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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 135133, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837878

RESUMO

Designed ecosystems are built as part of ongoing urban expansion, providing a suite of valued ecosystem services. However, these new ecosystems could also promote disservices by facilitating the colonization and spread of invasive species. We conduct the first assessment of the quantity and invasion of an overlooked designed ecosystem: stormwater ponds. These ponds are commonly recommended for managing urban hydrology, but little is known about their ecology or extent of proliferation. Using a broad-scale survey of pond coverage in Florida, USA, we found that over 76,000 stormwater ponds have been built just in this state, forming 2.7% of total urban land cover. This extensive pondscape of manufactured habitats could facilitate species spread throughout urban areas and into nearby natural waterbodies. We also conducted a survey of the severity of plant invasion in 30 ponds in Gainesville, FL, US across two pond types (dry vs. wet), and a gradient of management intensities (low, medium, high) and pond ages. We unexpectedly found a high number of invasive plant species (28 in just 30 ponds). Ninety-six percent of surveyed ponds contained from one to ten of these species, with ponds exhibiting high turnover in invader composition (i.e., high beta diversity). The bank sections of dry unmanaged ponds exhibited the highest mean invasive species richness (5.8 ± 1.3) and the inundated centers of wet medium managed ponds exhibited the highest mean invasive species cover (34 ± 12%). Invasive plant richness and cover also tended to be greater in dry ponds with higher soil nutrient levels, and in older wet ponds. Therefore, we found that highly maintained and younger wet ponds were the least invaded. Nevertheless, common management practices that limit plant invasions may also limit native species establishment and invasion may increase in the decades following pond construction.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Tanques , Florida , Plantas
2.
Ecology ; 97(6): 1497-506, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459780

RESUMO

Parasites can alter communities by reducing densities of keystone hosts, but few studies have examined how trait-mediated indirect effects of parasites can alter ecological communities. We test how trematode parasites (Microphallus spp.) that affect invasive crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) behavior alter how crayfish impact lake littoral communities. O. rusticus drive community composition in north temperate lakes, and predatory fish can reduce crayfish activity and feeding. In laboratory studies, Microphallus parasites also alter O. rusticus behavior: infected O. rusticus eat fewer macroinvertebrates and are bolder near predatory fish than uninfected individuals. We used a 2 x 2 factorial experiment to test how predatory fish and parasites affect O. rusticus impacts in large mesocosms over 4 weeks. We predicted (1) that when predators were absent, infected crayfish would have lower impacts than uninfected crayfish on macrophytes and macroinvertebrates (as well as reduced growth and higher mortality). However, (2) when predators were present but unable to consume crayfish, infected crayfish would have greater impacts (as well as greater growth and lower mortality) than uninfected crayfish because of increased boldness. Because of its effect on crayfish feeding behavior, we also predicted (3) that infection would alter macrophyte and macroinvertebrate community composition. In contrast to our first hypothesis, we found that infected and uninfected crayfish had similar impacts on lower trophic levels when predators were absent. Across all treatments, infected crayfish were more likely to be outside shelters and had greater growth than uninfected crayfish, suggesting that the reduced feeding observed in short-term experiments does not occur over longer timescales. However, in support of the second hypothesis, when predatory fish were present, infected crayfish ate more macroinvertebrates than did uninfected crayfish, likely due to increased boldness. We also observed a trend for greater macrophyte consumption associated with infection and a trend indicating infection might alter macroinvertebrate community composition. Our results suggest that parasites can alter aquatic communities in mesocosms merely by modifying host behavior.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Espécies Introduzidas , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita
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