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1.
J Exp Bot ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413108

RESUMO

Plant melatonin research is a rapidly developing field. A variety of isoforms of melatonin's biosynthetic enzymes are present in different plants. Due to the different origins, they exhibit independent responses to the variable environmental stimuli. The locations for melatonin biosynthesis in plants are chloroplasts and mitochondria. These organelles have inherited the melatonin biosynthetic capacities from their bacterial ancestors. Under ideal conditions, chloroplasts are the main sites of melatonin biosynthesis. If chloroplast pathway is blocked for any reason, the mitochondrial pathway will be activated for melatonin biosynthesis to maintain its production. Melatonin metabolism in plants is a less studied field. its metabolism is quite different from that of animals even though they share similar metabolites. Several new enzymes for melatonin metabolism in plants have been cloned and these enzymes are absent in the animals. It seems that the 2-hydroxymelatonin is a major metabolite of melatonin in plants and its level is roughly 400-fold higher than that of melatonin. In the current article, from evolutionary point of view, we update the information on plant melatonin biosynthesis and metabolism. This review will hopefully help the reader to understand the complexity of these processes and to promote the research enthusiasm in these fields.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415694

RESUMO

Morphine is a potent analgesic agent used to control acute or chronic pain. Chronic administration of morphine results in analgesic tolerance, hyperalgesia, and other side effects including dependence, addiction, respiratory depression and constipation, which limit its clinical usage. Therefore, identifying the new analgesics with fewer side effects which could increase the effect of morphine and reduce its side effects is crucial. Melatonin, a multifunctional molecule produced in the body, is known to play an important role in pain regulation. The strong anti-inflammatory effect of melatonin is suggested to be involved in the attenuation of the pain associated with inflammation. Melatonin also increases the anti-nociceptive actions of opioids such as morphine, and reverses their tolerance through regulating several cellular signaling pathways. In this review, published articles evaluating the effect of the co-consumption of melatonin and morphine in different conditions were investigated. Our results show that melatonin has pain killing properties when administered alone or in combination with other anti-nociceptive drugs. Melatonin decreases morphine consumption in different pathologies. Furthermore, attenuation of morphine intake can be accompanied by reduction of morphine-associated side-effects, including physical dependence, morphine tolerance and morphine-related hyperalgesia. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that the combination of melatonin with morphine could reduce morphine-induced tolerance and hyperalgesia, which may result from anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of melatonin. Overall, we underscore that, to further ameliorate patients' life quality and control their pain in various pathological conditions, melatonin deserves to be used with morphine by anesthesiologists in clinical practice.

3.
Life Sci ; : 117808, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422305

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has a high mortality rate and is affecting practically the entire world population. The leading cause of death is severe acute respiratory syndrome as a consequence of exacerbated inflammatory response accompanied by uncontrolled oxidative stress as well as the inflammatory reaction at the lung level. Until now, there is not a specific and definitive treatment for this pathology that worries the world population, especially the older adults who constitute the main risk group. In this context, it results in a particular interest in the evaluation of the efficacy of existing pharmacological agents that may be used for overcoming or attenuating the severity of this pulmonary complication that has ended the lives of many people worldwide. Vitamin D and melatonin could be good options for achieving this aim, taking into account that they have many shared underlying mechanisms that are able to modulate and control the immune adequately and oxidative response against COVID-19 infection, possibly even through a synergistic interaction. The renin-angiotensin system exaltation with consequent inflammatory response has a leading role in the physiopathology of COVID-19 infection; and it may be down-regulated by vitamin D and melatonin in many organs. Therefore, it is also essential to analyze this potential therapeutic association and their relation with RAS as part of this new approach.

5.
IUBMB Life ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329956

RESUMO

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a pleotropic molecule with a wide distribution, has received considerable attention in recent years, mostly because of its various major effects on tissues or cells since it has both receptor-dependent and receptor-independent actions over a wide range of concentrations. These biological and physiological functions of melatonin include regulation of circadian rhythms by modulating the expression of core oscillator genes, scavenging the reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, modulating the immune system and inflammatory response, and exerting cytoprotective and antiapoptotic effects. Given the multiple critical roles of melatonin, dysregulation of its production or any disruption in signaling through its receptors may have contributed in the development of a wide range of disorders including type 2 diabetes, aging, immune-mediated diseases, hypertension, and cancer. Herein, we focus on the modulatory effects of melatonin on angiogenesis and its implications as a therapeutic strategy in cancer and related diseases.

6.
Rev Med Virol ; 30(3): e2109, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314850

RESUMO

There is a growing appreciation that the regulation of the melatonergic pathways, both pineal and systemic, may be an important aspect in how viruses drive the cellular changes that underpin their control of cellular function. We review the melatonergic pathway role in viral infections, emphasizing influenza and covid-19 infections. Viral, or preexistent, suppression of pineal melatonin disinhibits neutrophil attraction, thereby contributing to an initial "cytokine storm", as well as the regulation of other immune cells. Melatonin induces the circadian gene, Bmal1, which disinhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), countering viral inhibition of Bmal1/PDC. PDC drives mitochondrial conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), thereby increasing the tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and ATP production. Pineal melatonin suppression attenuates this, preventing the circadian "resetting" of mitochondrial metabolism. This is especially relevant in immune cells, where shifting metabolism from glycolytic to oxidative phosphorylation, switches cells from reactive to quiescent phenotypes. Acetyl-CoA is a necessary cosubstrate for arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, providing an acetyl group to serotonin, and thereby initiating the melatonergic pathway. Consequently, pineal melatonin regulates mitochondrial melatonin and immune cell phenotype. Virus- and cytokine-storm-driven control of the pineal and mitochondrial melatonergic pathway therefore regulates immune responses. Virus-and cytokine storm-driven changes also increase gut permeability and dysbiosis, thereby suppressing levels of the short-chain fatty acid, butyrate, and increasing circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The alterations in butyrate and LPS can promote viral replication and host symptom severity via impacts on the melatonergic pathway. Focussing on immune regulators has treatment implications for covid-19 and other viral infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Ritmo Circadiano , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Melatonina/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Pandemias , Glândula Pineal/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus/classificação
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110556, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247962

RESUMO

Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an important environmental pollutant, is produced as the result of incomplete combustion of organic materials in many industries and food cooking process. It has been purposed that BaP induces hepatotoxicity through oxidative stress and apoptosis. Several studies have shown that melatonin can protect against chemical-induced apoptosis through autophagy pathway. In this study, we assessed the modulating effect of melatonin, a well-known antioxidant, on BaP-induced hepatotoxicity through induction of autophagy. Thirty male mice were treated daily for 28 consecutive days. BaP (75 mg/kg; oral gavage) and melatonin (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered to mice. The liver histopathology and the levels of apoptosis and autophagy proteins as well as the expression of miR-34a were determined. The BaP exposure induced severe liver histological injury and markedly enhanced AST, ALT and MDA level. Also, apoptosis proteins and hepatic miR-34a expression increased. However, the level of Sirt1 and autophagy markers such as LC3 II/I ratio and Beclin-1 reduced. The co-administration of melatonin reversed all changes caused by BaP. In summary, melatonin appears to be effective in BaP-induced hepatotoxicity maybe through the miR-34a/Sirt1/autophagy molecular pathway.

8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 151: 579-588, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330838

RESUMO

Although exogenous melatonin can enhance the drought tolerance of plants, reports on the role of melatonin in drought tolerance in male reproductive organs are limited. To explore this, a pot experiment was conducted with cotton cultivar Yuzaomian 9110 to study the effects of exogenous melatonin (100, 200, and 1000 µM) on male fertility and related carbohydrate metabolism in anther under drought. Results showed that drought inhibited the translocation of carbon assimilates to anthers, however, melatonin application (100 and 200 µM) significantly improved the translocation of carbon assimilates to drought-stressed anthers. Drought reduced the deposition of starch, the hydrolysis of sucrose into hexoses, the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in anthers, restricting pollen viability and germination. Nevertheless, the appropriate melatonin concentrations (100 and 200 µM) increased the starch accumulation by enhancing ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and soluble starch synthases activities and accelerated the hydrolysis of sucrose by increasing sucrose synthase, acid and alkaline invertases activities in drought-stressed anthers. Appropriate melatonin concentrations (100 and 200 µM) also could help to generate more ATP for reproductive activities of drought-stressed anthers, finally increasing the pollen viability and germination of drought-stressed plants. These findings suggest that drought inhibited male fertility of cotton, but a precise melatonin application could regulate the carbohydrate balance of drought-stressed anthers to improve male fertility. This is the first report demonstrating the important role of exogenous melatonin in improving male fertility under drought conditions by regulating the carbohydrate metabolism in the male part of cotton.

9.
Life Sci ; 250: 117583, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217117

RESUMO

This article summarizes the likely benefits of melatonin in the attenuation of COVID-19 based on its putative pathogenesis. The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has become a pandemic with tens of thousands of infected patients. Based on clinical features, pathology, the pathogenesis of acute respiratory disorder induced by either highly homogenous coronaviruses or other pathogens, the evidence suggests that excessive inflammation, oxidation, and an exaggerated immune response very likely contribute to COVID-19 pathology. This leads to a cytokine storm and subsequent progression to acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and often death. Melatonin, a well-known anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative molecule, is protective against ALI/ARDS caused by viral and other pathogens. Melatonin is effective in critical care patients by reducing vessel permeability, anxiety, sedation use, and improving sleeping quality, which might also be beneficial for better clinical outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Notably, melatonin has a high safety profile. There is significant data showing that melatonin limits virus-related diseases and would also likely be beneficial in COVID-19 patients. Additional experiments and clinical studies are required to confirm this speculation.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/virologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia
10.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 392: 114933, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112789

RESUMO

There is a lack of effective therapies for stroke patients; its treatment is even more difficult considering the unexpected onset of the disease. In the last decade, melatonin has emerged as a promising neuroprotective agent which is able to cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and with a low toxicity profile. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize and critically review clinical and pre-clinical evidence related to melatonin's effectiveness as a stroke treatment. Together with a comparative dose extrapolation with those used in the selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and based on these data to discuss whether the administered doses correlate with those advisable in human patients. To address this purpose, we performed a systematic review of the available literature. A total of 529 records were screened with the selecting of six full articles containing RCTs that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The evidence drawn from these six reports was analyzed to identify remaining gaps, treatment efficacy, and to suggest future directions. The primary outcome reported was the reduction of the oxidative response; the secondary outcome was the increase of the survival rate of the patients in the intervention groups. Calculations derived from animal studies revealed that the translational doses to humans were substantially higher than those employed in the RCTs. The findings of this systematic review revealed that there are insufficient RCTs to prove melatonin's value in stroke patients. Nevertheless, the evidence is promising, and further clinical research may support the benefits of melatonin in stroke patients, if the adequate dose is administered.

11.
J Pineal Res ; : e12652, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201970

RESUMO

Both autophagy and melatonin play important roles in plant development and stress response. However, the direct correlation between autophagy and melatonin as well as the underlying mechanism remains elusive in plants. In this study, we discovered that the expression of three autophagy-associated genes (MeATG8b, 8c and 8e) and autophagic activity were induced by exogenous melatonin treatment in cassava. In addition, three melatonin biosynthesis enzymes (tryptophan decarboxylase 2 (MeTDC2), N-aceylserotonin O-methyltransferase 2 (MeASMT2) and MeASMT3) positively regulate endogenous melatonin level and autophagic activity. Further investigation showed that these melatonin biosynthesis enzymes interacted with MeATG8b/8c/8e in vivo and in vitro. Consistently, MeTDC2, MeASMT2 and MeASMT3 also positively regulate endogenous melatonin level and autophagic activity.in cassava. Notably, overexpression of MeATG8b, 8c and 8e facilitated the protein expression level of MeTDC2, MeASMT2 and MeASMT3 in vivo. Taken together, melatonin synthesis enzymes (MeTDC2, MeASMT2/3) interact with MeATG8b/8c/8e and thus coordinate the dynamics of melatonin biosynthesis and autophagic activity in cassava, highlighting the links between melatonin biosynthesis and autophagic activity in cassava.

12.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18212, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154907

RESUMO

Generally, the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are associated with advancing age, so they are usually diagnosed in late adulthood. A primary mechanism underlying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases is neuroinflammation. Based on this background, the concept of "neuroinflammaging" has emerged. In this deregulated neuroinflammatory process, a variety of immune cells participate, especially glial cells, proinflammatory cytokines, receptors, and subcellular organelles including mitochondria, which are mainly responsible for maintaining redox balance at the cellular level. Senescence and autophagic processes also play a crucial role in the neuroinflammatory disease associated with aging. Of particular interest, melatonin, cannabinoids, and the receptors of both molecules which are closely related, exert beneficial effects on the neuroinflammatory processes that precede the onset of neurodegenerative pathologies such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Some of these neuroprotective effects are fundamentally related to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions at the mitochondrial level due to the strategic functions of this organelle. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent advances in the study of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration associated with age and to consider the use of new mitochondrial therapeutic targets related to the endocannabinoid system and the pineal gland.

13.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 24(4): 359-378, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116056

RESUMO

Introduction: Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), a retinal neurodegenerative disease is the most common cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. The impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis has been reported in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells affected by AMD. Oxidative/nitrosative stress plays an important role in AMD development. The mitochondrial respiratory system is considered a major site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. During aging, insufficient free radical scavenger systems, impairment of DNA repair mechanisms and reduction of mitochondrial degradation and turnover contribute to the massive accumulation of ROS disrupting mitochondrial function. Impaired mitochondrial function leads to the decline in the autophagic capacity and induction of inflammation and apoptosis in human RPE cells affected by AMD.Areas covered: This article evaluates the ameliorative effect of melatonin on AMD and examines AMD pathogenesis with an emphasis on mitochondrial dysfunction. It also considers the potential effects of melatonin on mitochondrial function.Expert opinion: The effect of melatonin on mitochondrial function results in the reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the retina; these findings demonstrate that melatonin has the potential to prevent and treat AMD.

14.
Physiology (Bethesda) ; 35(2): 86-95, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024428

RESUMO

In cancer cells, glucose is primarily metabolized to pyruvate and then to lactate in the cytosol. By allowing the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria, melatonin reprograms glucose metabolism in cancer cells to a normal cell phenotype. Acetyl-CoA in the mitochondria also serves as a necessary co-factor for the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis, thus ensuring melatonin production in mitochondria of normal cells.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046301

RESUMO

Melatonin is probably produced in all cells but is only secreted by the pineal gland. The pineal secretion of melatonin is determined by the light-dark cycle, and it is only released at night. Melatonin regulates biological rhythms via its receptors located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Melatonin also has strong antioxidant activities to scavenge free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). The direct free radical scavenging actions are receptor independent. ROS play an important role in reproductive function including in the ovulatory process. However, excessive ROS can also have an adverse effect on oocytes because of oxidative stress, thereby causing infertility. It is becoming clear that melatonin is located in the ovarian follicular fluid and in the oocytes themselves, which protects these cells from oxidative damage as well as having other beneficial actions in oocyte maturation, fertilization, and embryo development. Trials on humans have investigated the improvement of outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART), such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), by way of administering melatonin to patients suffering from infertility. In addition, clinical research has examined melatonin as an anti-aging molecule via its antioxidative actions, and its relationship with the aging diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, is also underway. Melatonin may also reduce ovarian aging, which is a major issue in assisted reproductive technology. This review explains the relationship between melatonin and human reproductive function, as well as the clinical applications expected to improve the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology such as IVF, while also discussing possibilities for melatonin in preventing ovarian aging.

16.
J Pineal Res ; 68(3): e12636, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043640

RESUMO

Environmental pollution in the form of particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ) is a major risk factor for diseases such as lung cancer, chronic respiratory infections, and major cardiovascular diseases. Our goal was to show that PM2.5 eliciting a proinflammatory response activates the immune-pineal axis, reducing the pineal synthesis and increasing the extrapineal synthesis of melatonin. Herein, we report that the exposure of rats to polluted air for 6 hours reduced nocturnal plasma melatonin levels and increased lung melatonin levels. Melatonin synthesis in the lung reduced lipid peroxidation and increased PM2.5 engulfment and cell viability by activating high-affinity melatonin receptors. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) promoted the synthesis of melatonin in a cultured cell line (RAW 264.7 cells) and rat alveolar macrophages via the expression of the gene encoding for AANAT through a mechanism dependent on activation of the NFκB pathway. Expression of the genes encoding AANAT, MT1, and MT2 was negatively correlated with cellular necroptosis, as disclosed by analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarray data from the human alveolar macrophages of nonsmoking subjects. The enrichment score for antioxidant genes obtained from lung gene expression data (GTEx) was significantly correlated with the levels of AANAT and MT1 but not the MT2 melatonin receptor. Collectively, these data provide a systemic and mechanistic rationale for coordination of the pineal and extrapineal synthesis of melatonin by a standard damage-associated stimulus, which activates the immune-pineal axis and provides a new framework for understanding the effects of air pollution on lung diseases.

17.
J Pineal Res ; 68(3): e12640, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064655

RESUMO

Melatonin is a well-studied neurohormone oscillating in a 24-h cycle in vertebrates. Phytomelatonin is widespread in plant kingdom, but it remains elusive whether this newly characterized putative hormone underlies the regulation by daily rhythms. Here, we report phytomelatonin signaling, as reflected by changes in endogenous concentrations of phytomelatonin and expression of genes associated with biosynthesis of phytomelatonin (AtSNAT1, AtCOMT1, and AtASMT) and its receptor (AtPMTR1), shows 24-h oscillations in Arabidopsis. The variation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging and expression of ROS-related genes significantly decrease in pmtr1 and snat and increase in PMTR1-OE seedlings, indicating the rhythmicity in phytomelatonin signaling is required for maintenance of ROS dynamics. Additionally, the ROS signaling feedback influences the expression of AtSNAT1, AtCOMT1, AtASMT, and AtPMTR1, suggesting the phytomelatonin and ROS signaling are coordinately interrelated. The pmtr1 mutant plants lose diurnal stomatal closure, with stomata remaining open during daytime as well as nighttime and mutants showing more water loss and drought sensitivity when compared with the wild-type Col-0 plants. Taken together, our results suggest that PMTR1-regulated ROS signaling peaks in the afternoon and may transmit the darkness signals to trigger stomatal closure, which might be essential for high water-use efficiency and drought tolerance.

18.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 39(1): 303-320, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086631

RESUMO

Melatonin is an indole produced by the pineal gland at night under normal light or dark conditions, and its levels, which are higher in children than in adults, begin to decrease prior to the onset of puberty and continue to decline thereafter. Apart from circadian regulatory actions, melatonin has significant apoptotic, angiogenic, oncostatic, and antiproliferative effects on various cancer cells. Particularly, the ability of melatonin to inhibit skeletomuscular sarcoma, which most commonly affects children, teenagers, and young adults, is substantial. In the past few decades, the vast majority of references have focused on the concept of epithelial-mesenchymal transition involvement in invasion and migration to allow carcinoma cells to dissociate from each other and to degrade the extracellular matrix. Recently, researchers have applied this idea to sarcoma cells of mesenchymal origin, e.g., osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, with their ability to initiate the invasion-metastasis cascade. Similarly, interest of the effects of melatonin has shifted from carcinomas to sarcomas. Herein, in this state-of-the-art review, we compiled the knowledge related to the molecular mechanism of antimetastatic actions of melatonin on skeletomuscular sarcoma as in childhood and during adolescence. Utilization of melatonin as an adjuvant with chemotherapeutic drugs for synergy and fortification of the antimetastatic effects for the reinforcement of therapeutic actions are considered.

19.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 199: 105595, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954766

RESUMO

From an evolutionary point of view, vitamin D and melatonin appeared very early and share functions related to defense mechanisms. In the current clinical setting, vitamin D is exclusively associated with phosphocalcic metabolism. Meanwhile, melatonin has chronobiological effects and influences the sleep-wake cycle. Scientific evidence, however, has identified new actions of both molecules in different physiological and pathological settings. The biosynthetic pathways of vitamin D and melatonin are inversely related relative to sun exposure. A deficiency of these molecules has been associated with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including arterial hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders, kidney diseases, cancer, psychiatric disorders, bone diseases, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, among others. During aging, the intake and cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D, as well as the endogenous synthesis of melatonin are remarkably depleted, therefore, producing a state characterized by an increase of oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Both molecules are involved in the homeostatic functioning of the mitochondria. Given the presence of specific receptors in the organelle, the antagonism of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), the decrease of reactive species of oxygen (ROS), in conjunction with modifications in autophagy and apoptosis, anti-inflammatory properties inter alia, mitochondria emerge as the final common target for melatonin and vitamin D. The primary purpose of this review is to elucidate the common molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D and melatonin might share a synergistic effect in the protection of proper mitochondrial functioning.

20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970423

RESUMO

Melatonin has the ability to intervene in the initiation, progression and metastasis of some experimental cancers. A large variety of potential mechanisms have been advanced to describe the metabolic and molecular events associated with melatonin's interactions with cancer cells. There is one metabolic perturbation that is common to a large number of solid tumors and accounts for the ability of cancer cells to actively proliferate, avoid apoptosis, and readily metastasize, i.e., they use cytosolic aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) to rapidly generate the necessary ATP required for the high metabolic demands of the cancer cells. There are several drugs, referred to as glycolytic agents, that cause cancer cells to abandon aerobic glycolysis and shift to the more conventional mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for ATP synthesis as in normal cells. In doing so, glycolytic agents also inhibit cancer growth. Herein, we hypothesize that melatonin also functions as an inhibitor of cytosolic glycolysis in cancer cells using mechanisms, i.e., downregulation of the enzyme (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) that interferes with the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA in the mitochondria, as do other glycolytic drugs. In doing so, melatonin halts the proliferative activity of cancer cells, reduces their metastatic potential and causes them to more readily undergo apoptosis. This hypothesis is discussed in relation to the previously published reports. Whereas melatonin is synthesized in the mitochondria of normal cells, we hypothesize that this synthetic capability is not present in cancer cell mitochondria because of the depressed acetyl CoA; acetyl CoA is necessary for the rate limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis, arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase. Finally, the ability of melatonin to switch glucose oxidation from the cytosol to the mitochondria also explains how tumors that become resistant to conventional chemotherapies are re-sensitized to the same treatment when melatonin is applied.

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