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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 706: 135728, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940730

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), such as the commonly prescribed antibiotic ciprofloxacin, are present and persistent in freshwaters, yet their effects on aquatic ecosystem functions at environmentally-relevant concentrations are rarely explored. Stream biofilms provide multiple functions in stream ecosystems, but their functional response to PPCP contaminants such as ciprofloxacin is unclear. To establish the effect of ciprofloxacin on aquatic biofilms, we colonized biofilms in situ on tiles (n = 80) at four sites along an urban stream in Gainesville, Florida, including two sites above and two sites below a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We then incubated the tiles and associated biofilms in the laboratory for 6 d exposing biofilms to either 0, 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 µg/L (target concentrations) of ciprofloxacin. At the end of the 6 d laboratory exposure, we quantified gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R), and biomass (as chlorophyll a) of biofilms, and calculated response ratios for each response. All response metrics were significantly differed across sites (p < 0.01). Ciprofloxacin significantly decreased GPP (p < 0.05) regardless of treatment concentration, most notably at the site immediately below the WWTP, where there was no measurable GPP on any ciprofloxacin-treated biofilms. In contrast, respiration (R) was not significantly affected by ciprofloxacin, despite an apparent increase in R at the WWTP site. However, the WWTP site R was significantly different from the most upstream and downstream sites (p < 0.001) but was not significantly different from a nearby site upstream of the WWTP (p > 0.05). These results indicate that chronic exposure to ciprofloxacin through WWTP effluent can alter ecosystem functions performed by biofilms, which can have consequences for higher trophic levels and stream processes. By quantifying biofilm metabolic responses to ciprofloxacin exposure, this study supports the concept that pharmaceuticals and personal care products can induce sub-lethal effects on ecological processes at environmentally-relevant concentrations.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacino/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Biomassa , Clorofila A , Ecossistema , Florida
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 135133, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837878

RESUMO

Designed ecosystems are built as part of ongoing urban expansion, providing a suite of valued ecosystem services. However, these new ecosystems could also promote disservices by facilitating the colonization and spread of invasive species. We conduct the first assessment of the quantity and invasion of an overlooked designed ecosystem: stormwater ponds. These ponds are commonly recommended for managing urban hydrology, but little is known about their ecology or extent of proliferation. Using a broad-scale survey of pond coverage in Florida, USA, we found that over 76,000 stormwater ponds have been built just in this state, forming 2.7% of total urban land cover. This extensive pondscape of manufactured habitats could facilitate species spread throughout urban areas and into nearby natural waterbodies. We also conducted a survey of the severity of plant invasion in 30 ponds in Gainesville, FL, US across two pond types (dry vs. wet), and a gradient of management intensities (low, medium, high) and pond ages. We unexpectedly found a high number of invasive plant species (28 in just 30 ponds). Ninety-six percent of surveyed ponds contained from one to ten of these species, with ponds exhibiting high turnover in invader composition (i.e., high beta diversity). The bank sections of dry unmanaged ponds exhibited the highest mean invasive species richness (5.8 ± 1.3) and the inundated centers of wet medium managed ponds exhibited the highest mean invasive species cover (34 ± 12%). Invasive plant richness and cover also tended to be greater in dry ponds with higher soil nutrient levels, and in older wet ponds. Therefore, we found that highly maintained and younger wet ponds were the least invaded. Nevertheless, common management practices that limit plant invasions may also limit native species establishment and invasion may increase in the decades following pond construction.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Tanques , Florida , Plantas
3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16846, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727931

RESUMO

Run-of-river dams are often considered to have lower environmental impacts than storage dams due to their smaller reservoirs and low potential for flow alteration. However, this has been questioned for projects recently built on large rivers around the world. Two of the world's largest run-of-river dams-Santo Antônio and Jirau-were recently constructed on the Madeira River, a major tributary to the Amazon River in Brazil. Here we evaluate the effects of the creation of the Santo Antônio dam on the water chemistry and thermal structure of the Madeira River mainstem and back-flooded valleys of tributaries within the reservoir inundated area. In contrast to the mainstem river, some back-flooded tributaries periodically developed thermal stratification, which is associated with higher water residence times. Additionally, biochemical oxygen demand, partial pressure of CO2, and organic carbon all increased in the tributary valleys inundated by the reservoir, possibly due to increased input of allochthonous organic matter and its subsequent mineralization upon back-flooding-a common feature of newly flooded impoundments. The mainstem did not show detectable dam-related changes in water chemistry and thermal structure. Although the majority of the reservoir area maintained riverine conditions, the lateral valleys formed upon back-flooding-corresponding to ~30% of the Santo Antônio reservoir area-developed lake-like conditions akin to a typical reservoir of a storage dam.

4.
Ecol Appl ; 29(6): e01941, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155778

RESUMO

The continually increasing global population residing in urban landscapes impacts numerous ecosystem functions and services provided by urban streams. Urban stream restoration is often employed to offset these impacts and conserve or enhance the various functions and services these streams provide. Despite the assumption that "if you build it, [the function] will come," current understanding of the effects of urban stream restoration on stream ecosystem functions are based on short term studies that may not capture variation in restoration effectiveness over time. We quantified the impact of stream restoration on nutrient and energy dynamics of urban streams by studying 10 urban stream reaches (five restored, five unrestored) in the Baltimore, Maryland, USA, region over a two-year period. We measured gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) at the whole-stream scale continuously throughout the study and nitrate (NO3 - -N) spiraling rates seasonally (spring, summer, autumn) across all reaches. There was no significant restoration effect on NO3 - -N spiraling across reaches. However, there was a significant canopy cover effect on NO3 - -N spiraling, and directly comparing paired sets of unrestored-restored reaches showed that restoration does affect NO3 - -N spiraling after accounting for other environmental variation. Furthermore, there was a change in GPP : ER seasonality, with restored and open-canopied reaches exhibiting higher GPP : ER during summer. The restoration effect, though, appears contingent upon altered canopy cover, which is likely to be a temporary effect of restoration and is a driver of multiple ecosystem services, e.g., habitat, riparian nutrient processing. Our results suggest that decision-making about stream restoration, including evaluations of nutrient benefits, clearly needs to consider spatial and temporal dynamics of canopy cover and trade-offs among multiple ecosystem services.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Nitratos , Estações do Ano
5.
Biol Lett ; 14(10)2018 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381452

RESUMO

In the face of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks, effective mosquito control is a primary goal for public health. Insect repellents, containing active compounds such as DEET and picaridin, are a first defence against biting insects. Owing to widespread use and incomplete sewage treatment, these compounds are frequently detected in surface waters, but their effects on aquatic taxa such as mosquito larvae or their naturally occurring aquatic predators are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of environmentally realistic concentrations of commercial products containing DEET and picaridin on survivorship of mosquito larvae, and their potential indirect effects on survival of larval salamanders, a major predator of mosquito larvae. Larval mosquitos were not affected by exposure to repellents containing DEET or picaridin. We found no larval salamander mortality in control and DEET treatments, but mortality rates in picaridin treatments ranged from 45 to 65% after 25 days of exposure. Salamander larvae exposed to repellents containing picaridin began to display tail deformities and impaired development four days after the experiment began. Our findings suggest the possibility that environmentally realistic concentrations of picaridin-containing repellents in surface waters may increase the abundance of adult mosquitos owing to decreased predation pressure.


Assuntos
Ambystoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , DEET/toxicidade , Piperidinas/toxicidade , Ambystoma/anormalidades , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Repelentes de Insetos/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cauda/anormalidades , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos
6.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 92(12)2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27660607

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) pollution of freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems is widespread and has numerous environmental and economic impacts. A portion of this excess N comes from urban watersheds comprised of natural and engineered ecosystems which can alter downstream N export. Studies of urban N cycling have focused on either specific ecosystems or on watershed-scale mass balances. Comparisons of specific N transformations across ecosystems are required to contextualize rates from individual studies. Here we reviewed urban N cycling in terrestrial, aquatic, and engineered ecosystems, and compared N processing in these urban ecosystem types to native reference ecosystems. We found that net N mineralization and net nitrification rates were enhanced in urban forests and riparian zones relative to reference ecosystems. Denitrification was highly variable across urban ecosystem types, but no significant differences were found between urban and reference denitrification rates. When focusing on urban streams, ammonium uptake was more rapid than nitrate uptake in urban streams. Additionally, reduction of stormwater runoff coupled with potential decreases in N concentration suggests that green infrastructure may reduce downstream N export. Despite multiple environmental stressors in urban environments, ecosystems within urban watersheds can process and transform N at rates similar to or higher than reference ecosystems.

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