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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable and is associated with lower educational attainment. ADHD is linked to family adversity, including hostile parenting. Questions remain regarding the role of genetic and environmental factors underlying processes through which ADHD symptoms develop and influence academic attainment. METHOD: This study employed a parent-offspring adoption design (N = 345) to examine the interplay between genetic susceptibility to child attention problems (birth mother ADHD symptoms) and adoptive parent (mother and father) hostility on child lower academic outcomes, via child ADHD symptoms. Questionnaires assessed birth mother ADHD symptoms, adoptive parent (mother and father) hostility to child, early child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The Woodcock-Johnson test was used to examine child reading and math aptitude. RESULTS: Building on a previous study (Harold et al., 2013, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 1038-1046), heritable influences were found: birth mother ADHD symptoms predicted child impulsivity/activation. In turn, child impulsivity/activation (4.5 years) evoked maternal and paternal hostility, which was associated with children's ADHD continuity (6 years). Both maternal and paternal hostility (4.5 years) contributed to impairments in math but not reading (7 years), via impacts on ADHD symptoms (6 years). CONCLUSION: Findings highlight the importance of early child behavior dysregulation evoking parent hostility in both mothers and fathers, with maternal and paternal hostility contributing to the continuation of ADHD symptoms and lower levels of later math ability. Early interventions may be important for the promotion of child math skills in those with ADHD symptoms, especially where children have high levels of early behavior dysregulation.

2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10040, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968802

RESUMO

Exposure to social stress is an important risk factor for comorbid affective disorders and problem alcohol use. To better understand mechanisms involved in social stress-induced affective disorder and alcohol use co-morbidity, we studied the effects of adolescent social stress on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and binge-like ethanol consumption. Male and female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to chronic variable social stress (CVSS) or control conditions throughout adolescence (postnatal days, PND, 25-59) and then tested for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and a novel open field environment, or depression-like behavior using the forced swim test on PND 64-66. Mice were then tested for binge-like ethanol consumption using the Drinking-in-the-Dark model. Male and female mice exposed to adolescent CVSS had increased adult anxiety-like behavior and increased locomotor adaptation to a novel environment. Further, CVSS mice consumed significantly more ethanol, but not saccharin, than controls. Despite group differences in both anxiety-like behavior and ethanol consumption, there was no relationship between these outcomes within individual mice. These data suggest that exposure to adolescent social stress is an important risk factor for later alcohol use and affective behaviors, but that social stress does not necessarily dictate co-morbidity of these outcomes.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Brain Res Bull ; 138: 37-49, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28802900

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders and nicotine use are significant contributors to global morbidity and mortality as independent and comorbid diseases. Early-life stress, potentially via stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation, can exacerbate both. However, little is known about the factors that predispose individuals to the development of both anxiety disorders and nicotine use. Here, we examined the relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and nicotine responses following adolescent stress. Adolescent male and female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to either chronic variable social stress (CVSS) or control conditions. CVSS consisted of repeated cycles of social isolation and social reorganization. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior and social avoidance were measured using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and social approach-avoidance test, respectively. Nicotine responses were assessed with acute effects on body temperature, corticosterone production, locomotor activity, and voluntary oral nicotine consumption. Adolescent stress had sex-dependent effects on nicotine responses and exploratory behavior, but did not affect anxiety-like behavior or social avoidance in males or females. Adult CVSS males exhibited less exploratory behavior, as indicated by reduced exploratory locomotion in the EPM and social approach-avoidance test, compared to controls. Adolescent stress did not affect nicotine-induced hypothermia in either sex, but CVSS males exhibited augmented nicotine-induced locomotion during late adolescence and voluntarily consumed less nicotine during adulthood. Stress effects on male nicotine-induced locomotion were associated with individual differences in exploratory locomotion in the EPM and social approach-avoidance test. Relative to controls, adult CVSS males and females also exhibited reduced corticosterone levels at baseline and adult male CVSS mice exhibited increased corticosterone levels following an acute nicotine injection. Results suggest that the altered nicotine responses observed in CVSS males may be associated with HPA dysregulation. Taken together, adolescent social stress influences later-life nicotine responses and exploratory behavior. However, there is little evidence of an association between nicotine responses and prototypical anxiety-like behavior or social avoidance in BALB/cJ mice.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/metabolismo , Nicotina/farmacologia , Agonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento de Escolha/efeitos dos fármacos , Corticosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipotermia/induzido quimicamente , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Radioimunoensaio , Estresse Psicológico/sangue
4.
Psychol Med ; 48(4): 592-603, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28745264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between parenting and child outcomes are often interpreted as reflecting causal, social influences. However, such associations may be confounded by genes common to children and their biological parents. To the extent that these shared genes influence behaviours in both generations, a passive genetic mechanism may explain links between them. Here we aim to quantify the relative importance of passive genetic v. social mechanisms in the intergenerational association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems in adolescence. METHODS: We used a Children-of-Twins (CoT) design with data from the parent-based Twin and Offspring Study of Sweden (TOSS) sample [909 adult twin pairs and their offspring; offspring mean age 15.75 (2.42) years], and the child-based Swedish Twin Study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) sample [1120 adolescent twin pairs; mean age 13.67 (0.47) years]. A composite of parent-report measures (closeness, conflict, disagreements, expressions of affection) indexed parent-offspring relationship quality in TOSS, and offspring self-reported internalizing symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in both samples. RESULTS: A social transmission mechanism explained the intergenerational association [r = 0.21 (0.16-0.25)] in our best-fitting model. A passive genetic transmission pathway was not found to be significant, indicating that parental genetic influences on parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring genetic influences on their internalizing problems were non-overlapping. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that this intergenerational association is a product of social interactions between children and parents, within which bidirectional effects are highly plausible. Results from genetically informative studies of parenting-related effects should be used to help refine early parenting interventions aimed at reducing risk for psychopathology.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genética Comportamental , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Gêmeos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicopatologia , Autorrelato , Suécia
5.
Eur J Pain ; 21(4): 623-634, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27748566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opiates act through opioid receptors to diminish pain. Here, we investigated whether mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) receptor endogenous activity assessed in the whole mouse body or in particular at peripheral receptors on primary nociceptive neurons, control colonic pain. METHODS: We compared global MOR and DOR receptor knockout (KO) mice, mice with a conditional deletion of MOR and DOR in Nav1.8-positive nociceptive primary afferent neurons (cKO), and control floxed mice of both genders for visceral sensitivity. Visceromotor responses to colorectal distension (CRD) and macroscopic colon scores were recorded on naïve mice and mice with acute colitis induced by 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) for 5 days. Transcript expression for opioid genes and cytokines was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: Naïve MOR and DOR global KO mice show increased visceral sensitivity that was not observed in cKO mice. MOR and preproenkephalin (Penk) were the most expressed opioid genes in colon. MOR KO mice had augmented kappa opioid receptor and Tumour-Necrosis-Factor-α and diminished Penk transcript levels while DOR, preprodynorphin and Interleukin-1ß were unchanged. Global MOR KO females had a thicker colon than floxed females. No alteration was detected in DOR mutant animals. A 5-day DSS treatment led to comparable hypersensitivity in the different mouse lines. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mu and delta opioid receptor global endogenous activity but not activity at the peripheral Nav1.8 neurons contribute to visceral sensitivity in naïve mice, and that endogenous MOR and DOR tones were insufficient to elicit analgesia after 5-day DSS-induced colitis. SIGNIFICANCE: Knockout mice for mu and delta opioid receptor have augmented colon sensitivity in the CRD assay. It shows endogenous mu and delta opioid analgesia that may be explored as potential targets for alleviating chronic intestinal pain.


Assuntos
Colite/genética , Dor/genética , Receptores Opioides delta/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Dinorfinas/genética , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Encefalinas/genética , Encefalinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Dor/metabolismo , Manejo da Dor , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides delta/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 7(6): 602-615, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27572913

RESUMO

Studies of the role of the early environment in shaping children's risk for anxiety problems have produced mixed results. It is possible that inconsistencies in previous findings result from a lack of consideration of a putative role for inherited influences moderators on the impact of early experiences. Early inherited influences not only contribute to vulnerabilities for anxiety problems throughout the lifespan, but can also modulate the ways that the early environment impacts child outcomes. In the current study, we tested the effects of child-centered parenting behaviors on putative anxiety risk in young children who differed in levels of inherited vulnerability. We tested this using a parent-offspring adoption design and a sample in which risk for anxiety problems and parenting behaviors were assessed in both mothers and fathers. Inherited influences on anxiety problems were assessed as anxiety symptoms in biological parents. Child-centered parenting was observed in adoptive mothers and fathers when children were 9 months old. Social inhibition, an early temperament marker of anxiety risk, was observed at child ages 9 and 18 months. Inherited influences on anxiety problems moderated the link between paternal child-centered parenting during infancy and social inhibition in toddlerhood. For children whose birth parents reported high levels of anxiety symptoms, greater child-centered parenting in adoptive fathers was related to greater social inhibition 9 months later. For children whose birth parents reported low levels of anxiety symptoms, greater child-centered parenting in adoptive fathers was related to less social inhibition across the same period.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Adaptação/etiologia , Ansiedade/complicações , Pai/psicologia , Inibição Psicológica , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Criança , Relações Pai-Filho , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
8.
Behav Brain Res ; 243: 44-52, 2013 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23295400

RESUMO

A crucial issue in treating opiate addiction, a chronic relapsing disorder, is to maintain a drug-free abstinent state. Prolonged abstinence associates with mood disorders, strongly contributing to relapse. In particular, substance use disorders occurring during adolescence predispose to depression later in adulthood. Using our established mouse model of opiate abstinence, we characterized emotional consequences into adulthood of morphine exposure during adolescence. Our results indicate that morphine treatment in adolescent mice has no effect on anxiety-like behaviours in adult mice, after abstinence. In contrast, morphine treatment during adolescence increases behavioural despair in adult mice. We also show that morphine exposure strain-dependently enhances sociability in adult mice. Additional research will be required to understand where and how morphine acts during brain maturation to affect emotional and social behaviours into adulthood.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfina/farmacologia , Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Comportamento Social , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Dependência de Morfina/tratamento farmacológico , Dependência de Morfina/fisiopatologia , Dependência de Morfina/psicologia , Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 11(3): 567-72, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21481216

RESUMO

Wolbachia is a large monophyletic genus of intracellular bacteria, traditionally detected using PCR assays. Its considerable phylogenetic diversity and impact on arthropods and nematodes make it urgent to assess the efficiency of these screening protocols. The sensitivity and range of commonly used PCR primers and of a new set of 16S primers were evaluated on a wide range of hosts and Wolbachia strains. We show that certain primer sets are significantly more efficient than others but that no single protocol can ensure the specific detection of all known Wolbachia infections.


Assuntos
Entomologia/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Artrópodes/microbiologia , Primers do DNA/genética , Nematoides/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Wolbachia/genética
10.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 65(21): 3329-47, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18818875

RESUMO

Endogenous retrovirus-like elements, or ERVs, are an abundant component of all eukaryotic genomes. Their transcriptional and retrotranspositional activities have great potential for deleterious effects on gene expression. Consequences of such activity may include germline mutagenesis and cancerous transformation. As a result, mammalian genomes have evolved means of counteracting ERV transcription and mobilization. In this review, we discuss epigenetic mechanisms of ERV and LTR retrotransposon control during mouse development, focusing on involvement of DNA methylation, histone modifications, small RNAs and their interaction with one another. We also address relevance of research performed in the mouse system to human and challenges associated with studying repetitive families. (Part of a multi-author review).


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Camundongos/virologia , Retroelementos/genética , Animais , Blastocisto , Transformação Celular Viral/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Células Germinativas/virologia , Histona Metiltransferases , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos/embriologia , Metiltransferases de Proteína/fisiologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
11.
Behav Brain Res ; 184(2): 167-73, 2007 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17697718

RESUMO

The novel nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) system was proposed to be an important component of neural circuits involved in stress-coping behaviour and fear. This study investigated whether variations between the mouse strains in vulnerability to social crowding stress might be linked to different regulation of N/OFQ system transcripts in mice. Three weeks old C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cByJ (CBy) and 129S2/SvPas (129S2) male mice were housed individually or in crowded (7/cage) conditions and then tested as adults in a battery of anxiety tests (open field, elevated plus-maze and acoustic startle reflex tests). Both 129S2 and B6 mice displayed increased signs of anxiety under crowded housing, while CBy mice tended to show the opposite profile. Analysis of gene expression revealed a 10-fold increase of nociceptin precursor and 4-fold increase of the NOP receptor mRNAs contents in the hippocampus of CBy mice kept in crowded conditions compared to those housed individually. In B6 mice, mRNA level of the peptide precursor remained unchanged, while that of the receptor was increased by 2-fold under crowding compared to individual housing. No significant changes were detected in 129S2 mice. These findings show that social housing may be important environmental stress factor in mice depending on the strain. The possible involvement of central nociceptin mechanisms in behavioural resilience to social crowding stress is discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Peptídeos Opioides/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Meio Social , Análise de Variância , Animais , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genética Comportamental , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Peptídeos Opioides/genética , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Genes Brain Behav ; 5(5): 423-31, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16879636

RESUMO

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a multimodal phenomenon where the prepulse and the startling stimulus can be presented in either the same or the different sensory modalities. The aim of the present study was to characterize intramodal and cross-modal PPI in mice. We first examined the effects of varying prepulse intensity and prepulse duration on auditory and visual PPI in three inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J, 129S2 and BALB/cByJ mice. Increasing the intensity (5-15 dB above the background) and the duration (1-25 milliseconds) of the acoustic prepulse increased auditory PPI, and maximum level of inhibition was reached with each prepulse intensity at specific prepulse duration (between 5 and 15 milliseconds). Varying the intensity (30-300 lux) and the duration (1-25 milliseconds) of the light flashes had similar impact on visual PPI level (optimal durations between 1 and 10 milliseconds). There were also marked strain differences in PPI performances, with 129S2 and BALB/cByJ mice displaying the highest and the lowest scores of auditory PPI, respectively. In contrast, opposite strain ranking was obtained for visual PPI. The temporal expression of PPI was then studied in the same mouse strains using a wide range of interstimulus intervals (2-2000 milliseconds between the prepulse offset and the pulse onset). The time-course of the auditory and the visual PPI were relatively comparable (bell-shaped curve) with optimal lead-times between 10 and 100 milliseconds, but the shape of the temporal function varied between the mouse strains depending on the prepulse modality. These findings demonstrate that PPI has many physiological and genetic determinants that vary greatly across temporal and intensity domain, as well as stimulus modality.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Análise de Variância , Animais , Percepção Auditiva/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Inibição Neural/genética , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Reflexo de Sobressalto/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo , Percepção Visual/genética
13.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 272(3): 336-43, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15372228

RESUMO

Transposable P elements inserted in the heterochromatic Telomeric Associated Sequences on the X chromosome (1A site) of Drosophila melanogaster have a very strong capacity to elicit the P cytotype, a maternally transmitted condition which represses P element transposition and P-induced hybrid dysgenesis. This repressive capacity has previously been shown to be sensitive to mutant alleles of the gene Su(var)205, which encodes HP1 (Heterochromatin Protein 1), thus suggesting a role for chromatin structure in repression. Since an interaction between heterochromatin formation and RNA interference has been reported in various organisms, we tested the effect of mutant alleles of aubergine, a gene that has been shown to play a role in RNA interference in Drosophila, on the repressive properties of telomeric P elements. Seven out of the eight mutant alleles tested clearly impaired the repressive capacities of the two independent telomeric P insertions at 1A analyzed. P repression by P strains whose repressive capacities are not linked to the presence of P copies at 1A were previously found to be insensitive to Su(var)205; here, we show that they are also insensitive to aubergine mutations. These results strongly suggest that both RNA interference and heterochromatin structure are involved in the establishment of the P cytotype elicited by telomeric P elements, and reinforce the hypothesis that different mechanisms for repression of P elements exist which depend on the chromosomal location of the regulatory copies of P.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/genética , Telômero , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Disgenesia Gonadal , Masculino , Interferência de RNA
14.
Psychol Med ; 33(3): 549-53, 2003 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12701675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The statement that past behaviour is the best predictor of future behaviour has empirical support in respect of whether an individual will, or will not, commit a criminal offence. People who have offended in the past are more likely to offend in the future. The aims of this study were to develop an instrument and to examine whether the same statement applies in respect of the nature and circumstances of successive offences committed by the same person. METHOD: A rating instrument to describe seven variables relating to the nature and circumstances of a serious offence, the SODI, was developed by the authors. Inter-rater reliability was measured when the instrument was applied to 80 offences committed by 40 patients leaving high secure hospitals. The data were examined for evidence of similarity in the nature and circumstances of successive offences. RESULTS: For five of the seven items of the instrument the kappa coefficients for inter-rater reliability were > 0.65. No significant associations, in terms of SODI ratings, were found between the offence that led to hospital admission and that which was committed after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The SODI is a reliable instrument for the description of serious offences committed by this group. Risk assessments in psychiatry should be informed by an awareness that in only a proportion of cases will the nature and circumstances of any serious re-offence resemble the nature and circumstances of the offence which contributed to a patient's admission to hospital.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia Criminal/métodos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Desinstitucionalização , Inglaterra , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Hospitais Especializados , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Controle Social Formal , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Fam Process ; 40(3): 247-59, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11676267

RESUMO

Studies focusing on genetic and social influences on maternal adjustment will illumine mother's marriage, parenting, and the development of psychopathology in her children. Recent behavioral genetic research suggests mechanisms by which genetic and social influences determine psychological development and adjustment. First, heritable, personal attributes may influence individuals' relationships with their family members. These genetically influenced family patterns may amplify the effects of adverse, heritable personal attributes on adjustment. Second, influences unique to siblings may be the most important environmental determinants of adjustment. We derive three hypotheses on maternal adjustment from integrating these findings from genetic studies with other contemporary research on maternal adjustment. First, mother's marriage mediates the influence of her heritable, personal attributes on her adjustment. Second, mother's recall of how she was parented is partially genetically influenced, and both her relationships with her spouse and her child mediate the impact of these genetically influenced representations on her current adjustment. Third, characteristics of mother's spouse are important influences on difference between her adjustment and that of her sister's. These sibling-specific influences are unrelated to mother's heritable attributes. The current article develops this model, and [figure: see text] the companion article describes the Twin Mom Study that was designed to test it as well, as its first findings. Data from this study can illumine the role of family process in the expression of genetic influence and lead to specific family interventions designed to offset adverse genetic influences.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Teóricos , Relações entre Irmãos , Ajustamento Social , Cônjuges
16.
Fam Process ; 40(3): 261-72, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11676268

RESUMO

This is the first report of the Twin Mom Study, an investigation of three hypotheses concerning influences on maternal adjustment. These hypotheses concern the role of the marital and parent-child relationships in mediating genetic influences on maternal adjustment and on the importance of the mothers' marital partners as a specifiable source of influences on their adjustment not shared with their sisters. The study's sample of 150 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 176 dizygotic (DZ) twins was drawn randomly from the Swedish Twin Registry and is, with some small exceptions, likely to be representative of women in the Swedish population. The sample included the marital partners of these twins and their adolescent children. Self-report and coded videotapes were a source of information about family process. Results reported in this first report focus on comparability of American and Swedish samples on scales measuring psychiatric symptoms, and on an analysis of genetic and environmental influences on nine measures of mothers' adjustment. Results suggest comparability between the US and Sweden. Genetic influences were found for all measures of adjustment, particularly in the psychological manifestations of anxiety and for smoking. The pattern of findings also underscored the importance of influences unique to each sibling within the twin pair, thus focusing attention on the potential role of marital partners in maternal adjustment. Results also suggested that experiences shared by the twin sisters, experiences unrelated to their genetic similarity, may influence their fearfulness and alcohol consumption. Our model did not include these influences and thus must be amended.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Gêmeos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações entre Irmãos , Ajustamento Social , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto , Gêmeos/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/psicologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/psicologia
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 98(10): 5937-42, 2001 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11331768

RESUMO

The ability to recognize oneself in a mirror is an exceedingly rare capacity in the animal kingdom. To date, only humans and great apes have shown convincing evidence of mirror self-recognition. Two dolphins were exposed to reflective surfaces, and both demonstrated responses consistent with the use of the mirror to investigate marked parts of the body. This ability to use a mirror to inspect parts of the body is a striking example of evolutionary convergence with great apes and humans.


Assuntos
Cognição , Golfinhos/fisiologia , Percepção Visual , Animais
18.
Dev Psychopathol ; 12(3): 357-74, 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11014743

RESUMO

In the coming years we can look forward to research that clarifies specific mechanisms that account for the interplay between genetic and environmental influences on psychological development. Certain misconceptions, arising from research traditions initiated by Francis Galton on the one hand and G. Stanley Hall on the other, may now be set aside in the light of new evidence. Three important findings promise a new synthesis. First, while each of us is born with about 100,000 genes that, under ordinary circumstances, do not change, the expression of these genes on behavior is dynamic. Some genetic influences are expressed early in development, but others are manifest many years later. Second, genetic factors often account not only for some of the individual differences in the measures of adjustments we typically use to monitor development but also for individual differences in environmental experiences that covary with those measures of adjustment. Indeed, genetic factors have been found to account for a surprising amount of covariance between measures of the social environment and of adjustment in young children, adolescents, and adults. Third, the expression of genetic influences are very malleable and responsive to the social environment. These new findings are revealing specific mechanisms for the interplay of genetic and social environmental factors in four domains. First, the social environment may play both a necessary and specific role in the expression of particular genetic influences on a range of behaviors from depression to social responsibility. Second, an understanding of the interplay between the social environment and genetics may lead to a clearer definition of the phenotypic manifestations of particular genetic influences. Third, we will-as a result of these studies-have a clearer fix on the timing of important events and their sequence in development. Fourth, this new genre of work promises to illumine more completely mechanisms by which the social environment influences development independent of genetic influence.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Meio Social , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Psicologia da Criança , Ajustamento Social
19.
J Psychosom Res ; 49(1): 59-68, 2000 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11053605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether negative affectivity and restriction of emotions predict survival time with recurrent breast cancer. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with recurrent breast cancer, diagnosed 6-19 months earlier and stabilized using surgical, medical and/or radiation therapies, were enrolled. Cox regression survival analyses, including initial severity of metastases (RR=4.3 [1.3-14.3]; p=0.02), were used to explore the association of psychological variables with survival. RESULTS: Low chronic anxiety in the context of low emotional constraint predicted low mortality (RR 0.07 [0.01-0.52]; p=0.007). However, patients with low chronic anxiety scores but with high constraint had higher mortality (RR=3.7 [1.2-11.5; p=0.02). High chronic anxiety, with or without high constraint, also predicted earlier death, as did high control of feelings. CONCLUSION: An integrated model of negative affectivity in the context of restriction of emotions appears to strengthen the prediction of survival based on severity of breast cancer metastases.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Emoções , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/psicologia , Papel do Doente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 28(3): 309-14, 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11055528

RESUMO

The study aimed to examine the relationship between the total score on Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) and aspects of outcome for a nonrandom sample (n = 89) of male mentally disordered offenders treated in an English high security hospital. The subjects were all legally classified as suffering from "psychopathic disorder" and the majority were followed-up in the community. The methodology was retrospective, using existing case-file data, with follow-up lasting until discharge from statutory supervision. PCL-R scores were dichotomized and related to various outcome factors, including recidivism and aspects of social behavior. The results showed, in contrast to previous North American research, that the PCL-R did not predict any of the outcome factors. Because the PCL-R was able to identify psychopaths in this population but failed to predict their prognosis, it is possible that their outcome may have been improved by the treatment they received in hospital.


Assuntos
Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental , Psiquiatria Legal , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Desinstitucionalização , Inglaterra , Feminino , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Prisioneiros , Medidas de Segurança , Controle Social Formal
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