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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallstones (GS) are formed as a result of impaired metabolic regulation and can be reflected in serum parameters. This study was focused on classifying GS based on spectral microanalysis and identifying the possible role of serum hepatic parameters on GS of different compositions. METHODS: The study included a total of 126 GS from 80 consecutive patients who underwent cholecystectomy for GS diseases in a single center. The composition and microstructure of GS were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The serum hepatic parameters were studied in order to establish a possible etiologic relationship with GS composition. RESULTS: In the study group, the incidence of GS was higher in females 62 (77.5%) compared with males 18 (22.5%). The mean age was 42.81 ± 13.01 and 43.78 ± 14.4 years for female and male patients, respectively. Based on composition, the GS were assigned to four major groups: cholesterol, pigment, phosphate, and mixed stones. Mixed composition stones totally represented the majority 53 (66.3%), followed by pure cholesterol 23 (28.8%), pigment stones 2 (2.5%), and phosphate stones 2 (2.5%), respectively. Elemental composition revealed the presence of carbon (C), oxygen (O), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) to be major elements along with traces of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), bromine (Br), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). Among serum parameters, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, and total protein were higher in patients with pigment GS than cholesterol GS. CONCLUSIONS: Characterization of GS indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of microstructure, elemental composition, and distribution. Serum hepatic function test profiles showed an association with the compositions of GS.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222240, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498830

RESUMO

Calcium is the key macromineral having a role in skeletal structure and function, muscle contraction, and neurotransmission. Bone remodeling is maintained through a constant balance between calcium resorption and deposition. Calcium deficiency is resolved through calcium supplementation, and among the supplements, water-soluble organic molecules attracted great pharmaceutical interest. Calcium glucoheptonate is a highly water-soluble organic calcium salt having clinical use; however, detailed investigations on its biological effects are limited. We assessed the effects of calcium glucoheptonate on cell viability and proliferation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. Calcium uptake and mineralization were evaluated using Alizarin red staining of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells treated with calcium glucoheptonate. Expression of osteogenic markers were monitored by western blotting, immunofluorescence, and qRT-PCR assays. Increased proliferation and calcium uptake were observed in the MG-63 cells treated with calcium glucoheptonate. The treatment also increased the expression of osteopontin and osteogenic genes such as collagen-1, secreted protein acidic and cysteine rich (SPARC), and osteocalcin. Calcium glucoheptonate treatment did not exert any cytotoxicity on colorectal and renal epithelial cells, indicating the safety of the treatment. This is the first report with evidence for its beneficial effect for pharmaceutical use in addressing calcium deficiency conditions.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214003, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901364

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms of kidney stone formation, development patterns and associated pathological features are gaining importance due to an increase in the prevalence of the disease and diversity in the presentation of the stone composition. Based on the microstructural characteristics of kidney stones, it may be possible to explain the differences in the pathogenesis of pure and mixed types of stones. In this study, the microstructure and distribution of mineral components of kidney stones of different mineralogy (pure and mixed types) were analyzed. The intact stones removed from patients were investigated using synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography (SR-µCT) and the tomography slice images were reconstructed representing the density and structure distribution at various elevation planes. Infrared (IR) spectroscopes, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to confirm the bulk mineral composition in the thin section stones. Observations revealed differences in the micro-morphology of the kidney stones with similar composition in the internal 3-D structure. Calcium oxalate monohydrate stones showed well-organised layering patterns, while uric acid stones showed lower absorption signals with homogenous inner structure. Distinct mineral phases in the mixed types were identified based on the differential absorption rates. The 3-D quantitative analysis of internal porosity and spatial variation between nine different types of stones were compared. The diversity among the microstructure of similar and different types of stones shows that the stone formation is complex and may be governed by both physiological and micro-environmental factors. These factors may predispose a few towards crystal aggregation and stone growth, while, in others the crystals may not establish stable attachment and/or growth.

4.
Urolithiasis ; 47(2): 137-148, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29504067

RESUMO

Urinary stones are complex mineralogical formations in the urinary system often impairing the kidney function. Several studies have attempted to understand the mechanisms of stone formation and growth; however, it remains to be fully explored. Here, we present a detailed investigation on the morphological and mineralogical characterizations of urinary stones. Structural properties of different types of urinary stones were done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analyses. X-ray maps of major and the trace elements were obtained using electron microprobe (EPMA) technique. Basic metabolic panel and urinary parameters of the patients were used for comparing mineral compositions among stone types. The study included five major types of stones identified based on the FTIR spectra. FTIR and XRD helped in identifying the major components of these stones. FE-SEM images revealed distinct microstructure and morphology of the stones among the stone types. EPMA analysis showed the presence of many metals other than calcium and certain non-metals within the urinary stone matrix at measurable levels, sometimes with distinct distribution patterns. The study demonstrates the characteristic micro-structure, morphology, distribution, and composition of elements in different stone types. Findings of the study provide scope for understanding the complex mechanisms involved in the urolithogenesis and association of trace elements in it.


Assuntos
Minerais/química , Oligoelementos/química , Cálculos Urinários/química , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/urina , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Oligoelementos/urina , Cálculos Urinários/ultraestrutura , Cálculos Urinários/urina , Difração de Raios X , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1234-1242, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-975655

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: Formation of struvite stones is associated with urinary tract infection by urease-producing bacteria. Biogenic crystal growth in natural and synthetic materials is regulated by the action of inhibitors, ranging from small ions, molecules to large macromolecules. Materials and Methods: We report the dynamics of in vitro crystallization of struvite in presence of vitamin C in synthetic urine using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate gel of specific gravity 1.05 and the aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were used as the medium for growing the struvite crystals. The crystallization process was induced by a urease positive struvite stone associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa to mimic the infection leading to stone formation. The grown crystals were characterized by ATR-FTIR and powder XRD. The surface morphology was analysed through FE-SEM for comparison between treatments. Results: We observed decrease in number, dimension, and growth rate of struvite crystals with the increasing concentrations of vitamin C. Crystals displayed well-defined faces and dendritic morphology of struvite in both control and biogenic systems. Conclusion: The results strongly suggest that, vitamin C can modulate the formation of struvite crystals in the presence of uropathogenic bacteria.

6.
Molecules ; 23(11)2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380739

RESUMO

To highlight the importance of the spices in the Mediterranean diet, the aim of the paper was to study the essential oil compositions and to clarify the potential differences in the biological activities of the three cardamom species. In the study, we compared the phytochemical profiles and biological activities of essential oils from Elettaria cardamomum, Aframomum corrorima and Amomum subulatum. The oils were analyzed using the GC and GC/MS techniques and were mainly constituted of the oxygenated monoterpenes which represents 71.4%, 63.0%, and 51.0% of all compounds detected in E. cardamomum, A. corrorima and A. subulatum essential oils, respectively, 1,8-cineole was the main common compound between the tree tested volatile oil. The essential oils showed significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms tested especially the fungal strains. The Ethiopian cardamom was the most active essential oil with fungal growth inhibition zone ranging from 12.67 to 34.33 mm, MICs values ranging from 0.048 to 0.19 mg/mL, and MBCs values from 0.19 to 1.75 mg/mL. The three tested essential oils and their main component (1,8-cineole) significantly increased the production of elastase and protease production, and motility in P. aeruginosa PAO1 in a dose dependent manner. In fact, at 10 mg/mL concentration, the three essential oils showed more than 50% of inhibition of elastolytic and proteolytic activities in P. aeruginosa PAO1. The same oils inhibited also the violacein production in C. violaceum strain. It was also noticed that at high concentrations, the A. corrorima essential oil significantly inhibited the germination of radish. A thorough knowledge of the biological and safety profiles of essential oils can produce applications of economic importance.


Assuntos
Amomum/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Elettaria/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Eucaliptol/química , Eucaliptol/isolamento & purificação , Eucaliptol/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
7.
Br J Community Nurs ; 23(Sup9): S16-S22, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156875

RESUMO

Diabetes is a global disease, and its prevalence has increased rapidly in the last century. Many complications are associated with diabetes, and diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are common. There is a variety of different treatments for DFU, and the aim of this article is to discuss the factors responsible for delayed wound healing in patients with diabetes, and the treatment strategies that are available.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Higiene da Pele/enfermagem , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Bandagens , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Desbridamento , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Ozônio/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Pele
8.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202306, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106992

RESUMO

Pathological biomineralization in the urinary system leads to urolithiasis. Formation of kidney stones involves a series of events during which they undergo morphological and mineralogical changes. We investigated the mineralization of biogenic struvite (in vitro) and examined the transformation of distinct interior and exterior structure of struvite. In vitro crystallization of struvite was performed in the presence of two bacteria that were originally isolated from the kidney stone patients. Morphological evaluation was carried out using SR-µCT as well as FESEM, XRD and FT-IR. Characteristic internal 3-D morphology and porosity of the stones were studied. For comparison, patient derived struvite stones were used. From the results obtained, we report that the presence of bacteria enhances the crystallization process of struvite in vitro. A series of time-resolved experiments revealed that struvite crystals experienced a significant morphologic evolution from pin pointed structure to X-shaped and tabular morphologies. These X-shaped and unusual tabular habits of struvite resembled biogenic morphologies of struvite. SR-µCT showed similarities between the patient derived and the in vitro derived struvite crystals. In conclusion, these experiments revealed that the bacteria play a major role in the specific morphogenesis of struvite and can able to control the nucleation, modulate crystalline phases, and shape of the growing crystal.


Assuntos
Enterobacter cloacae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Estruvita/química , Cálculos Urinários/química , Cálculos Urinários/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Calcinose/microbiologia , Cristalização , Enterobacter cloacae/enzimologia , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Técnicas In Vitro , Porosidade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimologia , Urease/química , Cálculos Urinários/patologia , Cálculos Urinários/cirurgia , Urina/química , Urina/microbiologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
9.
Int Braz J Urol ; 44(6): 1234-1242, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Formation of struvite stones is associated with urinary tract infection by urease-producing bacteria. Biogenic crystal growth in natural and synthetic materials is regulated by the action of inhibitors, ranging from small ions, molecules to large macromolecules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report the dynamics of in vitro crystallization of struvite in presence of vitamin C in synthetic urine using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate gel of specific gravity 1.05 and the aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were used as the medium for growing the struvite crystals. The crystallization process was induced by a urease positive struvite stone associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa to mimic the infection leading to stone formation. The grown crystals were characterized by ATR-FTIR and powder XRD. The surface morphology was analysed through FE-SEM for comparison between treatments. RESULTS: We observed decrease in number, dimension, and growth rate of struvite crystals with the increasing concentrations of vitamin C. Crystals displayed well-defined faces and dendritic morphology of struvite in both control and biogenic systems. CONCLUSION: The results strongly suggest that, vitamin C can modulate the formation of struvite crystals in the presence of uropathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Cálculos/prevenção & controle , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruvita/química , Urina/microbiologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Cristalização , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Pharmacognosy Res ; 7(1): 105-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25598643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quorum sensing (QS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a key role in virulence factor production, biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance. Because of emerging antimicrobial resistance in P. aeruginosa, there is a need to find an alternate nonantibiotic agent for the control of infections caused by this organism. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate anti-QS activity of Adenanthera pavonina L., a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preliminary screening for anti-QS activity of ethanol extract of A. pavonina was carried out using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 biosensor strain and inhibition of QS-regulated violacein production was quantified using C. violaceum ATCC12472. Bioassay guided fractionation of ethanol extract resulted in ethyl acetate fraction (AEF) with strong anti-QS activity and AEF was evaluated for inhibition of QS-regulated pyocyanin production, proteolytic, elastolytic activity, swarming motility and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. RESULTS: AEF, at 0.5 mg/ml, inhibited pyocyanin production completely and at 1 mg/ml of AEF, complete inhibition of proteolytic and elastolytic activities were observed. However, viability of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was not affected at the tested concentrations of AEF as observed by cell count. Swarming motility was inhibited at the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml of AEF. Thin layer chromatography and biosensor overlay of AEF showed violacein inhibition zone at Rf value 0.63. CONCLUSION: From the results of this study, it can be concluded that A. pavonina extracts can be used as effective anti-QS agents.

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