the assemblages of fruit-eating birds in riparian environments of Monjolinho basin, central São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. Birds were recorded in 41 points distributed in riparian ecosystems alongside waterbodies, in landscapes with five types of surrounding matrices: urban, periurban, farmland, and native vegetation. We described how assemblages are structured aiming to evaluate the possible influence of seasonality and landscape type. We recorded 39 bird species that can play a role as seed-dispersers, 32 in wet season and 32 in dry season. There were no significant differences in the diversity and dominance of species between seasons considering the entire area, indicating stability of basic assemblage structure. However, total number of individuals of all species recorded in different landscapes were influenced by seasonality. Also, the composition and abundance of species significantly changed between seasons, leading to a high dissimilarity with almost 50% of the species contributing with almost 90% of the observed variation. A higher taxonomic diversity and distinctness pointed to a wider array of possible seed dispersal services in natural areas, while the lowest values of indexes were found in human-modified areas. The higher number of non-related bird species during dry season contrasted with the higher number of individuals during wet season, indicating that there is more possible ecosystem services offered by frugivorous birds in driest period of the year, while in the rainy period the carrying capacity of the riparian environments was increased.


Resumo As aves desempenham um papel chave na dinâmica dos ecossistemas, incluindo áreas urbanas e rurais, e trazem melhorias na qualidade ambiental e estabilidade ecológica. As espécies contribuem diretamente com a regeneração natural da vegetação e processos de sucessão por oferecerem serviços ecossistêmicos como a dispersão de sementes, um papel fundamental em áreas alteradas. Nós estudamos a assembleia de espécies de aves que se alimentam de frutos em ambientes ripários da bacia do rio Monjolinho, região central do estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. As aves foram registradas em 41 pontos distribuídos em ecossistemas ripários ao longo dos corpos d'água, em paisagens com quatro tipos de matrizes em seu entorno: urbana, periurbana, rural e vegetação nativa. Nós descrevemos como as assembleias estão estruturadas, objetivando avaliar a possível influência da sazonalidade e do tipo de paisagem do entorno. Foram registradas 39 espécies de aves que podem desempenhar o papel de dispersoras de sementes, sendo 32 espécies no período chuvoso e 32 no período seco. Não foi detectada diferença significativa na diversidade e dominância de espécies entre estações em toda área de estudo, indicando estabilidade da estrutura básica das assembleias. Entretanto, o número total de indivíduos de todas as espécies registrados nas diferentes paisagens foi influenciado pela sazonalidade. Além disso, a composição e abundância de espécies mudou significativamente entre as estações, levando a uma alta dissimilaridade com quase 50% das espécies contribuindo com quase 90% da variação observada. A diversidade e distinção taxonômicas mais altas apontam para maior variedade de serviços ecossistêmicos possíveis relacionados à dispersão de sementes em áreas naturais, enquanto os menores valores desses índices foram encontrados em áreas antropizadas. Um maior número de espécies distintas com menor proximidade taxonômica durante a estação seca, em contraste com um alto número de indivíduos observados na estação chuvosa, indica que existe uma maior gama de possíveis serviços ecossistêmicos oferecidos pelas aves frugívoras no período mais seco do ano, enquanto no período de maior pluviosidade os ecossistemas apresentaram maior capacidade suporte.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 278-284, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153360

RESUMO

Abstract The Brasilia Tapaculo, Scytalopus novacapitalis Sick, 1958, is a rare, geographically restricted, and endangered bird species that inhabits riparian vegetation of Cerrado, mainly Gallery Forests. In Serra da Canastra National Park, southeastern Brazil, wetlands are under threat due to frequent non-natural burnings and invasion by feral pigs, Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758. We aimed to evaluate the possible effects of seasonal variations on S. novacapitalis records in undisturbed habitats and answer questions about how fire and feral pigs may affect site occupancy of the species. Transects alongside riparian environments were used to survey n=21 sites, totalizing 7.5 Km, from 2014 to 2019. Results indicated the season influenced both, spontaneous records and induced encounters by playback method, which were more abundant in breeding period, from early spring to summer. The use of playback significantly increased the amount of records in all seasons. The probability of site occupancy in all studied area was higher in late spring (ψ=0.91) and lower in autumn (ψ=0.73). In burned sites (n=8), the first post-fire month showed the lowest probability of occupancy, but there was a rapid recovery in 2nd month and stabilization similar to control area from the 3rd month ahead. After sites (n=11) were invaded by feral pigs, the estimation of site occupancy indicated a slight drop in first two months, but after the 3rd month of invasion the decreasing pattern enhanced the discrepancy with undisturbed areas. It is important to keep monitoring S. novacapitalis population and their threats, to subsidize management actions, especially to avoid frequently unusual burnings in riparian forests, and to block the access of feral pigs to wetlands.


Resumo O tapaculo-de-Brasília, Scytalopus novacapitalis, Sick 1958, é uma espécie de ave rara, geograficamente restrita e ameaçada de extinção que habita vegetação ripária do Cerrado, principalmente matas de galeria. No Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, sudeste do Brasil, áreas úmidas estão ameaçadas devido a frequentes queimadas não naturais e a invasão por javaporco, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758. Avaliamos os possíveis efeitos da sazonalidade na quantidade de registros de S. novacapitalis em habitats sem perturbação e buscamos responder questões sobre como o fogo e a invasão por javaporco pode afetar a ocupação de área pela ave. Transecções paralelas aos ambientes ripários foram usadas para amostrar n=21 áreas, totalizando 7,5 km, de 2014 a 2019. Os resultados indicaram que a estação do ano influenciou na quantidade de registros espontâneos e de registros induzidos por playback, os quais foram mais abundantes durante o período reprodutivo. O uso de playback aumentou significativamente a quantidade de registros em todas as estações. A probabilidade de ocupação considerando toda área de estudo foi maior no fim da primavera (ψ=0,91) e menor no outono (ψ=0,73). Em áreas queimadas (n=8 trechos), o primeiro mês após o fogo apresentou a menor probabilidade de ocupação, mas houve uma rápida recuperação no 2º mês, e estabilização similar na área controle a partir do 3º mês. Após n=11 trechos terem sido invadidos por javaporcos, a estimativa de ocupação de área indicou pequena queda nos dois primeiros meses, mas a partir do 3º mês, o padrão de decréscimo ampliou a discrepância com áreas não perturbadas. É importante continuar monitorando a população de S. novacapitalis e suas ameaças, para subsidiar ações de manejo, principalmente para evitar queimadas não naturais frequentes nas florestas ripárias e bloquear o acesso de javaporcos às áreas úmidas.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e231838, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681894

RESUMO

Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Rios , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil , Bovinos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , População Rural , Suínos
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 137-143, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153317

RESUMO

Abstract The non-native African tuliptree, Spathodea campanulata (P. Beauv), is widely distributed in altered Neotropical environments, where hummingbirds are important pollinators. We investigated the assemblage of hummingbirds which fed on its nectar and described their behavior, to understand possible influences of the exotic tree on the territorial behavior in an altered environment in southeastern Brazil. Seven species fed on flower resources, mainly Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), Amazilia lactea (Lesson, 1832), and Florisuga fusca (Vieillot, 1817). Visiting time was positive correlated with number of flowers accessed, but in most visits, hummingbirds get the nectar by pillage, instead of frontal access. Flower availability varied throughout months; however, we found no evidence of significative correlation between available flowers and number of agonistic encounters. Despite a high number of animal-plant interactions and a strong territorialism of some species observed in African tuliptree foraging site, there may be other plants at local scale influencing the behavioral patterns observed.


Resumo A tulipa africana, Spathodea campanulata (P. Beauv), é uma árvore não nativa amplamente distribuída em ambientes Neotropicais alterados, onde os beija-flores são importantes polinizadores. Investigamos a assembleia de beija-flores que se alimentam do néctar e descrevemos seus comportamentos para compreender possíveis influências da árvore exótica sobre o comportamento territorial em um ambiente alterado no sudeste do Brasil. Sete espécies se alimentaram de recursos florais, principalmente Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), Amazilia lactea (Lesson, 1832) e Florisuga fusca (Vieillot, 1817). O tempo de visita foi correlacionado positivamente com o número de flores acessadas, mas na maioria das visitas os beija-flores obtiveram o néctar pela pilhagem, em vez do acesso frontal. A disponibilidade de flores variou ao longo dos meses; no entanto, não encontramos evidências de correlação significativa entre flores disponíveis e número de encontros agonísticos. Apesar do grande número de interações entre plantas e animais e um forte territorialismo de algumas espécies observadas no local de forrageamento, pode haver outras plantas em escala local influenciando os padrões comportamentais observados.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053127

RESUMO

Birds play a key role in ecosystem dynamics, including urban and rural areas, bringing environmental quality improvements and ecological stability. Species contribute directly to natural regeneration of vegetation and succession processes, by offering ecosystem services as seed dispersal, an important role in human-modified areas. We studied the assemblages of fruit-eating birds in riparian environments of Monjolinho basin, central São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. Birds were recorded in 41 points distributed in riparian ecosystems alongside waterbodies, in landscapes with five types of surrounding matrices: urban, periurban, farmland, and native vegetation. We described how assemblages are structured aiming to evaluate the possible influence of seasonality and landscape type. We recorded 39 bird species that can play a role as seed-dispersers, 32 in wet season and 32 in dry season. There were no significant differences in the diversity and dominance of species between seasons considering the entire area, indicating stability of basic assemblage structure. However, total number of individuals of all species recorded in different landscapes were influenced by seasonality. Also, the composition and abundance of species significantly changed between seasons, leading to a high dissimilarity with almost 50% of the species contributing with almost 90% of the observed variation. A higher taxonomic diversity and distinctness pointed to a wider array of possible seed dispersal services in natural areas, while the lowest values of indexes were found in human-modified areas. The higher number of non-related bird species during dry season contrasted with the higher number of individuals during wet season, indicating that there is more possible ecosystem services offered by frugivorous birds in driest period of the year, while in the rainy period the carrying capacity of the riparian environments was increased.

7.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490987

RESUMO

The Brasilia Tapaculo, Scytalopus novacapitalis Sick, 1958, is a rare, geographically restricted, and endangered bird species that inhabits riparian vegetation of Cerrado, mainly Gallery Forests. In Serra da Canastra National Park, southeastern Brazil, wetlands are under threat due to frequent non-natural burnings and invasion by feral pigs, Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758. We aimed to evaluate the possible effects of seasonal variations on S. novacapitalis records in undisturbed habitats and answer questions about how fire and feral pigs may affect site occupancy of the species. Transects alongside riparian environments were used to survey n=21 sites, totalizing 7.5 Km, from 2014 to 2019. Results indicated the season influenced both, spontaneous records and induced encounters by playback method, which were more abundant in breeding period, from early spring to summer. The use of playback significantly increased the amount of records in all seasons. The probability of site occupancy in all studied area was higher in late spring (ψ=0.91) and lower in autumn (ψ=0.73). In burned sites (n=8), the first post-fire month showed the lowest probability of occupancy, but there was a rapid recovery in 2nd month and stabilization similar to control area from the 3rd month ahead. After sites (n=11) were invaded by feral pigs, the estimation of site occupancy indicated a slight drop in first two months, but after the 3rd month of invasion the decreasing pattern enhanced the discrepancy with undisturbed areas. It is important to keep monitoring S. novacapitalis population and their threats, to subsidize management actions, especially to avoid frequently unusual burnings in riparian forests, and to block the access of feral pigs to wetlands.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130287

RESUMO

The non-native African tuliptree, Spathodea campanulata (P. Beauv), is widely distributed in altered Neotropical environments, where hummingbirds are important pollinators. We investigated the assemblage of hummingbirds which fed on its nectar and described their behavior, to understand possible influences of the exotic tree on the territorial behavior in an altered environment in southeastern Brazil. Seven species fed on flower resources, mainly Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), Amazilia lactea (Lesson, 1832), and Florisuga fusca (Vieillot, 1817). Visiting time was positive correlated with number of flowers accessed, but in most visits, hummingbirds get the nectar by pillage, instead of frontal access. Flower availability varied throughout months; however, we found no evidence of significative correlation between available flowers and number of agonistic encounters. Despite a high number of animal-plant interactions and a strong territorialism of some species observed in African tuliptree foraging site, there may be other plants at local scale influencing the behavioral patterns observed.

9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 145(11): 2287-2295, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28689507

RESUMO

The house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens, several of which cause neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Studies of the prevalence of these NTD-causing zoonotic pathogens, in house mice and black rats from tropical residential areas are scarce. Three hundred and two house mice and 161 black rats were trapped in 2013 from two urban neighbourhoods and a rural village in Yucatan, Mexico, and subsequently tested for Trypanosoma cruzi, Hymenolepis diminuta and Leptospira interrogans. Using the polymerase chain reaction we detected T. cruzi DNA in the hearts of 4·9% (8/165) and 6·2% (7/113) of house mice and black rats, respectively. We applied the sedimentation technique to detect eggs of H. diminuta in 0·5% (1/182) and 14·2% (15/106) of house mice and black rats, respectively. Through the immunofluorescent imprint method, L. interrogans was identified in 0·9% (1/106) of rat kidney impressions. Our results suggest that the black rat could be an important reservoir for T. cruzi and H. diminuta in the studied sites. Further studies examining seasonal and geographical patterns could increase our knowledge on the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico and the risk to public health posed by rodents.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Himenolepíase/veterinária , Leptospirose/veterinária , Camundongos , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Meio Ambiente , Himenolepíase/epidemiologia , Himenolepíase/parasitologia , Hymenolepis diminuta/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Roedores , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 145(2): 334-338, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27780498

RESUMO

Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C. hepaticum in rodents from urban slum areas within tropical regions. Carriage and the intensity of infection of C. hepaticum were studied in 402 Norway rats over a 2-year period in an urban slum in Salvador, Brazil. Overall, prevalence in Norway rats was 83% (337/402). Independent risk factors for C. hepaticum carriage in R. norvegicus were age and valley of capture. Of those infected the proportion with gross liver involvement (i.e. >75% of the liver affected, a proxy for a high level intensity of infection), was low (8%, 26/337). Sixty soil samples were collected from ten locations to estimate levels of environmental contamination and provide information on the potential risk to humans of contracting C. hepaticum from the environment. Sixty percent (6/10) of the sites were contaminated with C. hepaticum. High carriage levels of C. hepaticum within Norway rats and sub-standard living conditions within slum areas may increase the risk to humans of exposure to the infective eggs of C. hepaticum. This study supports the need for further studies to assess whether humans are becoming infected within this community and whether C. hepaticum is posing a significant risk to human health.


Assuntos
Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Carga Parasitária , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/patologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Prevalência , Ratos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças dos Roedores/patologia
12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 144(11): 2420-9, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27019024

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The disease is globally distributed and a major public health concern. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the main reservoir of the pathogen in urban slums of developing and developed countries. The potential routes of intra-specific leptospire transmission in rats are largely unknown. Herein, we identified pathogenic Leptospira spp. in breast tissue and milk of naturally infected rats. We examined kidney, breast tissue and milk from 24 lactating rats for the presence of leptospires using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and scanning electronic microscopy. All 24 rats had evidence for Leptospira in the kidneys, indicating chronic carriage. The majority of kidney-positive rats had detectable leptospires in milk (18, 75%) and breast tissue (16, 67%), as evidenced by immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry. Four (17%) milk samples and two (8%) breast tissue samples were positive by quantitative real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of leptospires in breast tissue. No major pathological changes in breast tissue were found. This study, for the first time, identified leptospires in the milk and breast tissue of wild Norway rats, suggesting the possibility of milk-borne transmission of leptospirosis to neonates.


Assuntos
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Imunofluorescência/veterinária , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia
13.
Rheumatol Int ; 34(9): 1231-4, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24719228

RESUMO

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are autoantibodies directed to intracellular components of neutrophils and are present in several vasculitic syndromes. Recently, these autoantibodies have been described in other autoimmune disorders as well as in infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB). As there are some clinical similarities between TB and granulomatosis with polyangiitis, we searched for ANCA in a group of patients with proven TB. Patients with TB confirmed by chest X-ray and sputum bacilloscopy either before or within 30 days after beginning treatment were included in this study. Anti-MPO and anti-PR3 antibodies were studied using well-standardized ELISA kits (INOVA Diagnostics, Inc.). ANCA were also investigated by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Fifty TB patients (26 females, mean age 47.34 ± 17 years) were enrolled in the present study. No patient tested positive for ANCA by IIF, or anti-MPO or anti-PR3 antibodies by ELISA. Although previous studies have shown the presence of ANCA in some infectious diseases, the findings of the present study demonstrated the absence of such antibodies in TB. The discrepancy in the prevalence of ANCA in TB among different studies may be attributed to methodological factors and/or the genetic background of the studied populations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Mieloblastina/imunologia , Peroxidase/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
14.
Braz J Biol ; 73(1): 91-101, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23644792

RESUMO

Grasslands are characteristic physiognomies of the Brazilian Cerrado domain. One of last remnants of these threatened environments in the state of São Paulo is located in Itirapina Ecological Station, considered as an Important Bird Area (IBA). We investigated bird assemblages that use seasonally flooded grasslands, and predominantly dry grasslands, from August 2010 until July 2011. We focused on aspects of assemblage structure, and possible responses of birds to environmental changes. We recorded 76 species, of which 23.7% are threatened. Some basic aspects of assemblages were similar between environments, such as diversity descriptors, and the tendency of increase richness in the same periods. Other parameters differed between environments, such as absolute richness, recorded monthly (lower in seasonally flooded grasslands). Considering time dimension in analyses, we observed differences in assemblage structure over time, within and between environments. When birds were grouped in guilds, assemblage structure did also differ. We identified significant correlations between the abundance of some guilds and environmental variables. Changes in the availability of resources and microhabitats may affect structure and organization of the studied bird assemblages.


Assuntos
Aves/classificação , Estações do Ano , Animais , Brasil , Extinção Biológica , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional
15.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 19(5): E241-4, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23398654

RESUMO

The study aim was to describe the emergence of carbapenem resistance and clonal complexes (CC), defined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), in Acinetobacter baumannii in a surveillance system for meningitis. Starting in 1996 in an urban setting of Brazil, surveillance detected meningitis by Acinetobacter sp for the first time in 2002. Up to 2008, 35 isolates were saved. Carbapenem resistance emerged in 2006, reaching 70% of A. baumannii isolates in 2008, including one that was colistin resistant. A. baumannii belonged to CC113/79 (University of Oxford/Institute Pasteur schemes), CC235/162 and CC103/15. Dissemination of infections resistant to all antimicrobial agents may occur in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/classificação , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Rheumatol ; 32(5): 685-7, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23344687

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by symmetric polyarthritis, rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity, and bone erosions. Recently, research has been conducted on anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs) to which there are greater sensitivity and specificity than RF. However, these antibodies have also been described in infectious diseases, particularly tuberculosis (TB), placing the high specificity of the test in doubt. The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of ACPAs in TB, RA, and healthy controls. Patients with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, RA (ACR criteria), in addition to healthy controls were included. ACPAs were researched by: anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP), anti-modified citrullinated vimentin (MCV), and RF by ELISA. The study was conducted in 50 TB patients, 50 with RA, and 20 controls. Anti-CCP antibodies were found in 39 (78 %) of the RA patients (median titer, 128 U), whereas anti-MCV antibodies were found in 25 (50 %). Of the patients with TB, two (4 %) had positivity for anti-CCP and anti-MCV and no patient in the control group tested positive for these antibodies. Sensitivity of anti-CCP for RA was 78 % (confidence interval (CI), 63 to 88 %) and specificity was 97 % (CI, 89 to 99 %) while the sensitivity of anti-MCV was 50 % (CI, 35-64 %) and specificity was 97 % (CI, 89 to 99 %). RF was positive in 40 samples (80 %) of RA, in 30 (60 %) of TB, and in 1 (5 %) of the controls. Our findings showed high sensitivity of anti-CCP and high specificity of both anti-CCP and anti-MCV antibodies for RA, even in a population with high incidence of tuberculosis. The higher frequency of positivity of ACPA in TB observed in previous studies may be attributed to methodological factors.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Prevalência , Fator Reumatoide/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Vimentina/química , Vimentina/imunologia
17.
Cytokine ; 56(2): 312-7, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21802960

RESUMO

Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a disorder characterized by a heterogeneous clinical outcome. In the present study, we investigated the associations between Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) -308G>A and Interleukin 8 (IL-8) -251A>T gene polymorphisms, medical history and classical biomarkers in children with steady-state SCA. In total, 210 SCA patients aged 2-21 years and 200 healthy controls were studied. Gene polymorphisms, betaS-globin haplotypes and a 3.7-kb deletion in alpha2-thalassemia (α2-thal3.7 kb) were investigated by PCR/RFLP analysis, and cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. Splenomegaly (p=.032) was more prevalent among children younger than 5 years of age. The A allele of the TNF-alpha -308G>A gene polymorphism and the presence of α2-thal3.7 kb were associated with an increase risk of splenic sequestration events (p=.001; p=.046), while the T allele of the IL-8 -251A>T gene polymorphism was considered to be a protective factor for splenomegaly events (p=.032). Moreover, the A allele of the TNF-alpha -308G>A gene polymorphism was associated with high TNF-alpha levels (p=.021), and the hemoglobin F and hemoglobin S haplotypes were correlated with serum levels of IL-8. The logistic regression analysis showed significant effects of the TNF-alpha and IL-8 gene polymorphisms, beta(S)-globin gene haplotypes and α2-thal3.7 kb on the occurrence of splenic sequestration events. Our study emphasizes that the identification of new genetic and immunological biomarkers and their associations with classical markers is an important strategy to elucidate the underlying causes of different SCA phenotypes and their effects on patient outcome.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Interleucina-8/sangue , Anamnese , Polimorfismo Genético , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Haplótipos , Humanos , Interleucina-8/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(8): 705-711, Aug. 2010. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-554960

RESUMO

Fetal hemoglobin (HbF), encoded by the HBG2 and HBG1 genes, is the best-known genetic modulator of sickle cell anemia, varying dramatically in concentration in the blood of these patients. This variation is partially associated with polymorphisms located in the promoter region of the HBG2 and HBG1 genes. In order to explore known and unknown polymorphisms in these genes, the sequences of their promoter regions were screened in sickle cell anemia patients and correlated with both their HbF levels and their ƒÀS-globin haplotypes. Additionally, the sequences were compared with genes from 2 healthy groups, a reference one (N = 104) and an Afro-descendant one (N = 98), to identify polymorphisms linked to the ethnic background.The reference group was composed by healthy individuals from the general population. Four polymorphisms were identified in the promoter region of HBG2 and 8 in the promoter region of HBG1 among the studied groups. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located at positions -324, -317, -309 and -307 were identified in the reference group. A deletion located between -396 and -391 in the HBG2 promoter region and the SNP -271 C¨T in the HBG1 promoter region were associated with the Central African Republic ƒÀS-globin haplotype. In contrast, the -369 C¨G and 309 A¨G SNPs in the HBG2 promoter region were correlated to the Benin haplotype. The polymorphisms -396_-391 del HBG2, -369 SNP HBG2 and -271 SNP HBG1 correlated with HbF levels. Hence, we suggest an important role of HBG2 and HBG1 gene polymorphisms on the HbF synthesis.


Assuntos
Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , gama-Globinas/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Brasil , Genótipo , Haplótipos
19.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 43(8): 705-11, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20602015

RESUMO

Fetal hemoglobin (HbF), encoded by the HBG2 and HBG1 genes, is the best-known genetic modulator of sickle cell anemia, varying dramatically in concentration in the blood of these patients. This variation is partially associated with polymorphisms located in the promoter region of the HBG2 and HBG1 genes. In order to explore known and unknown polymorphisms in these genes, the sequences of their promoter regions were screened in sickle cell anemia patients and correlated with both their HbF levels and their betaS-globin haplotypes. Additionally, the sequences were compared with genes from 2 healthy groups, a reference one (N = 104) and an Afro-descendant one (N = 98), to identify polymorphisms linked to the ethnic background.The reference group was composed by healthy individuals from the general population. Four polymorphisms were identified in the promoter region of HBG2 and 8 in the promoter region of HBG1 among the studied groups. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located at positions -324, -317, -309 and -307 were identified in the reference group. A deletion located between -396 and -391 in the HBG2 promoter region and the SNP -271 C-->T in the HBG1 promoter region were associated with the Central African Republic betaS-globin haplotype. In contrast, the -369 C-->G and 309 A-->G SNPs in the HBG2 promoter region were correlated to the Benin haplotype. The polymorphisms -396_-391 del HBG2, -369 SNP HBG2 and -271 SNP HBG1 correlated with HbF levels. Hence, we suggest an important role of HBG2 and HBG1 gene polymorphisms on the HbF synthesis.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , gama-Globinas/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 32(1 Pt 1): e49-56, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19555437

RESUMO

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes protect cells against xenobiotics and oxidative stress products through an electrophilic conjugation process. We investigated the theta (GSTT1) and mu (GSTM1) null genotypes in a group of leukopenic subjects and normal subjects from Northeast Brazil, evaluating their use as biomarkers of susceptibility for developing leukopenia. In a sample-based case-control study, we analysed white blood cell (WBC) counts and GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes. A total of 278 subjects were analysed: 91 with leukopenia and 187 controls. GSTT1 null genotype conferred a 5.92-fold risk for occurrence of leukopenia [odds ratios (OR) = 5.92, CI(MLE): 1.64-26.72, P(MLE) = 0.002] and a 3.90-fold risk of neutropenia (OR = 3.90; CI(MLE): 1.05-13.66; P(MLE) = 0.02), while GSTM1 null genotype conferred a 1.78-fold risk for leukopenia (OR = 1.75; CI(MLE): 1.04-3.06, P(MLE) = 0.017) and no risk of neutropenia (OR = 1.71; CI(MLE): 0.88-3.35; P(MLE) = 0.06). The GSTT1, but not the GSTM1 null genotype, was found to be associated with leukopenia and neutropenia. More cellular and molecular studies are needed to evaluate the existence of genotype interactions, and to confirm the appropriateness of using the GSTT1 and/or GSTM1 null genotypes as biomarkers of susceptibility to white blood-cell deficiencies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Leucopenia/genética , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino
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